NPSHistory.com

Copyright, Randall D. Payne
Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve, Louisana


National Park Service History Electronic Library

The NPS History Electronic Library is a portal to thousands of electronic publications and videos, covering the history of the National Park Service and the cultural and natural history of the national parks, monuments, and historic sites of the U.S. National Park System.

The information contained in this Website is historical in scope and is not meant as an aid for travel planning; please refer to the official National Park Service Website for current information. While not affiliated with the National Park Service, we gratefully acknowledge the contributions by park employees, along with park advocates, which has enabled us to create this digital repository.


RANDALL J. BIALLAS      NPS logo      J. CANDACE CLIFFORD

Randy Biallas

Randall Biallas, Chief Historical Architect, for the National Park Service died on August 14, 2018. Randy received his degree in Architecture from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana in 1967 and his M.Arch. from the University of Illinois in 1969. He began his National Park Service career with the HABS Petersburg, Virginia, project in the summer of 1968. Randy started working with the Midwest Office as a Regional Historical Architect in Omaha on March 28, 1978 and transferred to Washington as Assistant Chief Historical Architect in October 1980, where he worked for Hugh Miller, becoming Chief Historical Architect for the National Park Service in June 1991.

Randy received his Fellowship this year from the 2018 College of Fellows in the American Institute of Architects (AIA) after a four decade distinguished career with the National Park Service. He was also a Fellow in the Association for Preservation Technology and an Honorary Member of the American Society of Landscape Architects. Randy had an indelible impact on two professions "for his contribution to the preservation of the architectural and cultural landscape heritage in America's national parks [and for his] most important accomplishment, the training and mentoring of preservation professionals in the National Park Service," said retired NPS historical architect W. Lewis Barlow, IV, FAIA.


Candy Clifford

J. Candace Clifford died on August 15th at her home in Alexandria, Virginia, after a battle with brain cancer. Ask anyone deeply involved in lighthouse preservation to name the nation’s top lighthouse researcher and you’ll hear one name — Candace Clifford. Known to her friends as Candy, Clifford joined the staff of the National Park Service’s National Maritime Initiative in 1988, and among other accomplishments, compiled an Inventory of Historic Light Stations, released in 1994. With unparalleled knowledge of the National Archives lighthouse section, she was a critically important consultant to the National Park Service Maritime Heritage Program from 1988 to 2001, and was primarily responsible for its databases, resource surveys, and inventories, ultimately producing the first Historic Lighthouse Preservation Handbook.

A publisher and author of lighthouse history books, often with her mother Mary Louise Clifford, Candace documented the role of women in the lighthouse service, culminating in the 1993 publication of Women Who Kept the Lights: An Illustrated History of Female Light Keepers. The two went on to write and publish six more books, most of them on lighthouse history. Prior to her book collaborations with her mother, Clifford co-authored Great American Ships with James P. Delgado.

She served as the part-time administrator of the Council of American Maritime Museums (CAMM), coordinating communications for the maritime field and capably executing logistics for CAMM’s annual conference. She stepped down from the position with CAMM in 2016 to take the role of Historian for the U.S. Lighthouse Society. Honored as well for other types of maritime history services, she was an officer of the American Lighthouse Council and a recipient of the lifetime Ross Holland Award for distinguished service in lighthouse preservation. Most recently Candace worked closely with the U.S. Lighthouse Society as its historian assisting with the creation of, among other things, the largest lighthouse related research archive in the nation, to be named in her honor. Executive Director Jeff Gales of the U.S. Lighthouse Society said, "We have lost a dear friend and colleague . . . she will truly be missed."



New eLibrary Additions

Evolution of Historic Structure Reports at the U.S. National Park Service: An Update (Randall J. Biallas, extract from APT Bulletin, Vol. 28 No. 1, 1997)

1994 Inventory of Historic Light Stations (Candace Clifford, 1994)

Historic Lighthouse Preservation Handbook (1997)

Liberty Enlightening the World: The Statue of Liberty National Monument, New York: Historic Structure Report (John G. Waite, Associates, Mt. Ida Press, Ltd. and Plus Group Consulting Engineering, May 2011)

Landmarks of Liberty: A Report on the American Revolution Bicentennial Development Program of the National Park Service (Merrill J. Mattes, 1989)

Superhurricane Winds and Extreme Gust Factors at Longs Peak and Rocky Mountain National Park (D.E. Glidden, August 2018)

Daily Temperature and Humidity Regimes for Lower Hidden Valley (TR 6), Rocky Mountain National Park: Feb-May-1974 (D.E. Glidden, September 2018)

National Historic Landmark Theme Study of Park Service Landscape Architecture, 1917-1941: Executive Summary (Ethan Carr, April 6, 1995)

Pollution in Parks (June 1986)

The Mojave and Colorado Desert Biosphere Reserve Educational Bulletin #90-4 (Bill Truesdell, undated)

FDR and the Land: Roosevelt Estate Historic Resource Study, Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site FDR and Forestry: Private Passion, Public Policy/Country Place and Tree Farm: Land-Use History of the Roosevelt Estate (John E. Auwaerter, 2011)

A History of Montezuma Well (©Jack Beckman, 1990)

Feasibility Report: John Muir Home and Vicente Martinez Adobe, Martinez, California (John Hussey, Ronald N. Mortimore, Charles S. Pope, Lewis Koue and John Wosky, March 1963)

Mt. Wanda Historical Ecology Investigation: A Reconnaissance Study Investigating Historical Landscape Data for the John Muir National Historic Site (Sean Baumgarten, Erin Beller and Robin Grossinger, San Francisco Estuary Institute Aquatic Sciences Center, March 2015)

The Civilian Conservation Corps as a Tool of the National Park Service: The Development of Glacier and Yellowstone National Parks, 1933-1942 (Matthew A. Redinger, 1988)

Interagency Resource Impacts Directory, Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (Malcolm Ross, Jr. and Ruth M. Hartmann, September 1989)

Our Diamond Anniversary, the 75th Anniversary of the National Park Service (James M. Ridenour, Feb. 1, 1980)

Draft Revised Issues and Recommendations from the 75th Anniversary Symposium (October 10, 1991)

75th Anniversary Symposium Update (James M. Ridenour, March 9, 1992)

Draft Reports of the Working Groups on Our National Parks: Challenges and Strategies for the 21st Century National Park Service 75th Anniversary Symposium (October 7-10, 1991)

Interpretation at Civil War Sites: A Report to Congress (March 2000)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: West Rim Drive, Grand Canyon National Park (2005)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Memorial Avenue corridor, George Washington Memorial Parkway (2004)

On the National Significance of the Stonewall Uprising — Scholars Workshop (David Carter, Lillian Faderman, Emily Hobson, Jen Manion and Eric Marcus, October 2017)

Presidential Proclamation, Stonewall National Monument (June 24, 2016)

Protecting National Park System Buffer Zones: Existing, Proposed, and Suggested Authority (John W. Hiscock, extract from Journal of Energy Law and Policy, Vol. 7, 1986)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Walnut Canyon National Monument NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/SCPN/NRR-2018/1637 (Lisa Baril, Patricia Valentine-Darby, Kimberly Struthers and Paul Whitefield, May 2018)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Greater Grand Canyon Landscape Assessment NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRCA/NRR-2018/1645 (Sasha Stortz, Clare Aslan, Tom Sisk, Todd Chaudhry, Jill Rundall, Jean Palumbo, Luke Zachmann and Brett Dickson, May 2018)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRSM/NRR-2018/1626 (Peter C. Bates, Jerry R. Miller, Diane M. Styers, Keith Langdon, Carey Burda, Ron Davis, Thomas Martin, Brian D. Kloeppel and Scott McFarland, April 2018)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Cedar Breaks National Monument NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NCPN/NRR-2018/1631 (Lisa Baril, Kimberly Struthers and Patricia Valentine-Darby, May 2018)

Geologic Site Assessment: Square Tower Unit, Hovenweep National Monument (Gannett Fleming Engineers and Architects, July 2001)

Plant Community Composition and Structure at Jewel Cave National Monument: 2011-2017 Summary Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NGPN/NRR-2018/1642 (Isabel W. Ashton, Christopher J. Davis and Daniel J. Swanson, May 2018)

Plant Community Composition and Structure Monitoring for Theodore Roosevelt National Park: 2017 Data Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NGPN/NRDS-2018/1169 (Ryan M. Manuel, May 2018)

Business Plan 2000-2001, Denali National Park and Preserve (c2000)

Business Plan 2004, Denali National Park and Preserve (c2004)

Fee Demonstration Projects, Joshua Tree National Park (Vol. 3 No. 1, June 2001)

Keys Ranch: Where Time Stood Still Teaching with Historic Places Lesson Plan Series (undated)

Appraisal of Mineral Interests Inherent in the Kaiser Steel Corporation Properties in the Placer-Mystery Canyon Areas within the Joshua Tree National Monument, Riverside, California (January 1975)

Report on the Validity of the Ruby Lee Lode Claim and Millsite Claim, Joshua Tree National Monument, Riverside County, California (1974)

Proposed St. Lawrence Island NM, Alaska (1968)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Manzanar National Historic Site (2004)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Zion Lodge/Birch Creek, Zion National Park (2006)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Manitou Fish Camp, Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (July 2014)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Bar BC Dude Ranch, Grand Teton National Park (2007)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Parker-Hickman Log Cabin & Farm (1999)

Historic Context Statement: San Francisco Modern Architecture and Landscape Design, 1935-1970 (Mary Brown, September 30, 2010)

Saving Alaska's Ancient Cultural Heritage: Cultural Resource Management in Alaska Region of the National Park Service (Ted Birkedal, September 18, 2003)

Cultural Resources Strategic Plan for Alaska Region, National Park Service (October 1998)

Alaska Regional Office: Division of Cultural Resources, 1981-1986 (1987)

Alaska Regional Office: Division of Cultural Resources (c1990s)

Alaska: The Regional Cultural Resource Summary and Action Program (1987)

Cultural Resources Law and Policy for Managers: Laws and Policies (October 29-31, 2002)

Introduction to Cultural Resource Management Laws & Regulations (August 8-10, 1995)

An Introduction to Selected Laws Important for Resources Management in the National Park Service NPS Natural Resources Report NPS/NRPO/NRR-94/15 (Napier Shelton and Lissa Fox, September 1994)

Trends in vital signs for Greater Yellowstone: application of a Wildland Health Index (Andrew J. Hansen and Linda Phillips, extract from Ecosphere, Vol. 9(8), August 2018)

Preplanning: Surface Mining for Outdoor Recreation (1974)

The American Revolution Official National Park Service Handbook (Eastern National, 2008)

Crossroads of the American Revolution in New Jersey: Special Resource Study/National Heritage Area Feasibility Study/Environmental Assessment (August 2002)

Leigh and String Lakes Visitor Use Study at Grand Teton National Park: 2017 Data Collection Summary NPS Natural Resource Report (Ashley D'Antonio, Derrick Taff, Christopher Monz, Peter Newman, Jenna Baker, Will Rice and Zach Miller, March 2018)

Parks Canada Comments on the 'Revisiting Leopold' Report (Alan Latourelle, extract from Parks, Vol. 20.2, November 2014)

Draft Monument Management Plans and Environmental Impact Statement (Shash Jáa and Indian Creek Units), Bears Ears National Monument: Executive SummaryVol. 1Vol. 2 (BLM, USFS, August 2018)

Draft Resource Management Plans and Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument and Kanab-Escalante Planning Area: Executive SummaryVol. IVol. II (BLM, August 2018)

Mineral Potential Report for the Lands now Excluded from Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Garfield and Kane Counties, Utah (Michael Vanden Berg, BLM, April 2018)

Historic Structures Treatment Record: Repair Alleys of Historic Buildings #35 & 36 (Preservation of Windows and Doors), Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (FY2007)

Historic Structure Treatment Report: Repair Damaged Stucco on Building #33, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (c2006)

Historic Structures Treatment Record: Preservation of the Historic Lockwood House (Phase I, FY2009-2010), Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (FY2009)

Proposed Sand (Warren) Dunes National Park, Michigan (1930-1935)

Propsed Rim Parkway, Pennsylvania (1934-1937)

Proposed Jewel Cave National Monument, Tennessee (1932)

Proposed Van Buren National Lakeshore, Michigan (1935)

Sandy Creek Recreation Demonstration Project, Pennsylvania (1935)


Ranger Activities

Disquieting State of Disorder: An Assessment of Department of the Interior Law Enforcement No. 2002-I-0014 (Earl E. Devaney, Office of Inspector General, U.S. Department of the Interior, January 2002)

Policing the National Parks: 21st Century Requirements (The International Association of Chiefs of Police, October 2000)

The U.S. Park Police: Focusing Priorities, Capabilities, and Resources for the Future (National Academy of Public Administration, August 2001)

Analysis of Assaults Upon National Park Rangers: 1997-2003 (Larry Gould and Dawn Duncon-Hubbs, Northern Arizona University, November 30, 2004)

Law Enforcement Programs Study: United States Park Rangers (1998)

The Women in Law Enforcement Task Force Report Final Draft (August 17, 2000)

The United States Park Police: A History (Barry Mackintosh, 1989)

United States Park Police Strategic Plan 2017-2021 (c2017)

United States Park Police Annual Reports: 201120122013

Natural Resources Law Enforcement, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (9/84)

Police News Media Relations, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (9/82)

Civll Rights Statutes Student Guide, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (12/79)

Crime Scene Management and Investigations Goals, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (undated)

Crime Scene Sketch (SG-205) Student Guide, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (8/82)

Description and Identification (ST-208) Student Text, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (1/83)

Behavioral Science Branch Student Guide (undated)

Criminalistics (undated)

Introduction to Criminalistics (SG-203) Student Guide, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (4/72)

Interviewing (ST-305) Student Text, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (5/81)

Investigative Photography (ST-207.1) Student Text, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (11/77)

Photography (ST-207) Student Text, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (11/77)

Society, Law & Police Role, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (undated)


Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site

Acoustic Monitoring Report, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/NRTR-2009/001 (Emma Lynch, June 2010)

Analysis of Aerial Photography fro 1936-37, 1954, and 1975: Sand Creek Massacre Special Study Draft (Arthur K. Ireland, 1999)

Acoustical Monitoring Snapshot, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site (July 2009)

Archeological Reconnaissance of Two Possible Sites of the Sand Creek Massacre of 1864 (Douglas D, Scott, Anne Wainstein Bond, Richard Ellis and William B. Lees, April 1998)

Artifact Categories Potentially Represented at Sand Creek (Charles M. Haecker, undated)

Bird Inventory, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Final Report (David Hanni, c2005)

Final Acoustic Monitoring Report, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NRSS/NRTR-2011/475 (Emma Lynch, August 2011)

Geoarcheological Assessment of the Sand Creek Massacre Site, Kiowa County, Colorado (Amy M. Holmes and Michael McFaul, Oct. 18, 1999)

Geophysical Investigations at the Sand Creek Massacre Site, Colorado (Steven L. De Vore, 1999)

Historical Research on the Location of the Sand Creek Massacre Site, Interim Report No. 1 (Lysa Wegman-French and Christine Whitacre, September 11, 1998)

Historical Research on the Location of the Sand Creek Massacre Site, Interim Report No. 2 (Lysa Wegman-French and Christine Whitacre, January 29, 1999)

Historical Research on the Location of the Sand Creek Massacre Site, Interim Report No. 3 (Lysa Wegman-French and Christine Whitacre, April 27, 1999)

Ordnance Artifacts at the Sand Creek Massacre Site: A Technical and Historical Report (William F. Dawson, undated)

Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Establishment Act of 2000 (Public Law 106-465, 114 Stat. 2019, Nov. 7, 2000)

Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Study Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-243, 112 Stat. 1579, Oct. 6, 1998)

Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Trust Act of 2005 (Public Law 109-45, 119 Stat. 445, Aug. 2, 2005)

Scope of Collection Statement, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site (2011)

Site Inventory: Range of Natural Variability, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site (Roy Roath, Rachel Ridenour, Bob Wesley and Zachary Holmes, undated)

Status and History of Prairie Dogs in Colorado and at Sand Creek NHS (John Sovell, March 2008)

The Search For the Sand Creek Massacre (Chuck and Sheri Bowen, undated)

Architect's Field Report: Preliminary Park Planning and Brief Condition Assessment of Existing Facilities, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site (Paul Neidinger, FY2005)

Climate Change Trends in Planning at Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site (Nicholas Fisichelli, April 18, 2013)

The Insects of the Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Kiowa County, Colorado (Boris Kondratieff and Whitney Cranshaw, undated)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/SOPN/NRR-2013/734 (Kimberly Struthers, Robert E. Bennetts, Nina Chambers, Tomye Folts-Zettner, Heidi Sosinski and Patricia Valentine-Darby, November 2013)

Resource Stewardship Strategy, Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site, Colorado (March 2011)


National Park of American Samoa

Coral Reefs in the U.S. National Parks: A Snapshot of Status and Trends in Eight Parks NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/NRR-2009/091 (Nash C. V. Doan, K. Kageyama, A. Atkinson, A. Davis, J. Miller, J. Patterson, M. Patterson, B. Ruttenberg, R. Waara, L. Basch, S. Beavers, E. Brown, P. Brown, M. Capone, P. Craig, T. Jones and G. Kudray, April 2009)

General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, National Park of American Samoa (October 1997)

Reconnaissance Survey of Olosega and Sili Village Lands For Natural and Cultural Resources, National Park of American Samoa (November 9, 1999)

National Park Feasibility Study: American Samoa Draft (July 1988)

Long-Range Interpretative Plan, National Park of American Samoa (August 2002)

A Park Program for American Samoa (April-May 1965)

Resource Management Plan, National Park of American Samoa (August 22, 1994)

Trip Planner: 20122014


Minidoka National Historic Site

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Minidoka Internment National Monument (2007)

Historic Resource Study: Minidoka Interment Internment National Monument (Amy Lowe Meger, 2005)

Long-Range Interpretive Plan, Minidoka National Historic Site (January 2013)

Bainbridge Island Japanese American Memorial, Nidoto Nai Yoni "Let it not happen again", Study of Alternatives/Environmental Assessment (Public Review Draft, Jones & Jones, Spring 2005)


Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve

A History of National Park Service Clean-up Efforts at the Historic Coal Creek Mining District, Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/YUCH/NRR-2015/1099 (Chris Allan, December 2015)

Annual Reports: 200320052006200720082009201020112012

Aerial Survey of Dall's Sheep, Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/YUCH/NRR-2015/1020 (Kyle Joy, September 2015)

Moose (Alces alces) population survey in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, November 2015 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/YUCH/NRR-2016/1150 (Mathew S. Sorum and Kyle Joy, March 2016)

Resource Briefs

20 Years of Monitoring Wolves (undated)

A Doghouse Boiler at Colorado Creek (Chris Allan, 2015)

A Line in the Wilderness: Alaska-Canada Border (Chris Allan, 2014)

A Steam Tractor at Washington Creek (Chris Allan, 2014)

A WW II Survival Story on Charley River (Chris Allan, 2014)

Amundsen on the Yukon, 1905 (Chris Allan, 2014)

Ben Downing: Yukon Mail Carrier (Chris Allan, 2014)

Biederman Camp and Mail Carriers on the Yukon River (Chris Allan, 2014)

Cap Reynolds and the Sam Creek Cabin (Chris Allan, 2014)

Coal Creek Gold Dredge (Chris Allan, 2014)

Coal Creek Steam Boiler and Permafrost Thawing (Chris Allan, 2014)

Drilling Rigs at Coal Creek and the Science of Locating Gold (Chris Allan, 2014)

Fourth of July Creek Steam Donkey (Chris Allan, 2014)

Frank Slaven and Roadhouses of the Yukon River (Chris Allan, 2014)

From Caverns to Ridge Tops: Archaeological Fieldwork in Yukon-Charley Rivers (undated)

Gold Mining at Woodchopper Creek (Chris Allan, 2014)

Gold Rush Boomtown: Eagle City (Chris Allan, 2014)

Judge Wickersham and Frontier Justice (Chris Allan, 2014)

Log Cabin Metropolis: Circle City (Chris Allan, 2014)

Obsidian Journeys: Prehistoric Travel and Trade Trails through the Preserve (2014)

Steamboats on the Yukon River (Chris Allan, 2014)

Subsistence: Traditional Ways of Living (Marcy Okada, 2014)

The Klondike-Alaska Gold Rush (Chris Allan, 2015)

Walter Johnson: Gold Dredge Pioneer (Chris Allan, 2014)

What is Placer Gold Mining? (Chris Allan, 2014)

Winter Patrols in Yukon-Charley Rivers (undated)

Woodchopper Roadhouse (Chris Allan, 2016)


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