NPSHistory.com

Copyright, Randall D. Payne
GLACIER NATIONAL PARK, Montana


National Park Service History Electronic Library

The NPS History Electronic Library is a portal to electronic publications covering the history of the National Park Service and the cultural and natural history of the national parks, monuments, and historic sites of the U.S. National Park System. The information contained in this Website is historical in scope and is not meant as an aid for travel planning; please refer to the official National Park Service Website for current information. While we are not affiliated with the National Park Service, we gratefully acknowledge the contributions by park employees and advocates, which has enabled us to create this free digital repository.


New eLibrary Additions

Special History Study: Art and the American Conservation Movement (Robert L. McGrath, 2001)

Foundation Document, Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River, Texas (May 2016)

Foundation Document, Point Reyes National Seashore, California (April 2020)

Foundation Document, Manzanar National Historic Site, California (August 2016)

Museum Handbook Release No. 3 (February 26, 1969)

Let's Go Camping in a National Park (©Jean Bullard, Yellowstone Library & Museum Association, 1980, revised 1985, 1990; courtesy Bullard family)

Safely Moored At Last: Cultural Landscape Report For New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park, Volume I — History, Existing Conditions, Analysis, Preliminary Preservation Issues Cultural Landscape Publication 16 (Christine A. Arato and Patrick L. Eleey, 1998)

Cultural Landscape Report and Geophysical Survey: Rotch-Jones-Duff House & Garden Museum, New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park, New Bedford, Massachusetts (DHM Design, Pressley Associates, Hager GeoScience and Bryant Associates, September 2010)

Cultural Landscape Report for The Rotch-Jones-Duff House & Garden Museum: Volume II: Treatment, New Bedford Whaling National Historical Park (Christopher M. Beagan and H. Eliot Foulds, 2012)

The Engineering of Flight: Aeronautic Engineering Facilities of Area B, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record (Emma J.H. Dyson, Dean A. Herrin and Amy E. Slaton, eds., 1993)

Proboscideans from US National Park Service Lands (Jim I. Mead, Justin S. Tweet, Vincent L. Santucci, Jeffrey T. Rasic and Sharon E. Holte, extract from Eastern Paleontologist, No. 6, 2020)

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Terrestrial Ecosystems at Apostle Islands National Lakeshore NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/APIS/NRR-2020/2121 (Stephen Handler, Peggy Burkman, Julie Van Stappen, Sarah E. Johnson, Eric Epstein, Ryan O’Connor, Gregor W. Schuurman, Alexia Prosperi, Laura J. Briley, Dave Cooper, Matthew J. Cooper, Rob Croll, Ulf Gafvert, Louis R. Iverson, Bob Krumenaker, Brent M. Lofgren, Nisogaabo Ikwe Melonee Montano, Hannah Panci, Damon Panek, Linda R. Parker, Matthew P. Peters, Kristen M. Schmitt, Christopher W. Swanston and Naomi Tillison, May 2020)

Bat Monitoring Protocol for the Great Lakes Inventory and Monitoring Network — Version 1.0 (NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GLKN/NRR-2020/2126 (Katy G. Goodwin, May 2020)

Moose (Alces alces) population survey in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, November 2019 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/YUCH/NRR-2020/2127 (Matthew S. Cameron and Dylan T. Schertz, May 2020)

The Northern Backcountry Patrol Cabins of Grand Teton National Park (James A. Pritchard and Katherine Longfield, extract from University of Wyoming National Park Service Research Center Annual Report, Vol. 31, 2008)

Georgia O'Keeffe, New Mexico: Study of Alternatives (May 1979)

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Form: Mar-A-Lago (Cecil N. Mckithan, August 31, 1981)

Mar-a-Lago: Photographs, Written Historical and Descriptive Data HABS No. FLA-195 (F. Blair Reeves, Spring 1967)

A Plan for the Man — A Tool to Unleash Creativity and Productivity in The National Park Service In-Service Training Series (1963)

An Archeological Overview and Assessment of Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, Spencer County, Indiana Contract Publication Series 96-13 (Jeffrey G. Mauck and Henry S. McKelway, Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc., June 10, 1996)

The Evolution of a Sanctified Landscape: A Historic Resource Study of the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, Spencer County, Indiana (HRA Gray & Pope, LLC, May 2, 2002)

Historic Resource Study: Abraham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site (Robert W. Blythe, Maureen Carroll, Steven Moffson and Brian F. Coffey, July 2001)

Historic Resource Study: Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Pennsylvania (Anna Coxe Toogood, May 1973)

Historic Structures Report: Part I — Historical Data, Lemon House and Coal Mine, Allegheny Portage National Historic Site (Benjamin Levy, January 31, 1968)

Historic Resource Study: Slateford Farm, Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area, Pennsylvania (Sharon A. Brown, September 1985)

A Homeland and a Hinterland: The Current and Jacks Fork Riverways, Historic Resource Study, Ozark National Scenic River Historic Resource Study (Donald L. Stevens, Jr., 1991)

Historic Structures Report: Part II — Historical Data Section, Fort Larned National Historic Site (James W. Sheire, February 1969)

Historic Structures Report: Part II — Historical Data Section, Fort Scott, Kansas (Erwin N. Thompson, January 2, 1968)

Historic Structure Report/Historical Data: George Rogers Clark Memorial, George Rogers Clark National Historical Park, Vincennes, Indiana (Edwin C. Bearss, June 30, 1970)

Time and the River: A History of the Saint Croix River, A Historic Resource Study of the Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway (Eileen M. McMahon and Theodore J. Karamanski, 2002)

Research Perspectives — 1982, Gulf Islands National Seashore Coastal Field Research Laboratory NSTL Station, Mississippi 39529 (Stephen V. Shabica, April 22, 1982)

The Cavalry Barracks: Fort Laramie Furnishing Study (Don Rickey, Jr. and James W. Sheire, September 1969)

Non-Destructive Archeology at Sliding Rock Ruin: An Experiment in the Methodology of the Conservation Ethic (Larry V. Nordby, December 1981)

Connectivity in the Crown: U.S. Highway 2 Wildlife Crossings — 2019 Report (John Waller, Tabitha Graves, Brad Anderson, Brandon Kittson and Sarah Gaulke, 2020)

Colorado River Basin Climate and Hydrology: State of the Science (Jeff Lukas and Elizabeth Payton, eds., April 2020, ©University of Colorado, all rights reserved)

Colorado River Management Plan and Annual Operating Requirements, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (December 1981)

Historic Orchard and Fruit Treet Stabilization Handbook (Susan Dolan and Cortney Cain Gjesfjeld, 2012)

Glacier National Park Fisheries and Aquatic Invasive Species Programs 2018-2019 Annual Report (Christopher C. Downs, Jonathan L. McCubbins and Edward R. Eberhardy, May 2020)

Alaska Region Climate Change Response Strategy 2010-2014 (c2010)

Kelp Forest Ecological Monitoring 1982-1989 Technical Report CHIS-97-05 (Daniel V. Richard, Constance Gramlich, Gary E. Davis and Mike McNulty, Draft 6/1997)

Baselien Ambient Sound Levels in Death Valley National Park DOT-VNTSC-NPS-11-19 Final Report (Cynthia Lee and John MacDonal, July 2011)

Invasive Species Management for Katmai National Park & Preserve, Alagnak Wild River, and Aniakchak National Monument & Preserve: 2019 Summary Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/KATM/NRR-2020/2130 (Lillian Setters and Shayla Ramos, May 2020)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, San Juan Island National Historical Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/SAJH/NRR-2020/2131 (Catherin A. Schwemm, ed., May 2020)

Threatened Wildlife in the Western Region, National Park Service (July 1974)

A lichen species list for Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with comments on several new and noteworthy records (Sarah E. Stehn, James K. Walton, Peter R. Nelson, Cecilia J. Hampton-Miller and Carl A. Roland, extract from Evansia, Vol. 32 No. 4, 2015)

Lichens and associated fungi from Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska (Toby Spribille1, Alan M. Fryday, Sergio Pérez-Ortega, Måns Svensson, Tor Tønsberg, Stefan Ekman, Håkon Holien, Philipp Resl, Kevin Schneider, Edith Stabentheiner, Holger Thüs, Jan Vondrák and Lewis Sharman, extract from The Lichenologist, Vol. 52, 2020)

Garden Management Plan: Gardens and Gardners at Manzanar (Jeffrey F. Burton, 2015)

A Survey of State Statutes Protecting Archeological Resources Archeological Assistance Study No. 3 (Carol L. Carnett, August 1995)

Low Altitude Large Scale Reconnaissance: A Method of Obtaining High Resolution Vertical Photographs for Small Areas (James W. Walker, May 1993)

Propriety of Using the Police Power for Aesthetic Regulation: A Comprehensive State-by-State Analysis (Sarah L. Goss, September 1992)

The Stoneman Meadow Riots and Law Enforcement in Yosemite National Park (Michael Childers, extract from Forest History Today, Spring 2017)

Draft Eligibility/Feasibility Study: Environmental Assessment for National Historic Trail Authorization, California and Pony Express Trails (February 1987)

Visitor Impressions/Some Definitions in re Interpretation (Earl Jackson, 1964)

Wallpapers in Historic Preservation (Catherine Lynn Frangiamore, 1977)

National Park Service Strategic Plan 1994 (July 1994)

National Park Service Strategic Plan FY 2001-2005 (August 2000)

Managing for Results: Performance Management in the National Park Service Version 3, FY 2001-2005 (May 2000)

Rails East to Promontory: The Utah Stations Utah BLM Cultural Resource Series No. 8 (Anan S. Raymond and Richard E. Fike, 1981, reprinted 1994)

Amache Special Resource Study: Newsletter #1 (February 2020)

Cahokia Mounds Reconnaissance Survey (December 2016)

YCC Program Handbook (Revised January 1979)

DOI Regions — Bureau Executive Assignments (November 12, 2019)

Wild and Scenic River Study, Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve Final (2020)

Final Report: Idaho Panhandle National Forests Oral History Study (David F. Barton, Soil Systems, Inc., April 18, 1980)

Overview Report: Idaho Panhandle National Forests Oral History Study (Soil Systems, Inc., October 10, 1979)


       Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service

A Citizens' Guide to Maintaining Neighborhood Places Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (William Carney, c1981)

Epoxies for Wood Repairs in Historic Buildings Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (Morgan W. Phillips and Judith E. Selwyn, 1978)

Planning for Trailbike Recreation Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (c1980)

Recreation, Heritage, and the Armed Services Heritage Conservation and Recreation (Chris Bitzer, July 1980)

Scholars As Managers or How Can The Managers Do It Better Heritage Conservation and Recreation (Alice W. Portnoy, ed., 1978)

Scrounging Heritage Conservation and Recreation (Lloyd C. Knodel, April 1980)

The Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation and Guidelines for Rehabilitating Historic Buildings Heritage Conservation and Recreation (January 1980)


       Handbooks

"The place where Hell bubbled up": A History of the First National Park (David A. Clary, 1972)

Yellowstone Wildlife (Bill Perry, 1972)

Discovering Delaware Water Gap: A Field Book for Young Naturalists: Natural History Handbook (Vern Crawford, 1978)

Stehekin: A Wilderness Journey into the North Cascades (William A. Bake, 1977)

Discovering Fire Island: The Young Naturalist's Guide to the World of the Barrier Beach (Bill Perry, 1978)

Craters of the Moon: Life in a Volcanic Landscape (Vern Crawford, 1978)

The Nature of Shenandoah: A Naturalist's Story of a Mountain Park Natural History Series (Napier Shelton, 1975)

Many-storied Mountains: The Life of Glacier National Park Natural History Series (Greg Beaumont, 1978)

The Life of Isle Royale Natural History Series (Napier Shelton, 1975)

The Building of Castillo de San Marcos NPS Interpretive Series History No. 1 (Albert C. Manucy, 1942, reprint 1959)

America's Oldest Legislative Assembly and Its Jamestown Statehouses (HTML edition) NPS Interpretive Series History No. 2 (Charles E. Hatch, Jr., revised 1956)

The Oldest Legislative Assembly in America & Its First Statehouse NPS Interpretive Series History No. 2 (Charles E. Hatch, Jr., revised 1947)

Artillery Through the Ages NPS Interpretive Series History No. 3 (Albert C. Manucy, reprint 1955)

Artillery Through the Ages NPS Interpretive Series History No. 3 (Albert C. Manucy, reprint 1985)

Yorktown: Climax of the Revolution NPS Source Book Series No. 1 (Charles E. Hatch, Jr. and Thomas M. Pitkin, eds., 1941)

Yorktown: Climax of the Revolution NPS Source Book Series No. 1 (Charles E. Hatch, Jr. and Thomas M. Pitkin, eds., 1941,, reprint 1956)

Abraham Lincoln: From His Own Words and Contemporary Accounts NPS Source Book Series No. 2 (Roy Edgar Appleman, ed., 1942)

Abraham Lincoln: From His Own Words and Contemporary Accounts NPS Source Book Series No. 2 (Roy Edgar Appleman, ed., 1942, reprint 1961)

The History of Castillo de San Marcos & Fort Matanzas From Contemporary Narratives and Letters NPS Source Book Series No. 3 (Albert C. Manucy, reprint 1455)

The History of Castillo de San Marcos & Fort Matanzas From Contemporary Narratives and Letters NPS Source Book Series No. 3 (Albert C. Manucy, reprint 1955, 1959)

Thomas Jefferson and the National Capital NPS Source Book Series No. 4 (Saul K. Padover, ed., 1946)

Jamestowne in the Words of Contemporaries NPS Source Book Series No. 5 (Edward M. Riley and Charles E. Hatch, Jr., eds., 1947)

Jamestowne in the Words of Contemporaries NPS Source Book Series No. 5 (Edward M. Riley and Charles E. Hatch, Jr., eds., revised 1957)

October Nineteenth, Seventeen Eighty-one: Victory at Yorktown: The Story of the Last Campaign of the American Revolution (Joseph P. Cullen, 1976)

Booker T. Washington: An Appreciation of the Man and His Times (Barry Mackintosh, 1972)

Decision on the Hudson: The Saratoga Campaign of 1777 (John Luzader, 1975)

A Charming Field For An Encounter: The Story of George Washington's Fort Necessity (Robert C. Alberts, 1975)

George Rogers Clark and the Winning of the Old Northwest (Robert C. Alberts, 1975)

Campaign for Petersburg NPS History Series (Richard Wayne Lykes, 1970)

Protecting Sherman's Lifeline: The Battle of Brices Cross Roads and Tupelo 1864 (Edwin C. Bearss, 1971)

Canyon de Chelly: The Story of its Ruins and People (Zorro A. Bradley, 1973)

Canyon de Chelly: The Story of its Ruins and People (Zorro A. Bradley, 1976)

USS Cairo: The Story of a Civil War Gunboat (Virgil Carrington Jones and Harold L. Peterson, 1971)

The First Stroke: Lexington, Concord, and the Beginning of the American Revolution (Thomas Fleming, 1978)

Beehives of Invention: Edison and His Laboratories National Park Service History Series (George E. Davidson, 1973)

Mountain Home: The Walker Family Farmstead, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Robert R. Madden and T. Russell Jones, 1977)

Highland Homeland: The People of the Great Smokies National Park Service History Series (Wilma Dykeman and Jim Stokely, 1978)

A Clash of Cultures: Fort Bowie and the Chiricahua Apaches (Robert M. Utley, 1977)

A Clash of Cultures: Fort Bowie and the Chiricahua Apaches (Robert M. Utley, 1977, reprint 1984)

John Brown's Raid National Park Service History Series (William C. Everhart, Arthur L. Sullivan, et al., 1973)

National Park Guide to the Historic Places of the American Revolution (James V. Murfin, 1974)

The Big Bend: A History of the Last Texas Frontier (Ronnie C. Tyler, 1975)


       Harpers Ferry National Historical Park

Historic Building Site Survey Report: History of Wager Lots No. 35-43 (1751-1865), Harpers Ferry National Monument High Street Studies Series No. 2 (Arthur L. Sullivan, February 24, 1959)

Historic Building Report, Part I: Building No. 36, "New Master Armorer's Quarters", Harpers Ferry National Monument (Herbert H. Kissling, October 1, 1957, revised January 22, 1958)

Historic Building Report, Part II: Historical Data Section, Bldgs. No 16 and 16A, Frederick A. Roeder's House, Harpers Ferry National Monument (Charles W. Snell, April 3, 1959)

Historic Building Report, Part I: The Downey Building (Building No. 15), Harpers Ferry National Monument (Raymond L. Ives, October 7, 1957)

Historic Building Report, Part I: The Burton Building (Building No. 14), Harpers Ferry National Monument (Raymond L. Ives, October 9, 1957)

Historic Building Report, Part II: Bldgs. No. 12 and 12A, The Ann C. Stephenson Buildings, Harpers Ferry National Monument (Charles S. Snell, March 17, 1959)

Historic Building Report, Part I: The Anderson Buildings (Buildings No. 11 and 11A), Harpers Ferry National Monument (Raymond L. Ives, October 3, 1957)

Historic Structure Report, Historical Data: The Nichols/Williams Building, Building 3 on Wager Lots 53A-54B, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, West Virignia (Charles W. Snell, February 1980)


fire crew
Courtesy G. Arthur Janssen              

    NPS REFLECTIONS

        by G. Arthur Janssen

June 1965. End of "fire school" at Saguaro National Monument (Manning Camp) at the beginning of summer. Two new GS-3's ready for action! Figure on left is Dan Sholly and on right is me — age 19. Dan had worked the previous summer on a Forest Service blister rust crew. Dan was an outdoorsman, tough as nails, scrappy and rock solid — I was glad to crew with him any time.

The above picture is of historic interest for a number of reasons. This was the first year that a radio was taken to fires. It is a big clunky set and was mostly line of sight — much like the two tin cans with a string between that we played with as kids. Unless you had a tower relay, you really couldn't contact much of anything. Useless as it was, we religiously took these sets anyway. Note our small water canteens — hopelessly inadequate by desert standards. I'm holding a cross cut saw, which was the last year they were taken to fires to drop snags. In 1966 the procedure was changed so that a third crewman was assigned to fires, packing one of several chainsaws/gas/tool bags. After all the saw work was done, the saw man returned, leaving the other two crew to mop up. We learned to drop trees by cutting snags around Manning Cabin and in the campground for hazard abatement and fire wood (used for the cook stove and hot water heater at Manning Cabin).

Manning Cabin
Manning Cabin/Camp.NPS Photo

Why it was deemed necessary to drop burning snags, it seems strange to me now but it was part of the fashion then — sort of like the 10:00 a.m. rule (a Forest Service-established policy which decreed that every fire should be suppressed by 10 a.m. the day following its initial report). Dropping snags at night in the rain was one of the most exhilerating things that I have ever done — falling burning debris and no spotter! Because of the mountain geography and no roads, we walked and packed everywhere. Walked the 4.5 mile fire patrol loop twice a day during high risk times; once a day otherwise. During thunderstorms the loop patrol went to the tower, whereas at other times a crew man was dispatched to the tower where lightning strikes were plotted and then the storm area observed for several hours afterward for "smoke".

To run to the tower 1+ miles up the valley at night in a thunderstorm was also pretty exciting. The tower was 110' tall, 9 flights of stairs, 132 steps, and entered through a bottom hatch. The theory was to time this scamper up the stairs between strikes and touch only the wooden steps — not the steel hand rail — dive through the floor hatch in the tower, make sure the windows were all latched shut, the radio turned off, and sit on the stool. Thunderstorms were spectacular. Later in the summer as the monsoon season peaked, as storms resolved at night, the tower would on occasion be enveloped with St. Elmo's fire and the spooky smell of ozone. You didn't have to be told to sit on that stool and don't touch anything! Sadly the historic tower was taken down as a hazard and an un-needed maintenance issue.

All of this seems so totally foreign to the way Parks are today. While better in many ways I think there is also some loss.

fire crew
Courtesy G. Arthur Janssen              

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