National Park Service History Electronic Library
The NPS History Electronic Library is a portal to electronic publications
covering the history of the National Park Service and the cultural and natural history
of the national parks, monuments, and historic sites of the U.S. National Park System.
The information contained in this Website is historical in scope and is
not meant as an aid for travel planning; please refer to the official
Park Service Website for current information. While we are not affiliated
with the National Park Service, we gratefully acknowledge the contributions
by park employees and advocates, which has enabled us to create this free
New eLibrary Additions
NPS EMPLOYEE MEMORIAL (Jeff Ohlfs, August 2020)
Diving in the National Park Service: An Administrative History
To Protect and Preserve: A History of the National Park Ranger (John W. Henneberger, 1965)
They Were Called Park Rangers: Historical Background on Park Rangers and Law Enforcement (Bill Blake, c1989)
Evolution of Law Enforcement in the National Park Service (Duane L. Alire, 1997)
Law Enforcement Programs Study: United States Park Police Report to Congress to P.L. 105-391, National Parks Omnibus Management Act 1998 (2000)
Law Enforcement Programs Study: United States Park Rangers Report to Congress to P.L. 105-391, National Parks Omnibus Management Act 1998 (2000)
Law Enforcement Manual RM-9 (1953)
Law Enforcement Reference Manual RM-9 (May 2009; redacted edition)
Diving in the National Park Service: An Administrative History (Charles R. "Butch" Farabee, Jr. and Daniel J. Lenihan, 2019)
Wilderness Ranger Field Guide (August 1993)
Highlights of 2019: The Yearly Magazine of the NPS Investigative Services Branch (2020)
The History of the Association of National Park Rangers (Rick Smith and Jim Brady, undated, ©Association of National Park Rangers)
Guardians of the Wild: A History of the Warden Service of Canada's National Parks (Robert J. Burns with Michael J. Schintz, Parks Canada, January 1999)
The Coalition to Protect America's Parks: An Early History (Janet A. McDonnell, ©The Coalition to Protect America's National Parks, May 2018)
National Parks A World Need Special Publications No. 14 (Victor H. Cahalane, ed., American Committee for International Wildlife Protection, 1962)
Ohio and Erie Canal History and Historic Structure Assessment, Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio (Heberling Associates, Inc., June 2019)
Buffalo Bayou National Heritage Area Study (April 2010)
Castle Nugent Farms Special Resource Study and Environmental Assessment, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (July 2010)
Cultural Landscape Report: Plains Depot, Jimmy Carter National Historic Site (WLA Studio, December 2019)
Development Concept Plan/Environmental Assessment for The Carter Home and Garden (September 2019)
"On the shore dimly seen...": an Archeological Overview, Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, Baltimore, Maryland (Charles D. Cheek, Joseph Balicki and John Pousson, 2000)
Excavations at the Freeman School (25GA90), Homestead National Monument of America (Christopher M. Schoen, May 15, 1986)
Oakland Plantation: A Comprehensive Subsurface Investigation, Cane River Creole National Historical Park (Christina E. Miller and Susan E. Wood, 2000)
A Comprehensive Subsurface Investigation at Magnolia Plantation, Cane River Creole National Historical Park (Bennie C. Keel, Christina E. Miller and Marc A. Tiemann, 1999)
Wilderness Character Baseline Assessment: The Stephen Mather Wilderness NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NOCA/NRR-2020/2164 (Ben Riegel and Jack Oelfke, August 2020)
Submerged Battlefield Survey Manual (Jennifer F. McKinnon, Madeline Roth and Toni L. Carrell, 2020)
NPS Trip Planning Guide (February 2018)
Recovery of Native Plant Species After Initial Management of Non-Native Plant Invaders: Vegetation Monitoring in an Exclosure in Morristown National Historical Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/MORR/NRR-2020/2168 (Joan G. Ehrenfeld, Kristen A. Ross, Manisha Pagtel, Jean N. Epiphan and Steven N. Handel, August 2020)
The Grand Canyon of Arizona (Santa Fe Railway, 1909)
Management of the Kaibab Plateau Bison Herd in Grand Canyon National Park: 2018-2019 Operations Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRCA/NRR-2020/2167 (Miranda L.N. Terwillger, Cynthia R. Hartway, Kate A. Schoenecker, Gregory Holm, Linda C. Zeigenfuss, Megan Swan, D. Skye Salganek, Danielle Buttke and Dana T. Musto, August 2020)
Early adaptation to eolian sand dunes by basal amniotes is documented in two Pennsylvanian Grand Canyon trackways (Stephen M. Rowland, Mario V. Caputo and Zachary A. Jensen, extract from PLOS ONE, August 19, 2020)
Sea Otters: A Keystone Species in Glacier Bay Resource Brief (Jamie Womble, July 2020)
Wilderness Recommendation, Joshua Tree National Monument, California (August 1972)
Wilderness Study, Joshua Tree National Monument (August 1971)
NPS Archeology E-Grams (2004-2020)
Lake McDonald and Vicinity (John M. Holzinger, extract from Bulletin of the American Bureau of Geography, Vol. 1 No. 3, September 1900)
Glacier Natural History Association Special Bulletins
1. Motorist's Guide to the Going-to-the-Sun Highway (M.E. Beatty, 1947, rev. 1950, Glacier Natural History Association)
2. Glaciers and Glaciation in Glacier National Park (James L. Dyson, 1948, rev. 1952, Glacier Natural History Association)
2. Glaciers and Glaciation in Glacier National Park (James L. Dyson, 1948, reprint 1962, Glacier Natural History Association)
3. The Geologic Story of Glacier National Park (James L. Dyson, 1957, Glacier Natural History Association)
3. The Geologic Story of Glacier National Park (James L. Dyson, 1960, reprint 1971, Glacier Natural History Association)
4. Trees and Forests of Glacier National Park (Donald H. Robinson, rev. 1956, Glacier Natural History Association)
4. Trees and Forests of Glacier National Park (Donald H. Robinson, rev. 1961, Glacier Natural History Association)
5. 101 Wildflowers of Glacier National Park (Grant W. Sharpe, c1951, Glacier Natural History Association)
5. 101 Wildflowers of Glacier National Park (Grant W. Sharpe, reprint May 1967, Glacier Natural History Association)
6. Mammals of Glacier National Park (R.R. Lechleitner, 1955, Glacier Natural History Association)
6. Mammals of Glacier National Park (R.R. Lechleitner, reprint 1967, Glacier Natural History Association)
7. Climate of Glacier National Park (R.A. Dightman, March 1961, Glacier Natural History Association)
Indians of the Park Region Rocky Mountain Nature Association Publication No. 2 (Betty Yelm and Ralph L. Beals, July 1934)
Birds of Rocky Mountain National Park Rocky Mountain Nature Association Publication No. 4 (H.R. Gregg, March 1938)
Naturalist Guide to the Gem Lake Trail, Rocky Mountain National Park (Richard G. Beidleman, 1955, Rocky Mountain Nature Association)
Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
6. Yellowstone Lake: Hotbed of Chaos or Reservoir of Resilience: Proceedings (Roger J. Anderson and David Harmon, eds., 2002, ©Yellowstone Center for Resources and The George Wright Society)
8. Greater Yellowstone Public Lands: A Century of Discovery, Hard Lessons, and Bright Prospects: Proceedings (Alice Wondrak Biel, ed., 2006, Yellowstone Center for Resources)
9. The '88 Fires: Yellowstone and Beyond: Proceedings (Ronald E. Masters, Krista E.M. Gallery and Don G. Despain, eds., 2009, ©Tall Timbers Research, Inc.)
10. Questioning Greater Yellowstone's Future: Climate, Land Use, and Invasive Species: Proceedings (2010)
12. Crossing Boundaries: Science, Management & Conservation in the Greater Yellowstone: Program and Abstracts (2014)
13. Building on the Past, Leading into the Future: Sustaining the GYE in the Coming Century: Program and Abstracts (2016)
14. Tracking the Human Footprint: Program and Abstracts (2018)
Fishes of the Yellowstone National Park Bureau of Fisheries Document No. 904 (Hugh M. Smith and William C. Kendall, 1921)
Fur Traders and Trappers of the Old West (Merrill J. Mattes, 1947, Yellowstone Library and Museum Association)
Road Guide for the Four-Season Road from Gardiner to Cooke City Through Yellowstone National Park (Paul Schullery, undated, Yellowstone Library and Museum Association)
Highlights of Yellowstone Geology With an Interpretation of the 1959 Earthquakes and their Effects in Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone's Living Geology) Special Issue of Yellowstone Nature Notes Vol. XXXIII (William A. Fischer, June 1960, Yellowstone Library and Museum Association)
Monte Cristo Historical Tour, Mount Baker-Snoqualmie National Forest (1975)
Harry E. Burke and John M. Miller, Pioneers in Western Forest Entomology U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-638 (Boyd E. Wickman, November 2005)
Grand Portage National Monument
A Task Force Report on a Proposed Grand Portage Indian Park and the Grand Portage National Monument, Minnesota (1967)
Vegetational Analysis of Grand Portage National Monument from 1986-2004 (David B. MacLean and L. Suzanne Gucciardo, April 8, 2005)
Historic Disturbance Regimes and Natural Variability of Grand Portage National Monument Forest Ecosystems (Mark A. White and George E. Host, April 2003)
A Survey of Beaver Ecology in Grand Portage National Monument, Minnesota (D.W. Smith and R.O. Peterson, 1987)
Of Sextants and Satellites: David Thompson and the Grand Portage GIS Study (David J. Cooper, 2004)
If These Walls Could Speak: Using GIS to Explore the Fort at Grand Portage National Monument (21CK6) (Scott Hamilton, James Graham and Dave Norris, July 23, 2005)
Implementation of Long-Term Vegetation Monitoring Program at Grand Portage National Monument Great Lakes Network Report GLKN/2008/07 (Suzanne Sanders, July 2008)
Initial Inventory of the Moths of the Grand Portage National Monument, Cook County, Minnesota (David B. MacLean, July 30, 2002)
Potential Impact of Btk (Bacillus thurinigiensis var. kurstaki), Used to Slow the Spread of the Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar Linnaeus), on Non-target Lepidoptera at Grand Portage National Monument, Cook County, Minnesota (David B. MacLean, February 2009)
Night-calling Bird Survey 2002-2004, Grand Portage National Monument NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GLKN/NRTR-2008/134 (L. Suzanne Gucciardo and David J. Cooper, November 2008)
Final General Management Plan / Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Portage National Monument / Minnesota (August 2003)
Draft General Management Plan / Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Portage National Monument / Minnesota (December 2001)
Final Wildland Fire Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, Grand Portage National Monument (September 2004)
Long-Range Interpretive Plan, Grand Portage National Monument (2005)
Grand Portage: A History of the Sites, People, and Fur Trade (Erwin N. Thompson, June 1969)
(by Walter Prichard Eaton)
|Boy Scouts in Glacier Park
|Boy Scouts at Crater Lake
|Boy Scouts on Katahdin
|Boy Scouts at the Grand Canyon
Boy Scouts in Glacier Park (Walter Prichard Eaton, 1918)
Boy Scouts at Crater Lake (Walter Prichard Eaton, 1922)
Boy Scouts on Katahdin (Walter Prichard Eaton, 1924)
Boy Scouts at the Grand Canyon (Walter Prichard Eaton, 1932)
by Kurt Repanshek, National Parks Traveler, originally published October 29, 2011
Keeping Track So They're Never Forgotten:
National Park Service Workers Who Died on The Job
The list is long, more than 200 names trickling down over a
century and then some. It's a somber one, as well, tracking the deaths of
National Park Service workers from a wide range of fates, from heart attacks to
rockfalls to cold-blooded murder.
The first name on the list is that of Virgil P. McGoodwin,
a laborer working in the now-defunct Platt National Park who died in 1908 when
hit in the head by a drill. The most recent is that of Teddy Wayne Garrett, a
seasonal maintenance worker at Appomattox Courthouse National Historical Park
killed in a motor vehicle accident on June 2, 2010.
In between are the names of chief rangers, U.S. Park Police
officers, seasonal laborers, superintendents, and even "volunteers in the parks"
who died while on the job with the Park Service.
The list has been given context and is expanded as
necessary by Jeff Ohlfs, a district ranger currently based at Joshua Tree
National Park. Holding a keen interest in genealogy, the ranger was prompted to
look into the circumstances behind the deaths by a series of plaques on the
hallway wall outside the Park Service director's office in Washington, D.C.
More than 200 individuals working in some form or fashion for the
National Park Service have died on the job since 1908. These plaques outside
Park Service Director Jon Jarvis' office in Washington list their names (NPS
“There’s a memorial wall in the main Interior building, out
by the director’s office, that lists about 200 and some odd names on it. The
wall started back in 1991. In '94, '95ish, somewhere in there, I got hold of the
listing -- because my wife says I see dead people," Ranger Ohlfs said with a
chuckle. "I do my own family history, I’m very big in genealogy. I was at Hot
Springs National Park in Arkansas, we had an employee fatality there in 1927
which I researched. So that kind of got me going on this whole thing."
Run down through the list and you come upon superintendents
who died of heart attacks while at their desks (George H. Sholly, Badlands
National Park, August 19, 1959), fire lookouts who were felled by heart attacks
(Paul Richard Davis, Mitchell Peak lookout in Kings Canyon National Park,
October 8, 1965), and even a chief ranger who died during a snowstorm (William
C. Godfrey, Crater Lake National Park, November 18, 1930).
While Ranger Ohlfs won't say the Park Service is among the
most dangerous federal agencies to work for, -- "The FBI came out a few years
back and said national park rangers, law-enforcement-wise, are the
most-assaulted officers in the federal government. As far as the agency as a
whole, I have no clue, I’ve never seen any study or heard of any study.” -- the
list he maintains is staggering in terms of the causes of death.
Here's a look at some of the names on the list and the
circumstances behind their deaths gleaned by Ranger Ohlfs. In some cases,
additional details were pulled from Butch Farabee's encyclopedic book, Death,
Daring, & Disaster, Search and Rescue in the National Parks.
Glen Ernest Sturdevant (Grand Canyon NP photo)
* On March 12, 1927, James Cary was murdered by bootleggers
in Hot Springs National Park.
* On February 20, 1929, naturalist Glen Sturdevant and
Ranger Fred Johnson drowned at Horn Creek Rapid on the Colorado River in Grand
Canyon National Park while on a "reconnaissance and collecting trip." Chief
Ranger James Brooks survived the incident and gave the following account during
a coroner's inquest:
Mr. Sturdevant was rowing. Fred in the bow and I was in the
stern. The boat swung around and I told Glen to pull and I would try to turn it.
We began to lose distance. The shore current swung the boat around ... and
drifted us towards the rapids, and we could see then it was impossible to do any
more rowing. I believe I said that we were going to go over, seems as if I said
that, and then Glen lost one of the oars. We went over the side and we did not
have a chance and it could not have been a very short distance, probably about
the second cascade which threw all of us in.
* On March 20, 1932, U.S. Park Police Officer William J.
Grissam died in the National Capital Parks in Washington, D.C., when the bike he
was riding on patrol ran into a parked car.
* On July 15, 1933, Abraham Yancovitch, a Civilian
Conservation Corps worker, died at Bacon Rind Creek Camp in Yellowstone after,
notes Ranger Ohlfs, being "hit in the head (7/13) by Army Sgt. possibly with
club for washing his mess kit in the water used to refrigerate perishable food,
went to tent laid down on bunk & died, Sgt. Acquitted."
* On November 13, 1938, Acadia National Park Ranger Karl
Andrew Jacobson was shot and killed by a poacher who mistook him for a deer.
* On June 21, 1947 three snowplow operators in Yellowstone
National Park died when they went to rescue summer vacationers caught by a
sudden blizzard and themselves were caught. Rescuers stumbled upon their bodies
under a deep drift.
Rescuers literally fell through a drift onto the the roof
of a buried pickup truck and found the three missing Yellowstone snowplow
crewmen. In a futile attempt to provide help for dozens of stranded motorists,
Vernon E. Kaiser, John P. Baker, and Richard N. Huckels had suffocated to death
in a sealed truck cab.
* Yosemite National Park's assistant chief ranger, Charles
R. Scarborough, was killed on June 21, 1954, while leading a six-mule pack train
to the Merced Lake Ranger Station. He and his horse were swept off the trail by
a rockfall near Clarks Point.
Charles Wallace (NPS photo)
* Charles Wallace, an engineering technician at Sequoia
National Park, died on November 10, 1958, from tetanus acquired from a
* On May 5, 1966, two seasonal workers, 24-year-old William
Earl Shaner and 37-year-old Ashley Norman Smith, drowned while trying to save
swimmers caught in heavy surf at Fire Island National Seashore.
In a posthumous Citation for Valor Award to Mr. Shaner,
then-Interior Secretary Stewart Udall wrote that, "While on duty near Sailors
Haven on May 21, 1966, where he was giving an interpretive talk to a group of
hikers, Mr. Shaner, employed as a seasonal ranger-naturalist with the National
Park Service, responded to a call to assist two swimmers in danger of drowning.
Together with Mr. Smith, a seasonal maintenanceman, who had also responded to
the call for assistance, they made a team effort to rescue the two swimmers
drowning in the heavy surf. They initiated the rescue attempt on a fifteen foot
surfboard and when it was wrested from them by heavy surf action, valiantly and
heroically they continued their rescue efforts. The exertion and subsequent
exhaustion proved to be more than he could physically withstand and he became a
victim of drowning."
For his role, Mr. Smith also posthumously received an
Interior Department valor award and both were honored with Carnegie Hero Bronze
* Seven Park Service employees from the agency's Pacific
Northwest Regional Office -- Keith Armer Trexler, Carol Sue Byler, Dawn
Hughuette Finney, Rhonda Kay Barber, Clara (Mickiet) Veara, Nancy Jane Matlock,
and Janice Lynn Cooper -- were killed on September 12, 1975, when the plane they
were in crashed in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve in Fish Trap Lake in
Alaska. Ranger Ohlfs notes that the flight was a mix of "surveying possible land
withdrawals & orientation trip" and that the cause of the crash was
attributed to the plane being overweight and flying too low.
The damage was impressive. They found the plane's clock
stopped at 4:51 p.m. and its tachometer jammed at 1,850 rpm. The prop, moving at
nearly full speed when it struck, cut one 14-inch tree in half while an engine
gouged a twenty-foot-long furrow in the rocky slope before it too died. The
fuselage was crushed upward and buckled, the top severed behind the trailing
edge of the wing.
"This was not a survivable accident; all aircraft occupants
were killed on impact," according to the National Safety Transportation Board.
The official accident report went on to state that "control was lost when the
pilot became preoccupied while conducting sightseeing activities and
inadvertently stalled the aircraft.
* On August 12, 1995, a seasonal climbing ranger, Sean H.
Ryan, 23, and a Student Conservation Association volunteer in the parks, Philip
J. Otis, 22, died in Mount Rainier National Park in a fall from Emmons Glacier
while on a mission to rescue an injured climber, John Craver, who had broken an
ankle in a fall.
When Craver's two companions arrived at Camp Muir, they
said that they had left him alone with all the extra clothes and food they had
available. This led to additional concern that the injured Craver was now alone;
Ryan and Otis kept climbing. At 11:25 p.m. Ryan radioed that they were near
12,000 feet, that it was cold and windy, but they were going to continue on. He
also indicated that they were having a crampon problem. He said they could see
where Craver was reported to be and they expected to reach the hurt man around 1
a.m because the climbing was going slow. All attempts to contact the two men
after that last transmission were unsuccessful.
Leaving Camp Muir just after midnight, the second rescue
team reached Craver five hours later; Ryan and Otis had never arrived. Within
hours the Chinook helicopter, with more climbing rangers to assist, evacuated
Craver. In the meantime, the park's radio center reported that a climbing party
had found an NPS ice axe and part of a crampon near the 13,000-foot level of
nearby Winthrop Glacier. A thousand feet below lay the two bodies of the young
While the two plaques on the wall outside the director's
office gave Ranger Ohlfs a big jump on assembling his list, he conducts
additional research to ensure no one has been left off or, in some cases, added
to the list but didn't belong.
"I read a lot of director’s annual reports. I have a huge
library of books on rangers, written by, about, all the different types, so
little leads here and there. Any documents I can find, National Archives
research, myriad places that I can go to," he explained.
That research has proven that "the wall is not correct,
there are people missing, there are people on there who don’t belong to our
agency, there are people who didn’t die while working for the agency, just all
sorts of little things," the ranger said.
His list also is not designed to contain only the deaths of
full-time rangers or staff, and he doesn't leave off the names of those who
might have died of natural causes or a motor-vehicle accident.
“My list, all it is is a listing of people who have died on
duty or as a result of injuries occurred on duty. Whether they died at their
desks or they died in motor vehicle accidents, I’m not distinguishing line of
duty," said Ranger Ohlfs.
He also doesn't pore over his list to try to rank "the most
dangerous" parks to work in.
“I’ve not crunched numbers to see what’s the most dangerous
park in the system, or anything along those lines. Because that’s kind of
unfair. It just depends on a lot of circumstances," said Ranger Ohlfs. "But I do
have a category listing, everything from avalanches to aviation accidents to
biking, blasting, and drowning, exposures and falls, wildlife incidents.
Yellowjacket stings, trees falling on people, people dying on snowmobiles, rock
James Alexander Cary (Cary family photo)
The murder of Ranger Cary holds particular significance to
Ranger Ohlfs, who was stationed at Hot Springs National Park for a while and
came to know Ranger Cary's daughter while researching the murder. As the story
goes, the ranger was ambushed by bootleggers on the park's West Mountain and
killed, possibly to prevent him from testifying at a later trial.
"That’s very close to me. I'm very close to his daughter,
and so, that is one that comes home the closest," Ranger Ohlfs said.
The ranger's research led to "indications that it was a
setup. It’s a good conspiracy theory story.”
While there have been at least 231 confirmed deaths of Park
Service employees, volunteers-in-the-parks, or others working in some fashion
for the agency, Ranger Ohlfs continues to investigate new leads.
“I do it as time permits, or I get a lead, or I pick
something up, but there’s about 13 people who are still a possibility. I’ve got
to have something that says that they were on duty, it happened while they were
on duty, stuff like that," he said.
For his efforts in maintaining and updating the list,
Ranger Ohlfs has been recognized with a Special Thanks for Achieving
Results, or STAR, award from the Park Service and a special
commendation from Park Service Director Jon Jarvis.
Since 1998, Ranger Ohlfs has carefully researched details
surrounding the deaths of all National Park Service employees who are known to
have died while on the job. Driven by his love of history and genealogy, and
using skills honed as a trained criminal investigator, Ohlfs has contributed
years of his own time and resources searching out investigative reports, death
certificates, agency files, correspondence, newspaper accounts, and other public
records for details on National Park Service employees who died while at work.
In the process, he has interviewed hundreds of family members, friends, and
colleagues of the deceased employees.
We are honored to introduce the NPS EMPLOYEE MEMORIAL. Many
thanks to Jeff Ohlfs (retired NPS Chief Ranger) for his hard work and dedication
in putting this memorial together!
National Park Service
National Park Friends
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