Copyright, Randall D. Payne
Charles Pinckney National Historic Site, South Carolina

National Park Service History Electronic Library

The NPS History Electronic Library is a portal to thousands of electronic publications and videos, covering the history of the National Park Service and the cultural and natural history of the national parks, monuments, and historic sites of the U.S. National Park System.

The information contained in this Website is historical in scope and is not meant as an aid for travel planning; please refer to the official National Park Service Website for current information. While not affiliated with the National Park Service, we gratefully acknowledge the contributions by park employees, along with park advocates, which has enabled us to create this digital repository.

In recognition of National Wildlife Refuge Week (Oct. 8-15), we are pleased to debut a collection of National Wildlife Refuge / National Fish Hatchery brochures/booklets. Managed by one of the National Park Service's sister agencies within the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service is entrusted with managing over 560 refuges and 38 wetland management districts, along with 70 National Fish Hatcheries, seven Fish Technology Centers and nine Fish Health Centers.

Our National Wildlife Refuge System — America's Best Kept Secret
USFWS logo   NWRS logo brochures: A-F  |  G-M  |  N-S  |  T-Z  |  Assorted

New eLibrary Additions

National Historic Landmarks Program

National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) are nationally significant historic places designated by the Secretary of the Interior because they possess exceptional value or quality in illustrating or interpreting the heritage of the United States. Today, just over 2,500 historic places bear this national distinction. National Historic Landmarks are often identified through theme studies. Theme studies are an effective way of identifying and nominating properties because they provide a comparative analysis of properties associated with a specific area of American history. Theme studies provide a national historic context for specific topics in American history or prehistory. In order to make the case for national significance, a theme study must provide that necessary national historic context so that national significance may be judged for a number of related properties.

National Historic Landmarks (1976)

National Historic Landmarks Network newsletter (selected issues, 1998-2002)
Spring 1998 (Vol. 1 No. 1) • Fall-Winter 1998 (Vol. 1 No. 2) • Summer 1999 (Vol. 2 No. 1) • Winter 1999 (Vol. 2 No. 2) • Summer 2000 (Vol. 3 No. 1) • Fall 2000 (Special Issue) • Summer 2001 (Vol. 4 No. 1) • Autumn 2001 (Vol. 4 No. 2) • Spring 2002 (Vol. 5 No. 1)

National Historic Landmarks Theme Studies

A Brief Glimpse: Asian American Pacific Islander National Historic Landmarks Theme Study (Introduction by Franklin Odo, 2016)

The Advance of the Frontier: 1763-1830 (Theme XI)

     The Lewis and Clark Expedition (Roy E. Appleman, December 1958)

     Lewis and Clark: Historic Places Commemorating Their Transcontinental Exploration (1804-1806) The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings Volume XIII (Roy E. Appleman; Robert G. Ferris, series ed., 1975)

American Aviation Heritage: Identifying and Evaluating Nationally Significant Properties in U.S. Aviation History (rev. March 2011)

American Labor History: A National Historic Landmark Theme Study (Draft 2003)

American Latinos and the Making of the United States: A Theme Study (National Park System Advistory Board, 2013)

Archaic Shell Rings of the Southeast U.S.: National Historic Landmarks/Historic Context (2006)

Architecture in the Parks (HTML) (Laura Soullière Harrison, November 1986)

The Arts and Sciences (Theme XX)

     American Education Theme XX (1960)

     Literature, Drama and Music (1962)

Astronomy and Astrophysics: National Historic Landmark Theme Study (Harry A. Butowsky, May 1989)

Civil Rights in America: Racial Desegregation of Public Accommodations (2004, rev. 2009)

Civil Rights in America: Racial Desegregation in Public Education in the United States (2000)

Landmarks That Transformed Education: Racial Desegregation in Public Education in the United States NHL Theme Study Update (May 17, 2004)

Civil Rights in America: Racial Voting Rights (2007, rev. 2009)

The Clash of Cultures Indian Trails Project (2002)

Colonials and Patriots: Historic Places Commemorating Our Forebears, 1700-1793 Volume VI (Frank B. Sarles, Jr. and Charles E. Shedd, 1964)

Conservation of Natural Resources (Theme XIX)

     Formation of the National Park Service, 1913-1929 (Chapter IX, July 1963)

Contact with the Indians (Date Unknown)

Development of the English Colonies 1700-1775 Theme IX (1960)

Dutch and Swedish Exploration and Settlement Theme VII (1961)

English Exploration and Settlement to 1700 Theme VI (1960)

French Exploration and Settlement Theme V (1960)

Spanish Exploration and Settlement Theme IV (April 1959)

Early Indian Farmers and Village Communities Themes II and III (1963)

Early Indian Farmers and Village Communities Supplement (undated)

The Earliest Americans: Theme Study for the Eastern United States (2005)

The Era of Reconstruction: 1861-1900 (2017)

Explorers and Settlers: Historic Places Commemorating Early Exploration and Settlement of the United States Volume V (Robert G. Ferris, series ed., 1968)

Founders and Frontiersmen: Historic Places Commemorating Early Nationhood and the Westward Movement, 1783-1828 Volume VII (Robert G. Ferris, series ed., 1967)

Geology (Harry A. Butowsky, Draft 1990)

Historic Contact: Early Relations Between Indian People and Colonists in Northeastern North America, 1524-1783 (Robert S. Grumet, 1992)

Here Was the Revolution: Historic Sites of the War for American Independence (Harlan Unrau, 1977)

Indigenous Peoples and Cultures (Theme XVI)

     Alaska Aboriginal Culture Special Study, Theme XVI (1962)

     Hawaii Aboriginal Culture, A.D. 750 - A.D. 1778 Theme XVI (1962)

Japanese Americans in World War II: National Historic Landmarks Theme Study (Barbara Wyatt, ed., August 2012)

Labor History Theme Study: Phase III (August 1997)

Labor Archeology of the Industrial Era: Identifying and Evaluating Nationally Significant Archeological Sites of Labor in the Industrial Era in the United States (Adam Fracchia and Michael Roller, May 2015)

LGBQT America: A Theme Study of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer History (Megan E. Springate, ed., ©National Park Foundation, 2016)

Man in Space: Reconnaissance Survey (November 1981)

Man in Space: Parts 1 and 2 (Harry A. Butowsky, excerpts from Phases I & II, 1984)

Man in Space Phase I (Harry A. Butowsky, May 1984)

Man in Space Phase II (Harry A. Butowsky, August 1984)

Man in Space: Study of Alternatives (June 1987)

Maritime Heritage of the United States: Lightships in the United States (1989)

Mission 66 Visitor Centers: The History of a Building Type (Sarah Allaback, 2000)

Political and Military Affairs (Theme XXI)

     1830-1860 Theme XIII (1960)

     1865-1912 Theme XXI (1963)

     Alaska History (1741-1910) Special Study, Theme XXI (1961)

     Hawaii History (1778-1910) Special Study, Theme XXI (1962)

Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherers The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings Theme I (1960)

Presidential Sites An Inventory of Historic Buildings, Sites and Memorials Associated with the Former Presidents of the United States

The Presidents: Historic Places Commemorating the Chief Executives of the United States Volume XX (Robert G. Ferries, series ed., rev. ed. 1977)

Prospector, Cowhand, and Sodbuster: Historic Places Associated with the Mining, Ranching, and Farming Frontiers in the Trans-Mississippi West Volume XI (Robert G. Ferris, series ed., 1967)

Protecting America: Cold War Defensive Sites — A National Historic Landmark Theme Study (John S. Salmon, October 2011)

Racial Desegregation in Public Education in the United States Theme Study (August 2000)

Recreation in the United States (James H. Charleton, 1986)

Russian America Theme National Historic Landmarks (HTML) (Sandra McDermott Faulkner, William S. Hanable, Robert L. S. Spude, 1987)

Scientific Discoveries and Inventions, Theme Study XX With Supplement (vol 1) - Consolidated Report on Sites in the Southwest Region, The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings (1964)

Scientific Discoveries and Inventions, Theme Study XX With Supplement (vol 2) - Consolidated Report on Sites in the Southwest Region, The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings (1965)

Signers of the Constitution: Historic Places Commemorating the Signing of the Constitution (Robert G. Ferris, series ed., 1976)

Signers of the Declaration: Historic Places Commemorating the Signing of the Declaration of Independence (Robert G. Ferries, series ed., 1973)

Social and Humanitarian Movements Theme XXII (1965)

Soldier and Brave: Historic Places Associated with Indian Affairs and the Indian Wars in the Trans-Mississippi West Volume XII (Robert G. Ferris, series ed., 1971)

Southern Florida Sites Associated with the Tequesta and Their Ancestors (Ryan J. Wheeler, 2004)

Travel and Communication Theme XVIII (1963)

Underground Railroad Resources in the United States: Theme Study (Marie Tyler-McGraw and Kira R. Badamo, rev. September 2000)

The U.S. Constitution: A National Historic Landmark Theme Study (Harry A. Butowsky, December 1986)

Westward Expansion and Extension of the National Boundaries to the Pacific, 1830-1898 (Theme XV)

     The Mining Frontier Theme XV — Westward Expansion and Extension of the National Boundaries, 1830-1898 (William C. Everhart, ed., 1959)

     The Mining Frontier Inventory Forms (c1958)

     The Santa Fe Trail (1963)

     Report on the Santa Fe Trail (Ray H. Mattison, 1958)

     The Texas Revolution and Mexican War, 1820-1853 Theme XV (1959)

     Transportation and Communication Theme XV (1960)

Warships Associated with World War II in the Pacific (Harry A. Butowsky, May 1985)

World War II and the American Home Front (Marilyn M. Harper, October 2007)

World War II in the Pacific National Historic Landmark Theme Study (Erwin N. Thompson, c1984)

Agency History

50th Anniversary of the National Park Service (Connie Foley, 1965)

Mission 66 Report (September 1955)

National Climate Change Interpretation and Education Strategy (2016)

Scientific Justification For the Proposed Medicine Mountain National Monument (Pacific Biodiversity Institute, October 16, 2000)

Park Histories

Cultural Landscape Inventory, Ellis Island, Statue of Liberty NM - Ellis Island NM (1998, rev. 2004)

Cultural Landscape Inventory, Liberty Island, Statue of Liberty NM (1996, rev. 2004)

John Brown's Fort: Historic Structure Report (Architectural Data), Harpers Ferry National Historical Park, Maryland-W. Virginia (W. Lewis Barlow IV, May 1976)

Cultural Landscape Report: Lower Town, Harpers Ferry National Historical Park (Cathy Gilbert, Maureen De Lay Joseph and Perry Carpenter Wheelock, 1993)

Tallgrass Prairie National Preserve Legislative History, 1920-1996, Administrative History (Tallgrass Historians L.C., 1998)

Yellowstone Annual Bird Reports: 1999200020012002200320042005200620082009201020112012201320142015

Yellowstone Center for Resources Annual Reports: 1998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010

Yellowstone Annual Wolf Reports: 1995-199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016

A Scientist in Yellowstone National Park: A 50-year adventure (©Thomas D. Brock, 2017)

Fishing Bridge Men's Dormitory, Historic Structure Report, Yellowstone National Park (A&E Architects, June 2012)

Historic Structure Report for Haynes Auto Camp Picture Shop Old Faithful, Yellowstone National Park (Sievert & Sievert CRC, January 4, 2007)

Historic Structures Report for U.S. Commissioner's House: Mammoth, Yellowstone National Park (Sievert & Sievert CRC, April 2011)

Historic Structures Report for Mount Washburn Fire Lookout, Yellowstone National Park (Sievert & Sievert CRC, April 2011)

Historic Structure Report: Albright Visitor Center (Bachelor Officers' Quarters) Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (CTA Inc., August 29, 2008)

Historic Structure Report: Hamilton/Lake General Store, Yellowstone National Park (CTA Architects Engineers, June 26, 2008)

Historic Structures Report: Lake Lodge, Yellowstone National Park (James R. McDonald Architects, July 1997)

Historic Structure Report: Nichols Residence, Mammoth, Wyoming (CTA Architects Engineers, August 5, 2008)

Lake Area Fish Hatchery Historic Structure Report YCR-2008-06 (Sievert & Sievert CRC, 2009)

Lake Yellowstone Hotel Historic Structure Report (A&E Architects, March 2009)

Inventory & Monitoring

A Conceptual Basis for Natural Resource Monitoring (2006)

A Monitoring Framework for the National Marine Sanctuary System (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, July 28, 2004)

Air Quality Monitoring Strategy NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR-2015/909 (Anthony J. Prenni, Barkley C. Sive, Kristi H. Morris and Bret A. Schichtel, January 2015)

Inventory Brief: Air Quality Related Values (November 2009)

Air Pollution-Related Lichen Monitoring in National Parks, Forests, and Refuges: Guidelines for Studies Intended for Regulatory and Management Purposes (Tamara Blett, Linda Geiser and Ellen Porter, June 2003)

An Overview of Vital Signs Monitoring and its Central Role in Natural Resource Stewardship and Performance Management (Date Unknown)

Inventory Brief: Base Cartography Data (November 2009)

Biodiversity Inventory: Approaches, Analysis, and Synthesis NPS Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR-2005/015 (James H. Boone, Carolyn G. Mahan and Ke Chung Kim, May 2005)

Checklist for Review of Vital Signs Monitoring Plans (July 30, 2004)

Data Management Guidelines for Inventory and Monitoring Networks, Inventory and Monitoring Program NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/NRR-2008/035 (May 2008)

Definitions of Natural Resource Inventories, Monitoring, and Research (Date Unknown)

Delivering Timely Water Quality Information to Your Community; The Lake Access-Minneapolis Project EPA/524/R-00/013 (Environmental Protection Agency, September 2000)

Developing Conceptual Models for Monitoring Programs (John E. Gross, Draft)

Developing Conceptual Models for Monitoring Programs (John E. Gross, July 16, 2003)

Ecological Thresholds as a Basis for Defining Management Triggers for National Park Service Vital Signs — Case Studies for Dryland Ecosystems USGS Open File Report 2013-1244 (Matthew A. Bowker, Mark E. Miller, R. Travis Belote and Steven L. Garman, 2013)

Excellent Science in the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Division, Guiding Principle and Recommendations NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/WASO/NRR-2016/1217 (May 2016)

Forest Service Resource Inventories: An Overview (USDA Forest Service, September 1992)

Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network USGS Techniques and Methods 2-A8, Chapter 8 of Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data, Section A, Biological Science (Andrea Woodward, Karen M. Hutten, John R. Boetsch, Steven A. Acker, Regina M. Rochefort, Mignonne M. Bivin and Laurie L. Kurth, 2009)

Framework for National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring (Date Unknown)

Guidance for Designing an Integrated Monitoring Program NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/NRR-2012/545 (June 2012)

Guidance on Air Quality and Air Quality Related Values, Vital Signs Monitoring in National Parks (Tonnie Maniero, August 17, 2001)

Guidance Relative to the Ongoing and Maintenance of Vital Signs Monitoring Networks (February 28, 2008)

Handbook for the Assessment of Foliar Ozone Injury on Vegetation in the National Parks (Robert Kohut, September 2005)

How Does a U.S. Geological Survey Streamgage Work? USGS Fact Sheet 2011-3001 (January 2011)

Inventory and Monitoring Division Communication Strategy and Resource Guide NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/IMD/NRR-2016/1208 (Alison L. Mims, Michael D. DeBacker, Alice Wondrak Biel, Ted Gostomski, Megan Nortrup, and Margaret Beer, May 2016)

Inventory and Monitoring Division Database Standards, September 11, 2015 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/NRR-2015/1035 (Brent Frakes, Simon Kingston and Margaret Beer, September 2015)

LTEM Project Prioritization, Cape Cod National Seashore (c2003)

Monitoring Amphibians in Great Smoky Mountains National Park USGS Circular 1258 (C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., 2003)

Monitoring Changes in Landscape Dynamics — Update on Current Plans and Actions (John E. Gross, March 2008)

Monitoring Ecosystem Quality and Function in Arid Settings of the Mojave Desert USGS Scientific Investigation Report 2008-5064 (Jayne Belnap, Robert H. Webb, Mark E. Miller, David M. Miller, Lelsey A. DeFalco, Philip A. Medica, Matthew L. Brooks, Todd C. Esque and Dave Bedford, 2008)

Monitoring Post-fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: Current Approaches, Techniques, and Recommendations for a Common Monitoring Strategy in Non-forested Ecosystems USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5048 (Troy A. Wirth and David A. Pyke, 2006)

Monitoring Wilderness Stream Ecosystems USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-70 (Jeffrey C. Davis, G. Wayne Minshall, Christopher T. Robinson and Peter Landres, January 2001)

Multipart Monitoring Handbook Series (USDA Forest Service and Ecological Restoration Institute, 2005)
Handbook 1 — What is multiparty monitoring?
Handbook 2 — Developing a multiparty monitoring plan
Handbook 3 — Budgeting for monitoring projects
Handbook 4 — Monitoring ecological effects
Handbook 5 — Monitoring social and economic effects of forest restoration
Handbook 6 — Analyzing and interpreting monitoring data (no electronic edition available)

Inventory Brief: Natural Resource Bibliography (November 2010)

Natural Resource Monitoring in the National Park Service: The Long and Winding Road (Date Unknown)

Northern Great Plains Network: Using conceptual diagrams to aid communication (Date Unknown)

NPS Climate Change Response: Overview of Relevant I&M Activities (Date Unknown, c2010)

NPSpecies Database Dictionary (December 6, 1999)

NPSpecies User Manual (May 9, 2011)

Observation User Manual (April 2011)

Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument: Superintendent's 2010 Report on Natural Resource Vital Signs (2011)

Outline for Vital Signs Monitoring Plans (July 30, 2004)

Park Vital Signs Monitoring: A Commitment to Resource Protection (c2000)

Park Vital Signs Monitoring: Taking the Pulse of the National Parks (May 2012)

Photo Point Monitoring Handbook: Part A—Field Procedures USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-526 (Frederick C. Hall, March 2002)

Photo Point Monitoring Handbook: Part B—Concepts and Analysis USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-526 (Frederick C. Hall, March 2002)

Program Brief: Inventory and Monitoring Program (November 2009)

Program Brief: Inventory and Monitoring (March 2015)

Protocol Development Process, NPS Vital Signs Monitoring Program (March 29, 2005)

Recommendations for Core Water Quality Monitoring Parameters and Other Key Elements of the NPS Vital Signs Program, Water Quality Monitoring Component (August 15, 2002)

Report to the National Parks Service, Inventory and Monitoring of Mammals in the National Capital Parks (Richard W. Thorington, Jr., September 2000)

Resource Inventories: Discovering America's Natural Heritage (Natural Resource Challenge, Date Unknown)

Sampling Protocol for Monitoring Abiotic and Biotic Characteristics of Mountains Ponds and Lakes USGS Techniques and Methods 2-A2, Chapter 2 of Book 2, Laboratory Analysis, Section A, Water Analysis (Robert L. Hoffman, Torrey J. Tyler, Gary L. Larson, Michael J. Adams, Wendy Wente and Stephanie Galvan, 2005)

San Francisco Bay Area Network Pinniped Monitoring Protocol Version 3.02 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/SFAN/NRR-2009/170 (Dawn Adams, David Press, Michelle Hester, Hannah Nevins, Dale Roberts, Ben Becker, Heather Jensen, Erin Flynn,, Marcus Koenen and Sarah Allen, December 2009)

Scientific Background for Soil Monitoring on National Forests and Rangelands: Workshop Proceedings, April 29-30, 2008, Denver, Colorado USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-59 (Deborah Page-Dumroese, Daniel Neary and Car; Trettin, eds., 2010)

Servicewide Water Quality Monitoring (Date Unknown)

Soil Inventory and Mapping: Fact Sheet (Pete Biggam, Date Unknown)

Soil Vital Signs: A New Index for Assessing Forest Soil Health (Michael C. Amacher and Katherine P. O'Neill, 2003)

Statistical Techniques for Sampling and Monitoring Natural Resources USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-126 (Hans T. Schreuder, Richard Ernst and Hugo Ramirez-Maldonado, April 2004)

Strategic Plan for Natural Resource Inventories: FY 2008 — FY 2012 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/NRR-2009/094 (March 2009)

Strategies for Monitoring Terrestrial Animals and Habitats USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-161 (Richard Holthausen, Raymond L. Czaplewski, Don DeLorenzo, Greg Hayward, Winifred B. Kessler, Pat Manley, Kevin S. McKelvey, Douglas S. Powell, Leonard F. Ruggiero, Michael K. Schwartz, Bea Van Horne, Christina D. Vojta, September 2005)

Synthesis and Evolution of the Prototype for Monitoring Subarctic Parks: 1991 to 2002 Perspective, Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Program, Denali National Park and Preserve (Susan L. Boudreau, c2003)

The Big Picture: What we are Doing and Why, Integrating Monitoring Information into Park Operations / Maximizing the Use and Relevance of the Monitoring Results (Date Unknown)

The USA National Phenology Network — Taking the Pulse of Our Planet USGS Fact Sheet 2011-2032 (2011)

Vital Signs Indicators (c2012)

Voucher User Manual (April 2011)

Wet Deposition Monitoring Protocol: Monitoring Atmospheric Pollutants in Wet Deposition (Ellen Porter and Kristi Morris, August 2005)

Yellowstone National Park, Natural Resource Vital Signs, 2011 Yellowstone Center for Resources YCR-2011-07 (2011)

Yellowstone National Park, Natural & Cultural Resources Vital Signs 2013 Yellowstone Center for Resources YCR-2013-03 (2013)

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Please note: is an independent effort; we are not an official partner of the National Park Service (NPS), though a huge debt of gratitude is extended to all NPS employees (current and former) and other park supporters who have graciously contributed their personal collections, thus enabling us to present these rather scarce documents for free public use. Due diligence has been employed in scanning these documents in an attempt to ensure the accuracy of the materials presented. While most of the content contained herein is in the public domain, the Website also contains copyrighted works (permission to host this content has been obtained from the copyright-holders); please respect these copyright-holders by merely linking to this content and not re-posting. Use of this Website is done so at your own risk; we are not responsible for any loss or damage arising from information or links contained within this site.