To celebrate the centennial of the National Park
Service, each month we will reflect back on various aspects of the development
of the National Park Service and the National Park System. This month we will
take a brief look at NPS history. A Brief History of the National Park Service was written by
James F. Kieley in 1940. This study gives an early-day view of the formative
years of the National Park Service. In August we will present a more complete
look back on NPS history. This month's reading list includes some early books published about the
national parks, but also a collection of books showing the works of park photographers
and artists who have captured a visual history of our national
A Brief History of the National Park Service
This is a brief statement of the history and
organization of the National Park Service. It is the story of an
organization whose traditions are rooted in the civic consciousness
which gave birth to the national park idea; and of the men and women
whose careers have been dedicated to that idea. It is offered to all
who are engaged in this work, for the purpose of making them familiar
with the origin, functions and objectives of the Service. Material
contributed by various Branches and individuals is acknowledged with
appreciation. This booklet was compiled and edited by James F. Kieley,
associate recreational planner.
The National Park Idea
The idea of a "national park" must have jarred
strangely the nineteenth century intellects upon which the words of a
Montana lawyer fell as he spoke from the shadows of a campfire in the
wilderness of the Yellowstone one autumn night 70 years ago. For
Cornelius Hedges addressed a generation dedicated to the winning of the
West. He spoke at a time when stout hearted pioneers had their faces
determinedly set toward the distant Pacific as they steadily pushed the
frontier of civilization and industrialization across prairie and
mountain range to claim the land for a Nation between the coasts. His
plan was presented to men cast of that die-men whose courage and
enterprise characterized the era in which they lived.
But Cornelius Hedges had looked deeply into American
character and was not disappointed. He counted upon the altruism which
marked that character, and planted in it the ideal which instantly took
root and has since flowered as one of America's greatest treasures: the
national park system. Thus was a new social concept born to a Nation
Lower Falls of the Yellowstone, Photographed by William H. Jackson in 1878.
Diorama of the Washburn-Langford-Doane Encampment at
which the "National Park Idea" originated.
The man who broached the national park idea to those
men of courageous spirit who comprised the Washburn-Langford-Doane
Expedition for exploration of the Yellowstone was indeed the most
courageous of all. This expedition of 1870 had set out at its own
expense to investigate once and for all the incredible stories of
natural wonders which had been coming out of the region for years, from
the time the first scouts of fur trading companies blazed their trails
across the fantastic wonderland. They found that all of it was true, and
that the tallest yarns of the wildest spinners of tales (except perhaps
the notorious Jim Bridger, who later simply embellished what nature had
already provided) could hardly outstrip what the eye itself beheld. Here
were the geysers shooting their columns of boiling water and steam into
the sky; here were the hot pools, the mud volcanoes, and other strange
phenomena. Here were the gigantic falls of the Yellowstone River in its
gorgeously tinted canyon a thousand feet deep. Here were the forests and
the abundance of wildlife in every form native to the region. Here,
indeed, was a fairyland of unending wonders.
As they sat around their campfire the night of
September 19, 1870 near the juncture of the Firehole and Gibbon Rivers
(now called Madison Junction), the members of the party quite naturally
fell to discussing the commercial value of such wonders, and laying
plans for dividing personal claims to the land among the personnel of
the expedition. It was into this eager conversation that Hedges
introduced his revolutionary idea. He suggested that rather than
capitalize on their discoveries, the members of the expedition waive
personal claims to the area and seek to have it set aside for all time
as a reserve for the use and enjoyment of all the people. The instant
approval which this idea received must have been gratifying to its
author, for it was a superb expression of civic consciousness.
As the explorers lay that night in the glow of dying
embers, their minds were fired with a new purpose. In fact, some of them
later admitted that prospects of the campaign for establishment of the
Nation's first national park were so exciting that they found no sleep
This, then, was the birth of the national park idea.
The idea became a reality, and the reality developed into a system
which, through the years, has grown to embrace 21,011,778.58 acres of
land and water including 25 national parks, 80 national monuments, and
45 national historical parks, national battlefields and other various
classifications of areas.
Please Note: The campfire myth was later proven to be untrue.
U.S. Geological Survey Encampment at Ogden, Utah,
1871. Photographed by William H. Jackson.
Hayden Expedition of U.S. Geological
Survey En Route to the Yellowstone Country. Photographed by William H.
Jackson in 1871.
The advocates of the national park idea lost no time
in following their plan through. First steps for carrying out the
project to create Yellowstone National Park were taken at Helena,
Montana, principally by Cornelius Hedges, Nathaniel P. Langford, and
William H. Clagett. Fortunately for the plan, Clagett had just been
elected delegate to Congress from Montana and was in a splendid position
to advance the cause. In Washington he and Langford drew up the park
bill which was introduced in the House of Representatives by the Montana
delegate on December 18, 1871. During the preceding summer, the U. S.
Geological Survey had changed its program of field work so as to give
attention to the wonders described by the civilian explorers. Two
Government expeditions, one under Dr. F. V. Hayden and the other under
Captains Barlow and Heap of the Engineer Corps of the Army, had traveled
together in making Yellowstone studies. W. H. Jackson, who continues to
this day to serve as a collaborator on national park studies, was a
member of the Hayden party. He obtained a remarkably fine series of
Yellowstone photographs, samples of which Dr. Hayden placed on the desks
of all Senators and Congressmen. In other ways, Dr. Hayden joined
Clagett and his Montana constituents in influencing the passage of the
National Park Act. Finally a copy of it was carried personally by Mr.
Clagett to the Senate where it was introduced by Senator Pomeroy of
Kansas. In response to a request from the House Committee on Public
Lands for his opinion, the Secretary of the Interior endorsed the bill.
The measure was put through after perhaps the most intensive canvass
accorded any bill, in which all the members of Congress were personally
visited and, with few exceptions, won over to its support. It was
adopted by the House on January 30, 1872, passed by the Senate on
February 27, and received the signature of President Grant on March
For the first time the Government had acted to
conserve land for a new purpose. The term "conservation," so commonly
applied to coal, iron, or other raw materials of industry, was now
applied to mountains, lakes, canyons, forests and other great and
unusual works of nature, and interpreted in terms of public
Early Growth and Administration
The United States had a system of national parks for
many years before it had a National Park Service. Even before
establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 as "a public park or
pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people," the
Government had shown some interest in public ownership of lands valuable
from a social use standpoint. An act of Congress in 1852 established the
Hot Springs Reservation in Arkansas (which became a national park in
1921), although this area was set aside not for park purposes, but
because of the medicinal qualities believed to be possessed by its
waters. It was not until 1890 that action was taken to create more
national parks. That year saw establishment of Yosemite, General Grant,
and Sequoia National Parks in California, and nine years later Mount
Rainier National Park was set aside in Washington.
Soon after the turn of the century the chain of
national parks grew larger. Most important since the Yellowstone
legislation was an act of Congress approved June 8, 1906, known as the
Antiquities Act, which gave the President authority "to declare by
public proclamation historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric
structures, and other objects of scientific interest that are situated
upon the lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United
States to be national monuments."
In these early days the growing system of national
parks and monuments was administered under no particular organization.
National parks were administered by the Secretary of the Interior, but
patrolled by soldiers detailed by the Secretary of War much in the
manner of forts and garrisons. This, of course, was quite necessary, in
the early days, for the protection of areas situated in the "wild and
woolly" West. it is a fact that in this era highwaymen held up coaches
and robbed visitors to Yellowstone National Park, and poachers operated
within the park boundaries. The national monuments were administered in
various ways. Under the Act of 1906 monuments of military significance
were turned over to the Secretary of War, those within or adjacent to
national forests were placed under the Department of Agriculture, and
the restand greater numberwere under the jurisdiction of the
Department of the Interior. Chickamauga-Chattanooga National Military
Park, established in 1890 as the first Federal area of its type, was
administered by the War Department.
Under this disjointed method of operation, national
parks and monuments continued to be added to the list until 1915 when
its very deficiencies exposed the plan as unsatisfactory and
inefficient. The various authorities in charge of the areas began to see
the need for systematic administration which would provide for the
adoption of definite policies and make possible proper and adequate
planning, development, protection, and conservation in the public
National Park Service Created
Realizing the specialized nature of national park
work and the desirability of unifying the parks into one integrated
system, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane in 1915 induced the
late Stephen T. Mather to accept appointment as his assistant to take
charge of park matters. A keen lover of the out-of-doors, Mr. Mather
accepted the appointment because he saw in it an opportunity to devote
his energies to the furtherance of national parks. Under his efficient
leadership the work was coordinated and expanded, and, on August 25,
1916, President Wilson signed a bill creating the National Park Service
as a separate bureau of the Department of the Interior. The Service was
organized in 1917.
Senator Reed Smoot of Utah and Representative William
Kent of California sponsored the bills in Congress which resulted in
establishment of the Service. Representative Kent's bill was passed by
the House on July 1, 1916, and the Smoot bill was passed by the Senate
as amended, August 5, 1916. (Mr. Kent had previously introduced three
similar bills, and one had also been introduced in the House by
Representative John E. Raker of California.) The Senate amendments were
disagreed to by the House, and conferees were appointed to consider
them. The conference report was made and agreed to in the Senate on
August 15, and in the House on August 22.
Efforts to obtain the necessary legislation for
establishment of the Service had, in fact, been carried on for many
years. President Taft sent a special message to Congress on February 2,
1912, in which he said: "I earnestly recommend the establishment of a
Bureau of National Parks. Such legislation is essential to the proper
management of those wondrous manifestations of nature, so startling and
so beautiful that everyone recognizes the obligations of the Government
to preserve them for the edification and recreation of the people." As
the movement grew it involved the active support of many civic leaders
interested in the conservation of lands for parks and recreation.
Prominent among these was Dr. J. Horace McFarland of Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania, who is now a member of the Board of Directors of the
American Planning and Civic Association. As president for 20 years of
the former American Civic Association, which he founded, Dr. McFarland
focused public opinion upon the need for a Government bureau to take
charge of national parks. The act creating the Service was largely the
result of consultation between officials of the Department of the
Interior and Dr. McFarland, Frederick Law Olmsted, and the late Henry A.
Barker, representing the American Civic Association.
Dr. McFarland's efforts began as early as 1908 when
he addressed a conference of governors called by President Theodore
Roosevelt to consider measures for conservation of the country's natural
resources. He alone, among speakers at the conference, urged the
conservation of scenery. Said he:
"The scenic value of all the national domain yet
remaining should be jealously guarded as a distinctly important natural
resource, and not as a mere incidental increment. In giving access for
wise economic purposes to forest and range, to valley and stream, the
Federal Government should not for a moment overlook the safeguarding to
the people of all the natural beauty now existing. That this may be done
without preventing legitimate use of all the other natural resources is
The American Civic Association continued its support
of the national park movement, devoting its 1911 and 1912 annual
meetings to that subject. When Mr. Lane became Secretary of the Interior
in President Wilson's cabinet, Dr. McFarland called on him to urge the
establishment of a bureau to administer the national parks. During the
period preceding enactment of the bill to create the Service, Dr.
McFarland, Mr. Olmsted and others carried on negotiations for keeping
Congress informed, and worked untiringly through the American Civic
Association for passage of the bill.
Merged in 1935 with the National Conference on City
Planning to form the American Planning and Civic Association, the
organization founded by Dr. McFarland continues its active support of
the national parks.
Mr. Mather became the first director of the National
Park Service, and put into his work all the energy and enthusiasm
possible for a true lover of nature and one who appreciated the
importance of proper control of park areas in order to permit use
without damage or destruction. He even spent large sums from his
personal fortune to acquire needed additions of land for parks, or to
further necessary development operations. He was forced by ill health to
tender his resignation on January 8, 1929.
||Since Its Establishment in 1917 the National Park
Service has had three Directors. At left is the late Stephen T. Mather,
the first Director. Below is Horace M. Albright who succeeded Mr.
Mather. Arno B. Cammerer, above, was appointed Director when Mr.
Mr. Mather was succeeded by Horace M. Albright, who
had come into the new Bureau as assistant to the Director. Mr. Albright
had also served for nine and one-half years as superintendent of
Yellowstone National Park, and thus was well grounded in the work when
he assumed the directorship. Under his leadership the Service
established a Branch of Research and Education and expanded its
landscape architectural work. The national park system grew with the
addition of three national parks and ten national cemeteries during his
regime, and, under an Executive Order by the President, was given
jurisdiction over park and monument areas formerly administered by the
Departments of War and Agriculture.
Mr. Albright resigned as director, effective August
9, 1933, to be come vice-president and general manager of the United
States Potash Company, after 20 years of service in the Department of
the Interior. He left behind him the most advanced ideas and ideals in
conservation of natural resources for recreation, and still maintains
his interest in park work as president of the American Planning and
Civic Association, and a director of the National Conference on State
Arno B. Cammerer, the present director of the
National Park Service, was appointed to succeed Mr. Albright. He also
carried to the office a broad background in park work, having been
acting director on many occasions. He entered the Federal Service in
1904 as an expert bookkeeper in the Treasury Department, and was
promoted through numerous higher positions to that of private and
confidential clerk to several assistant secretaries of the Treasury. In
1916 he was chosen assistant secretary to the National Commission of
Fine Arts, serving at the same time as first secretary of the Public
Buildings Commission of Congress. In that period he served in various
confidential capacities with officers in charge of Public Buildings and
Grounds in connection with the parkway system of Washington, the Rock
Creek and Potomac Parkway, and the construction of the Lincoln Memorial
and various other monumental structures in the National Capital.
Mr. Cammerer joined the National Park Service in 1919
when Mr. Albright resigned the assistant directorship to become
superintendent of Yellowstone National Park. The present director was
selected by Mr. Mather and Secretary Lane to succeed Mr. Albright as
assistant director. Later, as the activities of the Service expanded, he
was made associate director.
Outstanding has been Director Cammerer's work in the
interest of the eastern park projects, including the Great Smokies,
Shenandoah, Mammoth Cave, and Isle Royale. He represented the Secretary
of the Interior personally in negotiations between the Federal
Government and the states and various organizations engaged in acquiring
the lands necessary for the establishment of these parks, worked out the
park boundaries with the various state commissions, and in other ways
assisted in bringing the projects materially nearer consummation.
From its beginning, the National Park Service has
been as fortunate in the caliber of men attracted to its ranks as in the
fidelity of the friends of national parks who worked for the
establishment of the Service and have since supported its program.
One of the most valuable men who entered the Service
soon after its organization was Roger W. Toll, superintendent of three
national parks, who met death in an unavoidable automobile accident in
1936. Mr. Toll's wide knowledge of and experience in mountaineering,
engineering, and general park problems made him especially valuable to
the Service in the study of areas proposed for national park status, and
several months each year he represented the Director in the
investigation of such areas.
At the time of the accident which caused his death
and the death of George M. Wright, chief of the Wildlife Division, Mr.
Toll was serving with his companion as a member of a commission of six
appointed by the Secretary of State, at the request of the Secretary of
the Interior, and with the approval of the President, to meet a similar
committee appointed by the Mexican Government, for the purpose of
studying possibilities of international parks and wildlife refuges along
the international boundary between the United States and Mexico.
Mr. Wright, although only 32 years old, had also had
a distinguished career in the Service. While studying forestry at the
University of California, he accompanied Joseph S. Dixon, at that time
economic mammalogist of the University, on an expedition to Mount
McKinley, Alaska, where he discovered the nest of the surf bird. After
graduation, he held positions as ranger and junior park naturalist in
Yosemite National Park, and became chief of the Wildlife Division when
it was established on May 3, 1933.
Members of the U. S. Geological Survey
party who explored the Yellowstone Country under the Leadership of Dr.
F. V. Hayden, are shown encamped at Red Buttes, Natrona County, Wyoming,
August 24, 1870. In the picture are: (1) Dr. Hayden, (2) James
Stevenson, (3) H. W. Elliott, (4) S. R. Gifford, (5) J. H. Beaman, (6)
C. S. Turnbull, (7 and 8) cooks, (9) Cyrus Thomas, (10) H. D. Schmidt,
(11) C. P. Carrington, (12) L. A. Bartlett, (13) Raphael, Hunter; (14)
A. L. Ford, and (15) W. H. Jackson, official photographer of the
Various acts of Congress and regulations set up by
the Department and the Service have, during the years, become resolved
into general policies for the protection, conservation, and
administration of the national park and monument system. These policies
were best set forth by Louis C. Cramton, special attorney to the
Secretary of the Interior, the results of whose studies were
incorporated in the annual report of the Director to the Secretary for
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1932. They are:
1. A national park is an area maintained by the
Federal Government and "dedicated and set apart for the benefit and
enjoyment of the people." Such Federal maintenance should occur only
where the preservation of the area in question is of national interest
because of its outstanding value from a scenic, scientific, or
historical point of view. Whether a certain area is to be so maintained
by the Federal Government as a national park should not depend upon the
financial capacity of the state within which it is located, or upon its
nearness to centers of population which would insure a large attendance
therefrom, or upon its remoteness from such centers which would insure
its majority attendance from without its state. It should depend up on
its own outstanding scenic, scientific, or historical quality and the
resultant national interest in its preservation.
2. The national-park system should possess variety,
accepting the supreme* in each of the various types and subjects of
scenic, scientific, and historical importance. The requisite national
interest does not necessarily involve a universal interest, but should
imply a wide-spread interest, appealing to many individuals, regardless
of residence, because of its outstanding merit in its class.
* Under present interpretation of this policy,
any number of superlative areas may be included in the national system.
3. The twin purposes of the establishment of such an
area as a national park are its enjoyment and use by the present
generation, with its preservation unspoiled for the future; to conserve
the scenery, the natural and historical objects and the wild life
therein, by such means as will insure that their present use leaves them
unimpaired. Proper administration will retain these areas in their
natural condition, sparing them the vandalism of improvement. Exotic
animal or plant life should not be introduced. There should be no
capture of fish or game for purposes of merchandise or profit and no
destruction of animals except such as are detrimental to use of the
parks now and hereafter. Timber should never be considered from a
commercial standpoint but may be cut when necessary in order to control
the attacks of insects or disease or otherwise conserve the scenery or
the natural or historic objects, and dead or down timber may be removed
for protection or improvement. Removal of antiquities or scientific
specimens should be permitted only for reputable public museums or for
universities, colleges, or other recognized scientific or educational
institutions, and always under department supervision and careful
restriction and never to an extent detrimental to the interest of the
area or of the local museum.
4. Education is a major phase of the enjoyment and
benefit to be derived by the people from these parks and an important
service to individual development is that of inspiration. Containing the
supreme in objects of scenic, historical, or scientific interest, the
educational opportunities are preeminent, supplementing rather than
duplicating those of schools and colleges, and are available to all.
There should be no governmental attempt to dominate or to limit such
education within definite lines. The effort should be to make available
to each park visitor as fully and effectively as possible these
opportunities, aiding each to truer interpretation and appreciation and
to the working out of his own aspirations and desires, whether they be
elementary or technical, casual or constant.
5. Recreation, in its broadest sense, includes much
of education and inspiration. Even in its narrower sense, having a good
time, it is a proper incidental use. In planning for recreational use of
the parks, in this more restricted meaning, the development should be
related to their inherent values and calculated to promote the
beneficial use thereof by the people. It should not encourage exotic
forms of amusement and should never permit that which conflicts with or
weakens the enjoyment of these inherent values.
6. These areas are best administered by park-trained
7. Such administration must deal with important
problems in forestry, road building and wild life conservation, which it
must approach from the angles peculiar to its own responsibilities. It
should define its objectives in harmony with the fundamental purposes of
the parks. It should carry them into effect through its own personnel
except when economy and efficiency can thereby best be served without
sacrifice of such objectives, through cooperation with other bureaus of
the Federal Government having to do with similar subjects. In forestry,
it should consider scenic rather than commercial values and preservation
rather than marketable products; in road building, the route, the type
of construction and the treatment of related objects should all
contribute to the fullest accomplishment of the intended use of the
area; and, in wild life conservation, the preservation of the primitive
rather than the development of any artificial ideal should be
8. National park administration should seek primarily
the benefit and enjoyment of the people rather than financial gain and
such enjoyment should be free to the people with out vexatious admission
charges and other fees.
9. Every effort is to be made to provide
accommodations for all visitors, suitable to their respective tastes and
pocketbooks. Safe travel is to be provided for over suitable roads and
trails. Through proper sanitation the health of the individual and of
the changing community is always to be protected.
10. Roads, buildings, and other structures necessary
for park administration and for public use and comfort should intrude
upon the landscape or conflict with it only to the absolute minimum.
11. The national parks are essentially noncommercial
in character and no utilitarian activity should exist therein except as
essential to the care and comfort of park visitors.
12. The welfare of the public and the best interests
of park visitors will be conserved by protective permits for utilities
created to serve them in transportation, lodging, food, and
13. The national interest should be held supreme in
the national-park areas and encroachments conflicting therewith for
local or individual benefit should not be permitted.
14. Private ownership or lease of land within a
national park constitutes an undesirable encroachment, setting up
exclusive benefits for the individual as against the common enjoyment by
all, and is contrary to the fundamental purposes of such parks.
15. National parks, established for the permanent
preservation of areas and objects of national interest, are intended to
exist forever. When under the general circumstances such action is
feasible, even though special conditions require the continuance of
limited commercial activities or of limited encroachments for local or
individual benefit, an area of national-park caliber should be accorded
that status now, rather than to abandon it permanently to full
commercial exploitation and probable destruction of its sources of
national interest. Permanent objectives highly important may thus be
accomplished and the compromises, undesired in principle but not greatly
destructive in effect, may later be eliminated as occasion for their
16. In a national park the national laws and
regulations should be enforced by a national tribunal. Therefore,
exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal Government is important.
17. National monuments, under jurisdiction of the
Department of the Interior, established to preserve historic landmarks,
historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of scientific or
historical interest, do not relate primarily to scenery and differ in
extent of interest and importance from national parks, but the
principles herein set forth should, so far as applicable, govern
Extension of Duties
Since its establishment as a bureau of the Department
of the Interior for the care and administration of the national park
system, the duties and responsibilities of the National Park Service
have been steadily extended by acts of Congress and Executive Orders.
One of the most important of these was President Franklin D. Roosevelt's
Executive Order of June 10, 1933 which effected consolidation, two
months later, of all Federal park activities under the Service. This
"All functions of administration of public buildings,
reservations, national parks, national monuments and national cemeteries
are consolidated in an Office of National Parks, Buildings, and
Reservations in the Department of the Interior, at the head of which
shall be a Director of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations;
except that where deemed desirable there may be excluded from this
provision any public building or reservation which is chiefly employed
as a facility in the work of a particular agency. This transfer and
consolidation of functions shall include, among others, those of the
National Park Service of the Department of the Interior, and the
National Cemeteries and Parks of the War Department which are located
within the continental limits of the United States. National cemeteries
located in foreign countries shall be transferred to the Department of
State, and those located in insular possessions under the jurisdiction
of the War Department shall be administered by the Bureau of Insular
Affairs of the War Department.
"The functions of the following agencies are
transferred to the Office of National Parks, Buildings, and Reservations
of the Department of the Interior, and the agencies are abolished:
Arlington Memorial Bridge Commission
Public Buildings Commission
Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National Capitol
National Memorial Commission
Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway Commission
"Expenditures by the Federal Government for the
purposes of the Commission of Fine Arts, the George Rogers Clark
Sesquicentennial Commission, and the Rushmore National Commission shall
be administered by the Department of the Interior."
National monuments formerly administered by the
United States Forest Service were included in these transfers.
Although this Order designated the Service as the
Office of National Parks, Buildings and Reservations, the original name
"National Park Service" was restored in recognition of its prestige in
the field of conservation, in the Act making appropriations for the
Department of the Interior for the 1935 fiscal year. This was
accomplished through the interest of Senator Carl Hayden of Arizona,
chairman of the Senate Subcommittee of the Senate Appropriations
Committee, which had charge of the bill.
In accordance with the President's Executive Order,
the Service was charged with maintenance of most of the Federal
buildings in the National Capital, with the exception of certain
buildings such as the Capitol, the main Treasury Building, Library of
Congress, Government Printing Office, Supreme Court Building, and the
National Bureau of Standards building. The Service also maintained a few
Federal buildings outside the District of Columbia.
In order to fulfill these additional
responsibilities, the Service separated the functions of the former
Office of Public Buildings and Public Grounds into two distinct units,
the Branch of Buildings Management and the office of National Capital
Parks. The Branch of Buildings Management was coordinate with the other
administrative branches of the Service, while National Capital Parks is
a field unit comparable to the various national park units outside the
District of Columbia.
On July 1, 1939, the Branch of Buildings Management
was discontinued when the Public Buildings Administration was
established under the Federal Works Agency to handle the operation of
Another important piece of legislation affecting the
activities of the Service was the Act of Congress approved August 21,
1935, empowering the Secretary of the Interior, through the National
Park Service, to conduct a Nation-wide survey of historic American
sites, buildings, objects, and antiquities. This Act also made
provisions for cooperative agreements with states and local and private
agencies in the development and administration of historic areas of
national interest, regardless of whether titles to the properties were
vested in the United States.
A discussion of progress in historical conservation
achieved under the Historic Sites Act will be given later. Prior to
passage of the Historic Sites Act of 1955, the Historic American
Buildings Survey was initiated, in December 1953, as a Civil Works
Administration project, under agreement between the Secretary of the
Interior and the Civil Works Administrator. Later authorized by
Congress, it has been conducted in cooperation with the American
Institute of Architects and financed successively by FERA, WPA, and PWA
funds. The Survey has resulted in the collection of exact graphic
records of more than 5,000 antique buildings and other structures,
important historically or architecturally. This material is being filed
by special arrangement with the Library of Congress among the pictorial
American archives of the Library.
Extension of National Park Service activities into
the field of cooperation with the states and local governments in the
planning of recreational areas, facilities and programs was authorized
by the Park, Parkway and Recreation Study Act approved June 25, 1956.
Under this Act the Service is conducting the Park, Parkway and
Recreational-Area Study (discussed in detail under the heading "State
So widespread have the activities of the Service
become, particularly since cooperation with the states began under the
CCC and emergency relief programs in 1933, that an administrative system
of four regions has been established. Each region is in the charge of a
Regional Director, as follows: Region I, Miner R. Tillotson, regional
director, Richmond, Virginia; Region II, Thomas J. Allen, regional
director, Omaha, Nebraska; Region III, John R. White, regional director,
Santa Fe, New Mexico; Region IV, Frank A. Kittredge, regional director,
San Francisco, California.
One of the most important aspects of the extended
activities of the Service is the fact that although the Service is
working in new fields and with funds coming from several sources, its
enlarged personnel is no less a part of the organization in the
traditional sense. This realization on the part of later appointees
comes with the knowledge that the Service is a permanent bureau of a
regularly established Department of the Government, and that no matter
what phase of the program the individual is working on, it is an
integral part of the whole program of the National Park Service.
Development of the Educational Program
Although Congress authorized establishment of the
first national park as a "pleasuring ground," growth of the system by
the addition of many areas of truly outstanding importance as living
laboratories of natural history made it obvious that the parks offered
superb educational opportunities. It was logical, then, that a program
of research and education should be developed along with a program of
The educational advantages of the parks were
recognized early by individuals and university groups, and at the turn
of the century teachers were leading classes into these reserves for
field study. In 1917 Director Mather launched his plans for an
educational program by appointing Robert Sterling Yard as chief of the
educational division. Immediately the Service introduced educational
material into its booklets of information on the parks. At the same
time, individuals without the Servicenotably John Muir of the
Sierra Club, C. M. Goethe and Joseph Grinnell of Californiawere
attracting interest in the educational opportunities of the parks and
stimulating in many persons a desire to study the geologic and biologic
features of these areas.
A national park educational committee was organized
by Dr. Charles D. Walcott of the Smithsonian Institution in June of
1918. About a year later this group, consisting of 75 university
presidents and representatives of leading conservation organizations,
merged into the National Parks Association, and Mr. Yard left the
National Park Service to become associated with this new
It was at this time that the concept of nature
guiding, developed in a world survey which brought the idea from Europe
to America, was being well demonstrated in Yosemite, where Dr. Harold C.
Bryant, educational director of the California Fish and Game Commission,
was delivering a number of lectures, and where trips afield for nature
study were offered. By 1920 Mr. Mather and certain of his friends had
become so convinced of the effectiveness of this work that they
supported it with private funds. In that year Dr. Bryant and Dr. Loye
Holmes Miller offered guided field trips and gave lectures in Yosemite
to lay the foundation for later work.
Staff Artist and CCC Enrollee Assistant Painting Relief
Maps, Western Museum Laboratories, Berkeley, California.
The naturalist staff was not represented in the
Washington Office until the Branch of Research and Education was
established in 1930. Following the resignation of Dr. Wallace W. Atwood,
Jr., as assistant in charge of work relating to earth sciences, Earl A.
Trager was appointed in March 1932, to take charge of this section of
the work. The following year the Naturalist Division was organized with
Mr. Trager as Chief.
The Naturalist Division consists of a staff located
in the Washington Office, in Regional Offices and in the parks and
monuments. The duties of the staff are:
1. To interpret the inspirational and educational
features of the parks to the public through the medium of trips afield
2. To advise on all matters pertaining to the
educational use of or the conservation of the natural or scientific
features within the national parks and monuments.
3. To assemble complete data on all scientific and
esthetic features of the park area as the basis for both the
interpretation and general administrative program of the park.
The staff in the Washington Office consists of
executive and technical personnel; the staff in the field consists of
technical personnel whose administrative duties are limited to those
necessary to accomplish the field work program.
The naturalists' program of conservation and
interpretation involves work in the biological and geological fields.
The technical assistance required in biology is supplied by the Wildlife
Division. The technical assistance required in geology is furnished by
geologists attached to the Naturalist Division.
Coincident with the development of a "free nature
guide service" in Yosemite, the Service began the interpretation of park
phenomena through museum exhibits. Ansel F. Hall, previously in charge
of information at Yosemite, was made park naturalist and developed a
museum. In Yellowstone M. P. Skinner, under the direction of the
Superintendent, organized a museum program. Nature guide service was
established in other parks in the next few years, and in 1923 Director
Mather appointed Mr. Hall as chief naturalist to extend the field of
educational development to other parks. In the same year Dr. Carl P.
Russell was appointed park naturalist in Yosemite and Mr. Hall devoted
his efforts to the educational program in all the parks.
Nature Guide Party, Yellowstone National Park, at
By this time it was seen that a definite plan of
operation was needed, and Director Mather appointed Dr. Frank R. Oastler
to investigate the educational work and, in collaboration with Chief
Naturalist Hall, to draw up a general policy. An organization plan was
prepared after Dr. Oastler had spent four and one-half months in the
field in 1924. This outline defined the duties of the chief naturalist
and the park naturalists, and advocated the development of an
"educational working plan" for each park which would set forth the
qualifications and training of the staff, an outline of each educational
activity, plans of necessary buildings and equipment, and the required
budget. Of special importance was the recommendation in this report that
"each park should feature its own individual phenomena rather than try
to cover the entire field of education."
Another survey of educational opportunities of the
parks was made in 1924 by the American Association of Museums, of which
C. J. Hamlin was president, and definite plans looking toward the
establishment of natural history museums in some of the larger parks
were suggested. On the basis of this study the Laura Spelman Rockefeller
Memorial donated funds for construction of an adequate, fireproof museum
building with necessary equipment and important accessories, in
Even before the Yosemite museum installations had
been opened to the public, demonstration of the effectiveness of the
institution as headquarters for the educational staff and visiting
scientists convinced leaders in the American Association of Museums that
further effort should be made to establish a general program of museum
work in national parks. Additional funds were obtained from the Laura
Spelman Rockefeller Memorial and new museums were built in Grand Canyon
and Yellowstone National Parks. Dr. Hermon C. Bumpus, who had guided the
museum planning and construction in Yosemite, continued as the
administrator representing the Association and Rockefeller interests,
and Herbert Maier, now Associate Regional Director, Region IV, was
architect and field superintendent on the construction projects.
It was Dr. Bumpus who originated the "focal point
museum" idea so well represented by the several small institutions in
Yellowstone, each one concerned with a special aspect of the park story,
and so located as to tell its story while its visitors were surrounded
by and deeply interested in the significant exhibits of the
out-of-doors. The trailside exhibits now commonly used in many national
parks and first tried at Obsidian Cliff in Yellowstone were an
out-growth of the focal point museum idea.
When the museums of, Yosemite, Grand Canyon, and
Yellowstone had demonstrated their value to visitors and staff alike,
they were accepted somewhat as models for future work, and upon the
strength of their success; the Service found it possible to obtain
regular government appropriations with which to build more museums in
national parks and monuments. When PWA funds became available, further
impetus was given to the parks museum program and a Museum Division of
the Service was established in 1935, embracing historic areas of the
East as well as the scenic national parks. Today there are 68 national
park and monument museums and two more are planned for the immediate
Research and Information
In 1925 the Secretary of the Interior approved
Director Mather's plan for establishment of headquarters of the
Educational Division at Berkeley, California, under Mr. Hall.
Administration of the program was handled from that point until
establishment of the Service's Branch of Research and Education under
Dr. Bryant in Washington, D. C., on July 1, 1930. During this period
administrative plans were developed for the educational activities of
each park, in cooperation with the park superintendents and naturalists.
Simultaneously, a plan of administration for the educational service as
a whole was worked out, and its approval by the Director on June 4, 1929
formed the basis of operation and administration in the field.
The principal study of educational program needs in
the national park system was made by a committee appointed by the
Secretary of the Interior in 1929, which operated with funds provided by
the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial. Its personnel included Dr. John
C. Merriam, chairman, and Drs. Hermon C. Bumpus, Harold C. Bryant,
Vernon Kellogg, and Frank R. Oastler. These men made field trips in the
summer of 1928 and reported many practical suggestions for development
of the program.
Acting on the recommendation of this committee, the
Secretary of the Interior, in 1929, invited several eminent scientists
and educators to serve on a National Park Service Educational Advisory
Board. This group consisted of those already on the educational
committee with the exception of Dr. Bryant, and in addition Drs. Clark
Wissler, Wallace W. Atwood and Isiah Bowman. The committee on study of
educational problems was also enlarged to include Dr. Atwood and Dr.
Further field investigations were conducted in 1929
and 1930 by the committee and its members rendered individual reports on
the areas they visited. The committee submitted its final report to the
Secretary of the Interior on November 27, 1929. In this report, it was
recommended hat the position of educational director of the Service
should be filled by a man "of the best scientific and educational
qualifications," that headquarters of the educational division should be
a part of the central organization in Washington, and that two
assistants be appointed who, together with the head, should represent
the subjects of geology, biology, anthropology, and history.
With the establishment of the Branch of Research and
Education in 1930, Dr. Harold C. Bryant, a biologist, was appointed
assistant director in charge of this work. Dr. Wallace W. Atwood, Jr.,
was made assistant in charge of work relating to earth sciences, and a
year later Verne E. Chatelain was appointed assistant in charge of
historical and archeological developments. With these steps having been
taken, the main work of the educational committee was completed, and the
group was disbanded in 1931.
Now called the Branch of Research and Information,
this branch is charged with the task of interpreting to the public the
natural phenomena within the national parks and monuments, conducting or
sponsoring such research as is necessary to that program, and the
protection and conservation of the natural resources therein. The
planning and administration of the work of the Branch, which is
comprised of three divisions, the Naturalist, the Wildlife (assigned to
National Park Service duty from the Biological Survey), and the Museum
Division, is under the direction of a Supervisor, Dr. Carl P. Russell,
who was appointed to fill the vacancy caused by the transfer of Dr.
Bryant to the Superintendency of Grand Canyon National Park in February
Several main policies have been followed in the
development of the educational program, and important among these
1. Simple, understandable interpretation of the major
features of each park to the public by means of field trips, lectures,
exhibits, and literature.
2. Emphasis upon leading the visitor to study the
real thing rather than to utilize second-hand information. Typical
academic methods are avoided.
3. Utilization of a highly trained personnel with
field experience in geological and biological sciences able to interpret
to the public the laws of the universe as exemplified in the parks, and
able to develop concepts of the laws of life useful to all.
4. A research program in the natural sciences which
will furnish a continuous supply of dependable facts suitable for use in
connection with the educational program and for guidance in shaping
National Park Service policy.
5. Promotion of library facilities and practice
throughout the national park system.
The National Park Service is entrusted by the
American people with protection, conservation, and proper management of
characteristic portions of the country as it was seen by the early
explorers. In fulfilling this stewardship, the Service is responsible
for the protection of the animals which constitute the wildlife
population of the parks.
The wildlife management policies of the Service are
based upon three points:
1. That the wildlife of America exists in the
consciousness of the people as a vital part of their natural
2. That in its appointed task of preserving
characteristic examples of primitive America, the National Park Service
faces an especially important responsibility for the conservation of
wildlife. This is emphasized by the wholesale destruction which has
decimated the fauna in nearly every part of the land outside of the park
3. That the observation of animals in the wild state
contributes so much to the enjoyment derived by visitors that this is
becoming a park attraction of steadily increasing importance.
After wiping out vandalism and poaching in the parks,
the Service realized that mere protection of the wildlife would not
accomplish what was desired and necessary, and that an actual program of
management was needed, to restore and perpetuate the fauna in its
pristine state by combatting the harmful effects of human influence.
The problem of wildlife management was aptly set
forth in Fauna of the National Parks of the United StatesNo. 1, by
George M. Wright, Joseph S. Dixon, and Ben H. Thompson: "The unique
feature of the case is that perpetuation of natural conditions will have
to be forever reconciled with the presence of large numbers of people on
the scene, a seeming anomaly. A situation of parallel circumstances has
never existed before."
In considering its responsibility for the
conservation of wildlife, the Service realized that mere protection was
not enough. The need to supplement protection with constructive wildlife
administration became evident with a steady increase of biological
problems in many of the national parks and monuments. In 1929 a wildlife
survey was undertaken in an effort to concentrate greater interest on
the fundamental aspects of wildlife administration throughout the
national park system. This survey involved a reconnaissance of the park
system, to analyze and delineate the existing status of wildlife in the
parks, to assist park superintendents in solving urgent biological
problems, and to develop a well defined wildlife policy for the national
park system. The results of this survey, together with proposed wildlife
policies which have since been adopted by the Service, were published in
the Fauna Series 1 and 2.
For two years, from 1929 to 1931, this work was
financed entirely by the late George Wright who personally paid the
salaries of two men while contributing his own services. In 1931 and
1932 the Government began contributing toward the budget, although Mr.
Wright continued his support of the work. In 1933 the Government took
over the financing entirely. It was in that year that a Wildlife
Division was formally established within the Branch of Research and
Education for the purpose of directing all activities pertaining to
conservation and management of park wildlife. Prior to 1934 the staff
consisted of a chief, a field naturalist and a supervisor of fish
resources. In 1934 this staff was increased with trained biologists
employed under the Emergency Conservation Work program. Wildlife
technicians are assigned to each regional office and are assisted by
technicians of the associate, assistant, and junior grades. In November
1939, the Wildlife Division was transferred to the Biological Survey,
which bureau immediately assigned all staff members to the same Park
Service duties which they had been performing.
The wildlife policies of the Service were recognized
by the Biological Survey and subscribed to in the new inter-bureau
Relative to areas and
1. That each park shall contain within itself the
year-round habitats of all species belonging to the native resident
2. That each park shall include sufficient areas in
all these required habitats to maintain at least the minimum population
of each species necessary to insure its perpetuation.
3. That park boundaries shall be drafted to follow
natural faunal barriers, the limiting faunal zone, where possible.
4. That a complete report upon a new park project
shall include a survey of the fauna as a critical factor in determining
area and boundaries.
Relative to management
5. That no management measure or other interference
with biotic relationships shall be undertaken prior to a properly
6. That every species shall be left to carry on its
struggle for existence unaided, as being to its greatest ultimate good,
unless there is real cause to believe that it will perish if
7. That, where artificial feeding, control of natural
enemies, or other protective measures, are necessary to save a species
that is unable to cope with civilization's influences, every effort
shall be made to place that species on a self-sustaining basis once
more; whence these artificial aids, which themselves have unfortunate
consequences, will no longer be needed.
8. That the rare predators shall be considered
special charges of the national parks in proportion to the extent that
they are persecuted elsewhere.
9. That no native predator shall be destroyed on
account of its normal utilization of any other park animal, excepting if
that animal is in immediate danger or extermination, and then only if
the predator is not itself a vanishing form.
10. That species predatory upon fish shall be allowed
to continue in normal numbers and to share normally in the benefits of
11. That the numbers of native ungulates occupying a
deteriorated range shall not be permitted to exceed its reduced carrying
capacity and, preferably, shall be kept below the carrying capacity at
every step until the range can be brought back to normal
12. That any native species which has been
exterminated from the park area shall be brought back if this can be
done, but if said species has become extinct, no related form shall be
considered as a candidate for reintroduction in its place.
13. That any exotic species which has already become
established in a park shall be either eliminated or held to a minimum
provided complete eradication is not feasible.
Relative relations between animals and
14. That presentation of the animal life of the parks
to the public shall be a wholly natural one.
15. That no animal shall be encouraged to become
dependent upon man for its support.
16. That problems of injury to the persons of
visitors or to their property or to the special interests of man in the
park, shall be solved by methods other than those involving the killing
of the animals or interfering with their normal relationships, where
this is at all practicable.
Relative faunal investigations
17. That a complete faunal investigation, including
the four steps of determining the primitive faunal picture, tracing the
history of human influences, making a thorough zoological survey and
formulating a wild-life administrative plan, shall be made in each park
at the earliest possible date.
18. That the local park museum in each case shall be
repository for a complete study skin collection of the area and for
accumulated evidence attesting to original wild-life conditions.
19. That each park shall develop within the ranger
department a personnel of one or more men trained in the handling of
wild-life problems, and who will be assisted by the field staff
appointed to carry out the faunal program of the Service.
Plans and Design
One of the chief responsibilities of the Service in
its administration of the national park and monument system is to bring
about a proper compromise between (1) preservation and protection of the
landscape, and (2) developments for making park areas accessible and
useful to the public. A delicate balance of conservation, calling for
the exercise of sound judgment, is indicated in the correct adjustment
of these seemingly opposing objectives.
From the very beginning, the Service recognized this
responsibility as a serious one to be discharged through careful
professional planning. The first landscape architect was employed by the
Service in 1918 more or less as a field adviser in the western parks.
Thomas C. Vint, the present chief of planning, came into the Service in
1922, with headquarters in Yosemite National Park, California. In 1923
the office was moved to Los Angeles, and thence to San Francisco in
1927. The present Branch of Plans and Design was so designated in 1933.
From 1927 until 1935 the Branch grew in personnel from three or four to
a total of 120 employees, including architects and landscape architects.
In 1936, when the Branch assumed additional responsibilities in
connection with state park work, a total of 220 men in the professional
classifications were employed. These, of course, did not include foremen
assigned to CCC camps to do a considerable amount of work of the same
The main function of the Branch of Plans and Design
is to serve as adviser to the Director and park superintendents on all
matters of general policy and individual problems, covering physical
improvements, development, preparation of plans and designs of an
architectural or landscape architectural nature; and to design and
prepare all architectural and landscape architectural plans and
specifications for buildings constructed by the Government in the park
and monument areas.
The Branch prepares and keeps up to date a master
plan showing the general scheme for physical development of each park
and monument area, and supervises the preparation and revision of other
master plans for areas being developed under the direction of the
Service. It advises the Director on the location of parkways, and
collaborates with the Public Roads Administration in the preparation of
plans, construction and inspection of parkways, and the location, design
and construction of major roads in park and monument areas, in
accordance with the "Inter-bureau Agreement." It also collaborates with
the Branch of Engineering in the construction of minor roads and trails
in the areas of the system.
Representing the Director, the Branch recommends
approval or disapproval of landscape and architectural plans prepared by
park operators and other concessionaire agencies, and consults and
collaborates with them in the preparation of their plans. One of its
chief functions is to maintain a construction program for each park,
correlated with the master plan. It directs the activities of the
Historic American Buildings Survey, supervising the preparation of
drawings and supporting data, and keeping records of all other
operations incidental to the successful operation of this program.
The making of location surveys (of proposed parkways)
is the responsibility of this Branch, and this involves the collection
of data, maps and other information for proper presentation of reports
and recommendations on parkways proposed. Another duty is the
preparation of right-of-way plans for roads and parkways proposed or
constructed by the Service.
Making the areas of the national park and monument
system available for public use has always presented problems in the
proper design of structures and facilities. The earliest efforts in this
direction demonstrated clearly the necessity for professional
engineering services in planning developments in the park.
The first real engineering undertaking in any park
was, in fact, the famous Hayden Geological Survey Expedition into the
Yellowstone in the '70's, made primarily for the purpose of collecting
accurate geological and geographical data on the region. During the
early years after establishment of Yellowstone National Park, no funds
were available for development and there was little or no need for
engineering services. When Congress finally appropriated money for road
construction in the park in the '80's, engineering was placed under the
U. S. Corps of Engineers. In 1883 Captain D. C. Kingman of the Corps
became the first officer to be detailed for such work in Yellowstone,
and thus was the first national park engineer.
The first engineering structure in a national park
was, undoubtedly, a log and timber bridge constructed over the
Yellowstone River just below Tower Falls and not far from the present
bridge across the stream. It was built by private interests who also
constructed a road through the park to the Cooke City mining district
just outside the park boundaries at the northeast corner. This structure
was named Baronett Bridge and was built about 1870 or shortly
thereafter. It became of historical interest when used by General O. O.
Howard's command when he was pursuing the Nez Perce Indians under Chief
Joseph through the park in 1877.
Early engineering activities in the national parks
consisted almost entirely of the construction of roads, bridges and
trails. After the National Park Service was established, the needs for
water and sewer systems, power plants, communication service, and other
essentials were developed. The early operators, or concessionaires in
the parks, were required to construct and maintain their own utilities
in connection with the operation of hotels, camps and other types of
Road building was continued in Yellowstone and
afterward in other national parks under the U. S. Corps of Engineers and
immediate supervision of successive engineers until about 1917. Most
prominent of the Army engineers of that era was General Hiram M.
Chittenden who was assigned to Yellowstone National Park after the close
of the Spanish-American War in 1899 and remained for a number of years.
He accomplished the most in Yellowstone road building and also became
the author of "The Yellowstone National Park," an historical and
descriptive volume which is one of the best sources of authentic
information on the history and phenomena of the Yellowstone. Through his
efforts Congress appropriated upwards of a million dollars during the
three years 1902 to 1905 for reconstruction of roads in Yellowstone to
provide an excellent system of horse stage roads. A new road was built
from the Canyon around to Mammoth Hot Springs by way of Dunraven Pass
and Tower Falls to provide a loop making it unnecessary for tourists to
travel any portion of the route a second time. This system of roads
sufficed for horse stage travel and later for auto bus and automobile
travel until the early '20's when small yearly appropriations became
available for reconstructing some of the most dangerous sections and
widening other sections to permit two-way travel.
Old Faithful, Yellowstone National Park, Photographed by
William H. Jackson.
As new areas were brought into the system from time
to time in the '90's and after the turn of the century, the engineering
activities were placed generally in the charge of the U. S. Corps of
Engineers. There was, apparently, little correlation of methods and
standards between the engineers in the various parks. After the National
Park Service was created and took over administration of the system, the
Corps of Engineers continued in charge of engineering work until April
1917 when George E. Goodwin was appointed the first civilian engineer of
the Service, with the title of civil engineer. He made his first
headquarters in Portland, Oregon, with an assistant in each of the
larger parks. In 1921 Mr. Goodwin was made chief engineer, in general
charge of all engineering in the national parks. After Congress passed
the Roads and Trails Act of 1924 and appropriated funds for the building
of roads, trails and bridges in national parks, the chief engineer's
organization was considerably expanded in personnel for making surveys
and plans, and for supervising construction activities. In July 1925,
however, Mr. Goodwin retired from the Service and all major road
building activities were turned over to the Bureau of Public Roads. Bert
H. Burrell was appointed acting chief engineer pending this transfer and
a decision on the future of the chief engineer's office.
The Portland office was discontinued in the spring of
1926, some of the personnel being released and others being transferred
to park engineering positions. The acting chief engineer, with a few
employees, moved to Yellowstone to await developments.
In the summer of 1927, Frank A. Kittredge was
appointed chief engineer, and in September of that year the office and
small organization were moved from Yellowstone to San Francisco to
occupy joint space with the Landscape Division, since renamed the Branch
of Plans and Design. The activities and personnel of the Branch of
Engineering were rapidly increased to keep pace with the growing needs
for engineering services in practically all the national parks and
monuments. Except for four of the larger parksYellowstone,
Glacier, Grand Canyon and Yosemite, where permanent park engineers were
locatedthe chief engineer's organization had charge of the design
and construction of all engineering activities except major roads. In
the next few years they designed and constructed many important
engineering structures such as the Kaibab Trail Bridge over the Colorado
River in Grand Canyon National Park, the Carlsbad Caverns elevators, and
the Yellowstone hydroelectric plant. The four permanent park engineers
operated technically under the supervision of the chief engineer, and
engineering personnel was assigned to all park areas as needed for
making general and topographical surveys and for supervising all
construction activities except major roads, and generally supervising
the maintenance of park roads.
Prior to 1930, the only national park in the east was
Acadia, in Maine. Very little engineering service from the central
organization was given this area, and such as was given was furnished by
the chief engineer in San Francisco or the Bureau of Public Roads. In
view of the prospect of establishment of additional eastern areas (with
bills pending for establishment of George Washington's Birthplace
National Monument, Colonial National Monument and the acquisition of
land for an establishment of Great Smoky Mountains National Park,
Shenandoah National Park, and Mammoth Cave National Park, which were
authorized in 1926) Oliver G. Taylor was transferred in May 1950 from
Yosemite National Park, where he had been resident engineer for ten
years, to a field position in the Washington office.
Engineering work in eastern areas gradually increased
until 1933 when there was a great increase in the number of eastern
areas due to the transfer of public buildings and parks, national
military parks and monuments and other areas from various Federal
agencies to the National Park Service. This caused a tremendous increase
in engineering responsibilities. These duties were first placed under
Mr. Taylor as assistant chief engineer and later as deputy chief
engineer, operating independently of the chief engineer's office in the
west and reporting directly to the Director. The entire engineering
organization of public buildings and parks came over to the National
Park Service, but no engineering personnel was transferred with the
military parks and monuments. It therefore became necessary to take on
much additional engineering assistance.
In August 1937, when the Service was reorganized on a
regional basis, the office of the chief engineer was transferred from
San Francisco to Washington where it assumed charge of all engineering
work in the national park and monument system. At that time Mr.
Kittredge was appointed regional director of Region IV, with
headquarters in San Francisco, and Mr. Taylor was appointed chief
Functions of administration and personnel, budget,
fiscal control, operators' accounts, and mails and files came into the
picture at once, upon establishment of the National Park Service, and
these matters were first placed immediately under the Director.
Although the present Branch of Operations was not
established until July 1, 1930, the various steps leading up to this
began with the appointment of A. E. Demaray (now associate director) as
senior administrative assistant on July 1, 1924. At that time Mr.
Demaray was in charge of administrative work assigned by the Director,
and supervised the editorial, mapping and drafting work, and the travel
and informational work. On March 3, 1925 his title was changed to
assistant in operations and public relations. On June 1, 1927 he was
appointed as assistant to the director in charge of the preparation of
estimates, administrative responsibility for road work in the park
system, approval and control of expenditures, and approval of the rates
of public operators. On October 11, 1929, Mr. Demaray was designated
assistant director in charge of what was then called the Branch of
Budget, Fiscal Control and Public Relations, and the Accounts Section
was transferred from the Chief Clerk's Office to this new branch. On
July 1, 1930 Mr. Demaray was appointed senior assistant director, and
the name of the branch was changed to Branch of Operations, with
responsibility for budget, accounting, and personnel work, embracing the
following units: Division of Administration and Personnel, Division of
Park Operators' Accounts, Division of Accounts, and Control Section.
Hillory A. Tolson was appointed assistant director in
October 1933 and placed in charge of the Branch of Operations. At
present the Branch is composed of five divisions with the following
Budget and Accounts DivisionPreparation of
estimates of appropriations, including justifications and supporting
data for use in defending them before the Budget Bureau and committees
of Congress. Preparation of allotment advices pursuant to the provisions
of appropriation acts or allocations making funds available. Supervision
over preparation and compilation of financial and statistical data;
accounting; auditing of expenditures; revision of the Accounting Manual;
installation of approved systems of accounting to regulate fiscal
operations; and receipt of revenues. Preparation of communications
concerning accounting, budgeting, auditing and estimating of
appropriations. Negotiation with representatives of General Accounting
Office and other Governmental agencies concerning accounting and budget
Safety DivisionSupervision over building fire
protection and accident prevention programs. Preparation of fire
protection and safety standards for use by those responsible for
building and water system designs. Review of park operators' plans for
fire protection and safety measures. Analysis of building fire and
employees' injury reports. Training of park employees in fire hazard and
accident hazard inspections. Preparation and dissemination of
information regarding building fires and injuries and accident
prevention and fire hazards. Chief of Division serves as Chairman of
Safety Committee composed of representatives of the different Service
Public Utility DivisionFurnishing of expert
advice in the management and operation of public utility facilities
(water, electricity, telephone, incineration, sewage) within the field
areas administered by the Service. Conduct of rate analysis, valuations,
and operating cost studies for determination of rate schedules for such
public utility services. Preparation of plans, specifications, and
estimates of new installations, extensions, improvements, and equipment
purchases. Assistance to the Washington branches and field offices in
connection with special utility problems.
Personnel and Records DivisionSupervision and
coordination of all personnel matters for adherence to civil service
rules and regulations and to the policies and procedure of the
Department. Maintenance of appropriate personnel records. Compilation of
information, statistics, and reports relating to personnel. Handling of
receipt and dispatching of all mail. Maintenance of the general files.
Preparation of instructions for guidance of field officers. Review of
reports regarding irregularities by the Division of Investigations and
Service auditors. Advice to Service officials concerning personnel
problems, policies, and procedure. Control of expenditures from
contingent and printing and binding appropriations. Negotiation with
officials of the Department regarding personnel policies and procedure,
establishment of positions, and purchase of office supplies and
Park Operators DivisionSupervision over field
examinations of accounts and records of public service operators in
areas administered by the Service. Prescribes bases on which amounts due
the Government under franchise contracts shall be computed. Verification
of correctness of amounts due under contracts and permits. Devises park
operators' accounting requirements and procedure of reporting. Analysis
of park operators' accounts and records for data to determine rates.
Furnishing of data to officials to determine policies in exercising
supervision and control over park operators' affairs.
Supervision over all legal matters of the Service is
the responsibility of the Office of Chief Counsel. This Office is an
outgrowth of the position of Assistant Attorney in the Secretary's
Office held by former Director Horace M. Albright before establishment
of the National Park Service in 1916, when the national parks were
administered directly by the Secretary.
With the organization of the Service in 1917, Mr.
Albright was appointed assistant director under former Director Stephen
T. Mather. The position of assistant attorney formerly held by Mr.
Albright was supplanted by that of "law clerk" authorized under the
organic act of 1916. The position of "law clerk" advanced steadily in
responsibility and volume of work as the Service grew from a small
organization of some 25 employees in the Washington Office, to its
present size. The designation of the position, accordingly, changed
progressively to "assistant attorney," "legal officer," "assistant to
the director," "assistant director," and finally to "chief counsel." All
of these changes have taken place during the incumbency of the present
Chief Counsel, George A. Moskey, who entered the Service in 1923.
The Office of Chief Counsel was established October
24, 1938, when the former Branch of Land Acquisition and Regulation,
headed by Mr. Moskey as assistant director, was abolished. This change,
made at the time a number of revisions were effected in branch names and
functions, was considered advisable in view of the fact that the Branch
handled not only matters pertaining to land acquisition and regulation,
but all legal matters for the Service.
The Office is composed of a chief counsel and a force
of assistants, principally attorneys. In addition, the Office also
includes engineers, land appraisers and buyers, and specialized clerks.
The functions of the Office of Chief Counsel are as follows: Supervision
over all legal matters of the Service, rendition of administrative-legal
advice, supervision over land acquisition, establishment of title to
water rights, legislation affecting the national park system, and
regulation of the various uses of these areas, and the acquisition of
parkway rights-of-way. The Office renders assistance in formulating
policies to govern various commercial activities in the national park
system necessary for the accommodation and convenience of the visiting
public. It acts as consultant to cooperating state and private agencies
in technical matters relating to the establishment of new park or
monument areas authorized by Congress.
From this description, it will be seen that the
functions of the Office of Chief Counsel are not limited to legal work.
They are approximately 75 per cent administrative in nature, and include
the responsibility of carrying on and supervising important programs of
the Service's work, principally those with incidental legal aspects. For
instance, a land purchase program is an administrative function. In the
consummation of a purchase of land, however, legal questions are
involved and must be dealt with and answered. The rendering of legal
opinions and advising administrative officers on strictly legal phases
of the Service work constitutes the other 25 per cent of the work of the
Office. The duties and responsibilities of the Chief Counsel are thus
distinguished from those of the Solicitor of the Department who is the
chief legal officer of the Department, whose functions are essentially
legal in nature, and to whom all legal questions requiring Departmental
decision or approval are referred. With the great administrative
responsibilities of the Office of Chief Counsel, it is not equipped with
attorneys or personnel to undertake exhaustive research and
investigations with a view to bringing out a legal issue. Its personnel
is barely sufficient to carry on its programmed activities and the
giving of legal guidance to administrative officers of the Service on
current problems. Therefore, when situations confront the Service which
require extended investigation or research as to facts before incidental
legal questions are developed, field officers and administrative
officers directly dealing with the problem are required to provide
necessary reports from which the facts may be ascertained.
The Act establishing the National Park Service makes
specific provision for the control of attacks of forest insects and
disease and otherwise conserving the scenery of the natural or historic
objects in the parks and monuments. The protection of the park forests
from destruction or serious damage resulting from fire, insects and
disease, and from abuse through human use and occupancy has, therefore,
been a primary function of the Service from its very inception.
The protection activities are handled by the ranger
force, which constitutes the basic protective organization of the parks
and monuments. The importance of these responsibilities and the
multiplicity of the technical problems involved created a need for a
central office to assist and cooperate with the park and monument in the
planning and administration of forest protection activities. The
desirability of intensive study and scientific preparation of detailed
forest protection plans was emphasized by a number of devastating forest
fires within national parks during the exceptionally severe and
disastrous fire season of 1926.
Accordingly, the Forestry Division was created in
1927 under Chief Naturalist Ansel F. Hall, a graduate in forestry. To
his duties in the development and administration of the educational
service of the national parks and monuments was added the additional
work of forest protection planning and administration, and his title was
expanded to include that of Chief Forester. Headquarters for both the
educational and forestry work were at the University of California,
Berkeley, California. In July 1928 the position of Fire Control Expert
was established in the Forestry Division at Berkeley to assist the Chief
Forester in handling forestry and fire protection problems. John D.
Coffman, a forester who had had many years of experience in forest
protection and administration, was appointed to that position.
In March 1933 the Fire Control Expert was called to
Washington to assist the Director in the organization and administration
of the Emergency Conservation Work program for the National Park
Service, which so expanded and accelerated the conservation work of the
Service that a Branch of Forestry, headed by Mr. Coffman as Chief
Forester, was established in November 1933 with headquarters in
Washington, D. C.
With the regionalization of the Service in August
1937 a Regional Forester was appointed in each of the four regions to
serve as technical adviser to the Regional Director in forestry matters
and to head the forestry and fire protection work within the region.
Each region also has one or more assistants to the Regional Forester to
assist in the technical forestry work.
The functions of the Branch of Forestry are:
1. Correlation of forestry and fire protection
activities throughout the Service.
2. Technical advice and cooperation to
superintendents, custodians, and other officers of the Service in
matters pertaining to forestry and fire protection problems.
3. Technical supervision of work dealing with forest
problems, including: protection of park forests from fire, injurious
insects and tree diseases, and from preventable damage resulting from
use; preparation and correlation of forest protection and fire
prevention plans, estimates, allotments, reports, and statistics,
including the fire atlas; preparation of annual budget for forest
protection and fire prevention, training of fire protection personnel,
standardization, selection, use, and care of fire equipment; inspection
of hazards affecting forest protection, fire hazard reduction,
assistance in preparation of cases for fire law enforcement, fire
reviews, type mapping, forest nurseries, forest planting, special tree
preservation and repair, any timber cutting found necessary in national
parks and monuments, forest products and utilization as a corollary of
timber cutting authorized for any purpose, and forest and fire
protection studies and research.
4. Contacts and cooperation with other bureaus and
agencies in matters pertaining to fire protection, insect and tree
disease control, forest pathology and ecology, and other forestry and
fire prevention interests.
The objectives of the Branch are:
To maintain, in cooperation with all other branches
of the Service, the forests of the national parks and monuments in their
natural state so far as that is possible and consistent with their use
To maintain the forest ecological balance, in
coordination with the management of the wildlife aspects by the Branch
of Research and Information.
To safeguard park visitors, forests, buildings, and
property of every character against destruction or injury by fire.
To make the park fire protection organizations the
best trained and equipped and most efficient forest fire protection
organizations in the Nation, because of the high scenic and recreational
values at stake.
Historic conservation has been part of the
conservation program of the Department of the Interior since 1906, and
of the National Park Service since its establishment. The National Park
Service Act itself named historic conservation as an important
responsibility of the organization. Pursuant to the American Antiquities
Act of 1906, the Department of the Interior, as early as 1916, had under
its jurisdiction seven national monuments of historic and archeologic
interest, as well as Mesa Verde National Park, which possesses the best
preserved cliff dwellings in the United States. These areas were placed
under the National Park Service on its establishment and formed the
nucleus of its system of historic sites.
In the period between 1916 and 1931, the number of
historic and archeologic areas administered by the Service steadily
increased, and by the latter year totaled 19, among which were such
important areas as George Washington Birthplace National Monument and
Colonial National Monument (now a national historical park),
commemorating the establishment of Jamestown, the first permanent
English settlement in the United States, and the decisive American
victory at Yorktown over Lord Cornwallis in 1781. Under the personal
guidance of Mr. Albright, a program was evolved and a definite basis was
laid for historical development.
The growing importance of historic areas in the
system of national parks and monuments, and the wide variety of
questions new to the Service that these areas presented, led, in 1931,
to the creation of an historical division in the Branch of Research and
Education to study problems relating to historic conservation. Verne E.
Chatelain was appointed head of this division and under his supervision
significant progress was made in formulating policies and methods of
procedure. The necessity for specialized study of historical problems
was greatly emphasized two years later when, by Executive Order, the 59
historic and archeologic areas administered by the War Department and
the Department of Agriculture were transferred to the Department of the
Interior. Included in the transferred areas were such outstanding
battlefields of the War Between the States as Gettysburg and Vicksburg.
Through this development, the National Park Service became the
recognized custodian of all legally designated historic and archeologic
monuments of the Federal Government.
As the historical and archeological program continued
to broaden, it was recognized that it was desirable to extend the system
to include most historic sites of national importance and to integrate
the various pre-Columbian, colonial, military and other historically
significant areas into a unified system which would tell the story of
the United States from the earliest times. In order to facilitate the
achievement of these objectives, the Branch of Historic Sites was
established July 1, 1935, with Mr. Chatelain as acting head. The
administration of scenic parks and historic sites, although involving
many common problems, yet required such different methods of treatment
that a separate branch to care for the broader planning and development
of the historical program was essential. The functions of the branch
were defined as the formulation of general policies, the supervision and
coordination of the administrative policy and the interpretative and
research programs of the different areas, and the Nation-wide survey of
historic sites to determine which are of national importance.
In November 1934, with a view to formulating a
national policy for historic conservation, Secretary of the Interior
Ickes appointed J. Thomas Schneider to survey the progress made in this
field in the United States and to study the legislation of the leading
It was largely on the basis of Mr. Schneider's
recommendations that the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935 (49 Stat.
666), was framed. This Act, a landmark in historic conservation in the
United States, greatly strengthened the legal foundation of the work of
the Federal Government in this field. It declared as a national policy
the preservation of historic American sites, buildings, objects and
antiquities of national significance for the benefit and inspiration of
the people, and empowered the Secretary of the Interior, through the
National Park Service, to effectuate this policy. The Act authorized a
survey of historic and archeologic sites to determine which possessed
exceptional value historically, and empowered the Secretary to make
cooperative agreements with states and other political units, and with
associations and individuals to preserve, maintain, or operate a
historic site for public use, even though title to the property did not
rest in the United States.
Archeological Investigation at Ocmulgee National
For the guidance of the Secretary and the National
Park Service in carrying out this work, the Historic Sites Act created
an Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings and
Monuments, which from the very beginning has been composed of eminent
authorities in the fields of history, archeology, architecture, and
human geography, such as Dr. Herbert E. Bolton, Dr. Waldo G. Leland, Dr.
Clark Wissler, Mr. Frank M. Setzler, Dr. Fiske Kimball, and Dr. Hermon
Since the Historic Sites Act provided for a large
measure of inter-bureau and inter-departmental cooperation, as well as
for outside assistance, the National Park Service has taken advantage of
this fact to obtain technical advice from a variety of organizations and
institutions. Many invaluable benefits have been derived from the advice
and assistance of the Smithsonian Institution, the National Archives,
the Library of Congress and the staffs of numerous university
departments of history and archeology. Through a constant interchange of
ideas with these groups and with the assistance of its own Advisory
Board, the National Park Service has developed a body of policies
governing the survey, development and operation of historic sites, which
constitutes the underlying basis for a national program of historical
and archeological conservation.
Mr. Chatelain, who had been an important factor in
the passage of the Historic Sites Act, and who had been acting head of
the Branch of Historic Sites since its establishment on July 1, 1935,
resigned in September 1936 and was succeeded by Branch Spalding,
superintendent of the Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania County Battlefield
Memorial National Military Park. Under Mr. Spalding, the architectural
and archeological work of the Branch was broadened, and important steps
were taken toward establishing a permanent organization.
In May 1938, Ronald F. Lee was made head of the
Branch. Under him, the technical services of the Branch have been
greatly strengthened, notably in the field of archeology, and a system
of cooperation was worked out with the Library of Congress, the
Smithsonian Institution and the National Archives whereby these
institutions give technical advice to the National Park Service and
assist in research problems.
At present, of the 155 areas administered by the
National Park Service, 90 are primarily of historic or archeological
Ever since the national parks and monuments were
brought under the administration of one agency there has been a steady
demand for the addition of numerous areas of many types to the system.
This demand results from an increased public consciousness of the need
for preserving areas of outstanding scenic, scientific and recreational
For more than a decade the investigation of proposed
new areas was made by the Director or by officers of the Service
designated by him, including field men. It finally became necessary and
advisable to concentrate this work under one office, and in 1928 the
Branch of Lands was established under the late Washington Bartlett Lewis
as assistant director. Mr. Lewis had been superintendent of Yosemite
National Park from 1916 to 1928. The Branch of Lands had charge of the
investigation of proposed new parks, extensions to existing areas, land
acquisition, and the drafting work.
A reorganization of these activities brought about
the establishment of the Branch of Planning in 1931. Conrad L. Wirth,
who had been associated with the National Capital Park and Planning
Commission in the acquisition of land for the park system of Washington,
D. C., was named assistant director in charge of the new unit, which
took over the functions of the former Branch of Lands with the exception
of land acquisition, which was transferred to Office of Chief
Through several stages of growth, the Branch of
Planning has been assigned additional functions during the years, and is
now called the Branch of Recreation, Land Planning and State
Cooperation. It has charge of the advance land planning of the national
system, and to it are referred, for investigation and report, all
proposals for additions or extensions to the system. In making these
studies the Branch usually calls upon other branches of the Service to
collaborate on wildlife, historical, forestry, or other phases of the
As a basis for the selection of areas for addition to
the national park system, studies are conducted in the recreational use
of land primarily to determine their relative values from a national
standpoint. This involves research, field investigations and the
assembling and analysis of data regarding scenic or landscape values,
physiography, vegetation, wildlife, history, archeology, and geology as
factors in the outdoor recreational environment. On the basis of
findings through these general preliminary studies, investigations, of
specific areas are conducted by the Branch, or caused to be conducted by
other branches. From the assembled data recommendations are made for
areas to be established as national parks, international parks, national
battlefield parks, national historical parks, national military parks,
national monuments, national battlefield sites, national historic sites,
national cemeteries, national memorials, national seashores, national
parkways and extensive trail systems, and additions to or abandonment of
such existing areas.
Upon the approval of a specific recommendation, the
necessary data are assembled, the plan of action is outlined and
presented to the Office of Chief Counsel for the handling of the
necessary legal procedure. When an area is authorized by Congress for
addition to the system, negotiations are directed for the final
adjustment of boundaries within the limits authorized, and cooperation
is given to the Office of Chief Counsel in the acquisition of lands.
All advance planning programs, master plans and
development plans pertaining to the national park system are reviewed
for conformance with planning policies of the service. If such plans
conform to Service policies they are concurred in by the Supervisor of
Recreation and Land Planning (whose title was changed from assistant
director) and referred to the Director for approval.
It is also the duty of the Branch to study and
negotiate proposed changes in nomenclature in the areas administered by
the Service, in cooperation with the U. S. Board of Geographical
Information and data are assembled by the Branch
concerning national parks of other countries for comparative study. This
information is obtained direct from the foreign countries or by
cooperation with the Department of State.
When Federal cooperation was extended to the states
in 1933 for park and recreation area development through CCC and relief
labor and funds, the Branch was given charge of these activities. As
Supervisor of Recreation and Land Planning, Mr. Wirth is the
administrative officer of the Service immediately in charge of CCC and
emergency relief-financed work in national parks and monuments, state,
county and metropolitan parks and recreation areas. As a member of the
Advisory Council of the CCC, he represents the entire Department of the
Interior in its relations with the Civilian Conservation Corps.
The Branch of Recreation, Land Planning and State
Cooperation also has charge of the Park, Parkway and Recreational-Area
State Park Acreage has Doubled Under the Federal Aid
Program for Planning and Development.
The most extensive participation by the Service in
conservation for recreation outside the Federal field has been in
progress since April 1933 when various bureaus of the Department were
assigned to give technical supervision to work projects of the Civilian
Conservation Corps. The National Park Service was designated to
supervise the work of the Corps not only on areas of the national park
system, but on state, county and metropolitan parks and recreation areas
in cooperation with the state and local governments administering these
areas. A little later the Service participated in park development
projects on non-Federal areas, with labor paid from relief funds, and
undertook the development of 46 Federal recreational demonstration area
projects in 24 states, on which both CCC and relief labor is used.
When the CCC program was started in April 1933, Fire
Control Expert John D. Coffman was called to Washington from the Pacific
Coast to take charge of National Park Service participation. Later that
year, when it became apparent that the state park CCC work supervised by
the Service would develop into a large program, a separate division was
established within the Branch of Planning under Mr. Wirth. Mr. Coffman,
however, continued to supervise both CCC and Civil Works Administration
projects on areas of the national park system. The State Park ECW
organization was similar to the national park organization, complete
with facilities and personnel for the planning and supervision of all
phases of work operations, including engineering, historical, wildlife,
Because of the spread of these projects throughout
the United States, it was necessary to establish a regional plan of
operation of the State Park ECW organization. At first there were four
regions set up, and soon after a fifth was added. Later, eight regions
were established, but finally, the number was reduced again to four.
This organization handled both CCC and ERA work programs in state,
county and metropolitan parks and recreational demonstration areas.
On January 15, 1936, a major change in the
organizational set-up for handling CCC and ERA operations was made when
these activities in both national park system and state and local park
areas were combined under the Branch of Recreation, Land Planning and
State Cooperation on the regional basis. Then, on August 15, 1937 the
entire National Park Service was regionalized on the basis of the
existing four regions. This combined regular national park work,
national park CCC and ERA, state cooperative CCC and ERA, and
recreational demonstration area CCC and ERA work under a single
In handling CCC work on non-Federal areas, the
Service maintains relationship with the states, counties or
municipalities through individuals known as "park authorities" who
represent the local park administering bodies. Usually the park
authority is the head or executive officer of a park commission. He
makes the application for assignment of a CCC camp to a park, initiates
the work projects, and places them before the National Park Service for
its approval. Work done with CCC or relief funds on national parks and
monuments is in the charge of the park superintendent or monument
Recreational Demonstration Areas
A new type of recreational facility came into being
in the recreational demonstration areas, in the development of which the
Service is turning land unsuited to agricultural or industrial purposes
into areas for recreation and enjoyment for millions of people of the
large population centers. Until August 1, 1936, when development of the
46 projects in 24 states was turned over entirely to the Service by the
President, the program had been carried out by this Service in
cooperation with the Resettlement Administration which had handled the
phase of land acquisition. Under that arrangement the Service had the
job of developing the recreational facilities on the areas. Now,
however, the entire program rests with the Service for acquisition of
land and development of facilities.
Recreational demonstration areas are wholly Federal
Government projects. In these areas, many of which are among the finest
woodland and mountain tracts in the country, organized camps are being
built for boys, girls, and family groups. Central dining and recreation
halls are provided, and each camp is laid out in several units, each
consisting of a unit lodge, unit latrine, and sleeping cabins for staff
and campers. In addition, portions of these areas are held as wildlife
sanctuaries, and other portions of them are developed for day use of the
general public. With the exception of a few, the recreational
demonstration areas may eventually be turned over to the states for
On December 1, 1935, the National Park Service
entered into an agreement with the Work Projects Administration under
which the Service assumed responsibility for planning and technical
supervision of the work programs of 41 Work Projects Administration work
camps. The program was undertaken at the request of state, county and
municipal agencies sponsoring the camps, and with the concurrence of the
WPA. The work provides for an extension of the services rendered to
states, counties and municipalities by the Service in the coordinated
and planned development of recreational areas for public use and the
conservation of natural resources. On August 1, 1936, through an order
by the President allocating funds direct from the relief appropriation
for the operation of these camps, this program was transferred entirely
to the control of the National Park Service, and the camps are now known
as National Park Service Work Camps.
The most momentous piece of legislation in recent
years affecting the park and recreation movement was a direct result of
the activities of the Service outside the Federal field demonstrating
the effectiveness of Federal and state cooperation in related
conservation and recreation work. This was the Park, Parkway and
Recreation Study Act, approved by the President June 23, 1936. The Act
authorized the Park, Parkway and Recreational-Area Study which is now
being made cooperatively by the states and the National Park Service,
and gave the consent of Congress to any two or more states to negotiate
and enter into compacts or agreements with one another with reference to
planning, establishing, developing, improving and maintaining any park,
parkway or recreation areas. Such compacts or agreements shall be
effective when approved by the legislatures of the several states
involved, and by Congress. It further provides that "for the purpose of
developing coordinated and adequate public park, parkway, and
recreational-area facilities for the people of the United States, the
Secretary (of the Interior) is authorized to aid the several States and
political subdivisions thereof in planning such areas therein, and in
cooperating with one another to accomplish these ends." It is stipulated
that such aid shall be made available "through the National Park Service
acting in cooperation with such State agencies or agencies of political
subdivisions of States as the Secretary deems best." Thus was Federal
and state cooperation in park and recreation work placed on a permanent
The Service further extended its influence in the
field of public recreation when the Secretary, on February 4, 1937,
authorized establishment of the United States Travel Bureau. This Bureau
cooperates with the states and with the travel industry in coordinating
sources of travel information for the public, for the purpose of
stimulating travel to and within the United States. It is hoped that
legislation will be adopted by Congress setting up a National Travel
Board, composed of American experts in the field of travel promotion, to
recommend policies for the Bureau's activities.
The Future of Parks and Recreation
Probably the most singular thing about the state park
program is the growth of these areas and systems throughout the country.
State park acreage in the United States has increased tremendously since
the inception of this work. Prior to 1933 it totaled 965,057 acres,
exclusive of the Adirondack and Catskill State Forest Preserves of
2,345,634 acres in New York. By June 30, 1959 the total was
approximately 1,918,863 acres, exclusive of the Adirondack and Catskill
Preserves, showing an increase of some 953,806 acres, or practically 100
per cent. Since 1933 there has been an increase of about 581 park areas
in 45 states, and these now number some 1,400 areas.
The value of the work program carried out in national
and state parks through the CCC and with emergency funds could hardly be
over estimated. For many years the gravest problem confronting the
National Park Service in its responsibility for proper administration of
the national parks and monuments was the lack of funds to carry out
certain much needed measures for conservation and protection. The very
same problem confronted those charged with care and development of state
parks and related areas. Prior to the CCC, work programs were laid out
in accordance with regular appropriations which, while sufficient to
meet immediate requirements, did not allow much for major undertakings
looking to long-term development. It had long been the rule of the
Service that development plans for national parks and monuments must be
kept six years ahead of date in order to provide a full program of work
in the event that appropriations were enlarged in any year. This labor
had its reward when, almost overnight, special funds were released and
CCC and other manpower made available for important park work. So vast
were these resources that the six year programs then existing were
completed and even extended in many parks.
The rapid growth of the park and recreation movement
in the United States, principally as the result of the impetus given by
such Federal assistance as described above, has brought those engaged in
this program to a truer appreciation of the meaning of conservation. As
pointed out earlier, the term "conservation" was first applied to
conserving the resources of the Nation which were important industrially
or agriculturally. It was given a much broader meaning when later
applied to holding and protecting the resources of land and water which
were valuable chiefly for recreation.
From the way in which use of the facilities provided
for outdoor recreation has demonstrated the necessity of this type of
Government service to the people, it is realized now that conservation
has broader meanings even than those which connect it with the economic
and scenic resources of the country.
The resources of the Nation, which constitute its
wealth, include the human as well as the material and the economic. Most
important of all is this human wealth, to which all the other resources
are dedicated. Recreation, therefore, is highly important as a part of
the conservation of the human wealth. Through recreation, our people
gain relief from the pressure of modern life with the heavy demands of
its vocational activities. Our plan of living is gradually changing so
that work is crowded into fewer hours and done at higher speed, leaving
more hours of complete separation from one's job. With our living
organized in this way, there is danger of a lack of balance between our
industrial and recreational activities. It is toward a balance in this
respect that our national recreation program is moving. The future calls
for planning on three fronts: (1) the park and recreational area system,
(2) access and travel, and (3) use and direction.
The last score of years has been steady extension and
development of both the national park system and the state park systems.
The most widespread development of state parks and recreation areas, as
already explained, has occurred since 1933 when Federal aid in the form
of money, manpower, and technical assistance was made available to the
states for the first time for such work. Access and travel to park and
recreation areas is being assisted by the National Park Service through
the United States Travel Bureau. As to direction and use, the Service
has recognized from its establishment that only through proper
assistance and direction can the public make the best use of
recreational areas. Therefore, it has always been the policy of the
Service to provide adequate assistance and information for visitors to
the national parks and monuments through the services of rangers and
ranger naturalists, proper marking of trails and points of interest, and
the educational and informational publications of the Service. This same
policy should be applied to the development of a national recreational
program on the ground that this phase of the movement is essential to
make recreation a contribution to producing a whole individual by
assisting the individual to achieve proper social adjustment in order
that he may live a full, useful, and complete life.
The National Park Service sees its future
participation in the Nation-wide park and recreational movement in the
light of the necessity for cooperative planning and direction for the
advancement of such a program. As the Federal Government has assisted
other important Nation-wide movements through financial aid and
technical advice to the states and local governments, so it can assist
this movement by providing the impetus which would be lacking were the
states to embark on separate, individual programs without relation to
one another. Federal and state cooperation in park and recreation work
has become a firmly established practice since 1933. It is authorized by
law under Act of Congress. Therefore, the ground work has been laid and
the way is open for such cooperation to achieve the objective of a
national recreation program as a contribution to the conservation of the
human wealth of the Nation.
In the growth of this national recreation plan in the
future, the position of the National Park Service will in general be
that of technical consultant or adviser as it has been functioning up to
the present time. This is indicated by the fact that the states have
come to look upon this Service as the recreational authority of the
Nation, to which they can turn for guidance in the planning and
development of their parks and recreational area systems and
When it was established, the National Park Service
shouldered great responsibilities in administering and protecting the
country's national parks and monuments. Those responsibilities have been
enlarged until today the Service, through its cooperation with the
states in their park development work, is recognized as the highest
authority in the rapidly growing field of public recreation. To this
broad work it contributes not only its resources of technical knowledge
and experience, but the high ideals of public service with which it was
stamped in the beginning by those who fostered its establishment out of
love of the Nation's richest treasuresthe National Parks.
Source of Material
A large part of the material for this publication was
obtained through interviews with Service officials. Much of it was also
contributed, on request, by the various Branches of the Service.
Books and reports from which other material was drawn
include the following:
First Annual Report of the National Park Service,
Annual Report of the Director of the National Park
Service to the Secretary of the Interior for the Fiscal Year ended June
The Historical Background of the National Parks and
the National Park Service, by Isabelle F. Story, Park Service Bulletin,
Volume VI, Number 10, December 1936.
Service Monographs of the United States Government,
No. 11, "The National Park Service," The Brookings Institution.
Research and Education in the National Parks, by Dr.
Harold C. Bryant, National Park Service.
Reports of the Committees on Study of Educational
Problems in the National Parks: Preliminary Report, January 9, 1929;
Final Report, November 27, 1929.
Oh, Ranger! by Horace M. Albright and Frank J.
Parks, National and State, by John C. Merriam.
The Yellowstone National Park, by H. M.
One Hundred Years in Yosemite, by Dr. Carl P.
Russell, National Park Service.
The Department of the Interior, its History and
Proper Functions, by Louis C. Cramton, special attorney, Department of
Fauna Series No. 1, by George M. Wright, Joseph S.
Dixon, and Ben H. Thompson, National Park Service.
An Act for the Preservation of
American Antiquities, Approved June 8, 1906 (34 STAT. 225)
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of
Representatives of the United States of America in Congress
assembled, That any person who shall appropriate, excavate, injure,
or destroy any historic or prehistoric ruin or monument, or any object
of antiquity, situated on lands owned or controlled by the Government of
the United States, without the permission of the Secretary of the
department of the Government having jurisdiction over the lands on which
said antiquities are situated, shall, upon conviction, be fined in a sum
of not more than five hundred dollars or be imprisoned for a period of
not more than ninety days, or shall suffer both fine and imprisonment,
in the discretion of the court. (U.S.C., title 16, sec 433.)
Sec. 2. That the President of the United States is
hereby authorized, in his discretion, to declare by public proclamation
historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other
objects of historic or scientific interest that are situated upon the
lands owned or controlled by the Government of the United States to be
national monuments, and may reserve as a part thereof parcels of land,
the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area
compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be
Provided, That when such objects are situated
upon a tract covered by a bona fide unperfected claim or held in private
ownership, the tracts, or so much thereof as may be necessary for the
proper care and management of the object, may be relinquished to the
Government, and the Secretary of the Interior is hereby authorized to
accept the relinquishment of such tracts in behalf of the Government of
the United States. (U.S.C., title 16, sec. 451.)
Sec. 3. That permits for the examination of ruins,
the excavation of archaeological sites, and the gathering of objects of
antiquity upon the lands under their respective jurisdictions may be
granted by the Secretaries of the Interior, Agriculture, and War to
institutions which they may deem properly qualified to conduct such
examination, excavation, or gathering, subject to such rules and
regulations as they may prescribe: Provided, That the
examinations, excavations, and gatherings are undertaken for the benefit
of reputable museums, universities, colleges, or other recognized
scientific or educational institutions, with a view to increasing the
knowledge of such objects, and that the gatherings shall be made for
permanent preservation in public museums. (U.S.C., title 16, sec
Sec. 4. That the Secretaries of the departments
aforesaid shall make and publish from time to time uniform rules and
regulations for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this act.
(u.s.c., title 16, sec. 432.)
An Act to Establish A National
Park Service, and For Other Purposes, Approved August 25, 1916 (39 Stat.
535), As Amended by the Acts Approved June 2, 1920 (41 Stat. 731, 732),
and March 7, 1928 (45 STAT. 200, 235)
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of
Representatives of the United States of America in Congress
assembled, That there is hereby created in the Department of the
Interior a service to be called the National Park Service, which shall
be under the charge of a director, who shall be appointed by the
Secretary and who shall receive a salary of $4,500 per annum. There
shall also be appointed by the Secretary the following assistants and
other employees at the salaries designated: One assistant director, at
$2,500 per annum; one chief clerk, at $2,000 per annum; one draftsman,
at $1,800 per annum; one messenger, at $600 per annum; and, in addition
thereto; such other employees as the Secretary of the Interior shall
deem necessary: Provided, That not more than $8,100 annually
shall be expended for salaries of experts, assistants, and employees
within the District of Columbia not herein specifically enumerated
unless previously authorized by law. The service thus established shall
promote and regulate the use of the Federal areas known as national
parks, monuments, and reservations hereinafter specified by such means
and measures as conform to the fundamental purpose of the said parks,
monuments, and reservations, which purpose is to conserve the scenery
and the natural and historic objects and the wild life therein and to
provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means
as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future
Sec. 2. That the director shall, under the direction
of the Secretary of the Interior, have the supervision, management, and
control of the several national parks and national monuments which are
now under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Interior, and of the
Hot Springs Reservation in the State of Arkansas, and of such other
national parks and reservations of like character as may be hereafter
created by Congress: Provided, That in the supervision,
management, and control of national monuments contiguous to national
forests the Secretary of Agriculture may cooperate with said National
Park Service to such extent as may be requested by the Secretary of the
Sec. 3. That the Secretary of the Interior shall make
and publish such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or
proper for the use and management of the parks, monuments, and
reservations under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, and
any violation of any of the rules and regulations authorized by this Act
shall be punished by a fine of not more than $500 or imprisonment for
not exceeding six months, or both, and be adjudged to pay all cost of
the proceedings. He may also upon terms and conditions to be fixed by
him, sell or dispose of timber in those cases where in his judgment the
cutting of such timber is required in order to control the attacks of
insects or disease or otherwise conserve the scenery or the natural or
historic objects in any such park, monument, or reservation. He may also
provide in his discretion for the destruction of such animals and of
such plant life as may be detrimental to the use of any of said parks,
monuments, or reservations. He may also grant privileges, leases, and
permits for the use of land for the accommodation of visitors in the
various parks, monuments, or other reservations herein provided for, but
for periods not exceeding twenty years; and no natural curiosities,
wonders, or objects or interest shall be leased, rented, or granted to
anyone on such terms as to interfere with free access to them by the
public: Provided, however, That the Secretary of the Interior
may, under such rules and regulations and on such terms as he may
prescribe, grant the privilege to graze livestock within any national
park, monument, or reservation herein referred to when in his judgment
such use is not detrimental to the primary purpose for which such park,
monument, or reservation was created, except that this provision shall
not apply to the Yellowstone National Park: And provided further,
That the Secretary of the Interior may grant said privileges, leases,
and permits and enter into contracts relating to the same with
responsible persons, firms, or corporations without advertising and
without securing competitive bids: And provided further, That no
contract, lease, permit, or privilege granted shall be assigned or
transferred by such grantees, permittees, or licensees, without the
approval of the Secretary of the Interior first obtained in writing:
And provided further, That the Secretary may, in his discretion,
authorize such grantees, permittees, or licensees to execute mortgages
and issue bonds, shares of stock, and other evidences of interest in or
indebtedness upon their rights, properties, and franchises for the
purposes of installing, enlarging, or improving plant and equipment and
extending facilities for the accommodation of the public within such
national parks and monuments.
Sec. 4. That nothing in this Act contained shall
affect or modify the provisions of the Act approved February fifteenth,
nineteen hundred and one, entitled "An Act relating to rights of way
through certain parks, reservations, and other public lands."
An Act to Provide for the
Preservation of Historic Sites, Buildings, Objects, and Antiquities of
National Significance, and For Other Purposes
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of
Representatives of the United States of America in Congress
assembled, That it is hereby declared that it is a national policy
to preserve for public use historic sites, buildings and objects of
national significance for the inspiration and benefit of the people of
the United States.
Sec. 2. The Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter
referred to as the Secretary), through the National Park Service, for
the purpose of effectuating the policy expressed in section 1 hereof,
shall have the following powers and perform the following duties and
(a) Secure, collate, and preserve drawings, plans,
photographs, and other data of historic and archaeologic sites,
buildings, and objects.
(b) Make a survey of historic and archaeologic sites,
buildings, and objects for the purpose of determining which possess
exceptional value as commemorating or illustrating the history of the
(c) Make necessary investigations and researches in
the United States relating to particular sites, buildings, or objects to
obtain true and accurate historical and archaeological facts and
information concerning the same.
(d) For the purpose of this Act, acquire in the name
of the United States by gift, purchase, or otherwise any property,
personal or real, or any interest or estate therein, title to any real
property to be satisfactory to the Secretary: Provided, That no
such property which is owned by any religious or educational
institution, or which is owned or administered for the benefit of the
public shall be so acquired without the consent of the owner:
Provided further, That no such property shall be acquired or
contract or agreement for the acquisition thereof made which will
obligate the general fund of the Treasury for the payment of such
property, unless or until Congress has appropriated money which is
available for that purpose.
(e) Contract and make cooperative agreements with
States, municipal subdivisions, corporations, associations, or
individuals, with proper bond where deemed advisable, to protect,
preserve, maintain, or operate any historic or archaeologic building,
site, object, or property used in connection therewith for public use,
regardless as to whether the title thereto is in the United States:
Provided, That no contract or cooperative agreement shall be made
or entered into which will obligate the general fund of the Treasury
unless or until Congress has appropriated money for such purpose.
(f) Restore, reconstruct, rehabilitate, preserve, and
maintain historic or prehistoric sites, buildings, objects, and
properties of national historical or archaeological significance and
where deemed desirable establish and maintain museums in connection
(g) Erect and maintain tablets to mark or commemorate
historic or prehistoric places and events of national historical or
(h) Operate and manage historic and archaeologic
sites, buildings, and properties acquired under the provisions of this
Act together with lands and subordinate buildings for the benefit of the
public, such authority to include the power to charge reasonable
visitation fees and grant concessions, leases, or permits for the use of
land, building space, roads, or trails when necessary or desirable
either to accommodate the public or to facilitate administration:
Provided, That such concessions, leases, or permits, shall be let
at competitive bidding, to the person making the highest and best
(i) When the Secretary determines that it would be
administratively burdensome to restore, reconstruct, operate, or
maintain any particular historic or archaeologic site, building, or
property donated to the United States through the National Park Service,
he may cause the same to be done by organizing a corporation for that
purpose under the laws of the District of Columbia or any State.
(j) Develop an educational program and service for
the purpose of making available to the public facts and information
pertaining to American historic and archaeologic sites, buildings, and
properties of national significance. Reasonable charges may be made for
the dissemination of any such facts or information.
(k) Perform any and all acts, and make such rules and
regulations not inconsistent with this Act as may be necessary and
proper to carry out the provisions thereof. Any person violating any of
the rules and regulations authorized by this Act shall be punished by a
fine of not more than $500 and be adjudged to pay all cost of the
Sec. 3. A general advisory board to be known as the
"Advisory Board on National Parks, Historic Sites, Buildings, and
Monuments" is hereby established, to be composed of not to exceed eleven
persons, citizens of the United States, to include representatives
competent in the fields of history, archaeology, architecture, and human
geography, who shall be appointed by the Secretary and serve at his
pleasure. The members of such board shall receive no salary but may be
paid expenses incidental to travel when engaged in discharging their
duties as such members.
It shall be the duty of such board to advise on any
matters relating to national parks and to the administration of this Act
submitted to it for consideration by the Secretary. It may also
recommend policies to the Secretary from time to time pertaining to
national parks and to the restoration, reconstruction, conservation, and
general administration of historic and archaeologic sites, buildings,
Sec. 4. The Secretary, in administering this Act, is
authorized to cooperate with and may seek and accept the assistance of
any Federal, State, or municipal department or agency, or any
educational or scientific institution, or any patriotic association, or
(b) When deemed necessary, technical advisory
committees may be established to act in an advisory capacity in
connection with the restoration or reconstruction of any historic or
prehistoric building or structure.
(c) Such professional and technical assistance may be
employed without regard to the civil-service laws, and such service may
be established as may be required to accomplish the purposes of this Act
and for which money may be appropriated by Congress or made available by
gifts for such purpose.
Sec. 5. Nothing in this Act shall be held to deprive
any State, or political subdivision thereof, of its civil and criminal
jurisdiction in and over lands acquired by the United States under this
Sec. 6. There is authorized to be appropriated for
carrying out the purposes of this Act such sums as the Congress may from
time to time determine.
Sec. 7. The provisions of this Act shall control if
any of them are in conflict with any other Act or Acts relating to the
same subject matter.
Approved, August 21, 1935.
An Act to Authorize A Study of the
Park, Parkway, and Recreational-Area Programs in the United States, and
For Other Purposes
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of
Representatives of the United States of America in Congress
assembled, That the Secretary of the Interior (hereinafter referred
to as the "Secretary") is authorized and directed to cause the National
Park Service to make a comprehensive study, other than on lands under
the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture, of the public park,
parkway, and recreational-area programs of the United States, and of the
several States and political subdivisions thereof, and of the lands
throughout the United States which are or may be chiefly valuable as
such areas, but no such study shall be made in any State without the
consent and approval of the State officials, boards, or departments
having jurisdiction over such lands and park areas. The said study shall
be such as, in the judgment of the Secretary, will provide data helpful
in developing a plan for coordinated and adequate public park, parkway,
and recreational-area facilities for the people of the United States. In
making the said study and in accomplishing any of the purposes of this
Act, the Secretary is authorized and directed, through the National Park
Service, to seek and accept the cooperation and assistance of Federal
departments or agencies having jurisdiction of lands belonging to the
United States, and may cooperate and make agreements with and seek and
accept the assistance of other Federal agencies and instrumentalities,
and of States and political subdivisions thereof and the agencies and
instrumentalities of either of them.
Sec. 2. For the purpose of developing coordinated and
adequate public park, parkway, and recreational-area facilities for the
people of the United States, the Secretary is authorized to aid the
several States and political subdivisions thereof in planning such areas
therein, and in cooperating with one another to accomplish these ends.
Such aid shall be made available through the National Park Service
acting in co-operation with such State agencies or agencies of political
subdivisions of States as the Secretary deems best.
Sec. 3. The consent of Congress is hereby given to
any two or more States to negotiate and enter into compacts or
agreements with one another with reference to planning, establishing,
developing, improving, and maintaining any park, parkway, or
recreational area. No such compact or agreement shall be effective until
approved by the legislatures of the several States which are parties
thereto and by the Congress of the United States.
Sec. 4. As used in sections 1 and 2 of this Act the
term "State" shall be deemed to include Hawaii, Alaska, Puerto Rico, the
Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia.
Approved, June 23, 1936.
Adams, Chas. C., 1925. Ecological conditions in
national forests and national parks. Sci. Monthly, June 1925, 20, pp.
561-593, 20 figs.
Albright, Horace M., and Taylor, Frank J., 1928. "Oh,
Ranger!" A book about the national parks. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford
Univ., Calif., xii, 178 pp., 33 illus., numerous sketches.
Allen, E. T., and Day, A. L., 1935. Hot springs of
the Yellowstone National Park. Carnegie Institution of Washington,
Washington, D. C., xviii, 525 pp., 216 figs.
Allen, G. F., 1922. Forests of Mount Rainier National
Park, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 32 pp., illus.
Arnold, Fred H., 1935. From Commercial to
Recreational Forester. Jour. of Forestry, xxxiii, pp. 662-667.
Ashton, Ruth, 1933. Plants of Rocky Mountain National
Park. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., iv, 157 pp.,
Atwood, Wallace W., 1935. The glacial history of
Crater Lake National Park. Jour. of Geology, 43, pp. 142-168, 24
Bailey, Vernon, 1928. Animal life of the Carlsbad
Cavern. Monographs of the American Society of Mammalogists, No. 3.
Williams & Wilkins Co., Baltimore, lid., xiii, 195 pp., 67 figs.
Brockman, C. Frank, 1933. The forests of Mount
Rainier. Natural History, 33, pp. 523-532, illus.
Brown, Clair, 1937. Ferns and flowering plants of
Isle Royale, Michigan. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 90
pp., 21 figs.
Bryant, Harold C., 1935. Conservation policies of the
National Park Service. School Science & Mathematics, 35, No. 6, pp.
Bryant, Harold C., 1932. Great outdoor universities.
Jour. Adult Education, June, 1932, pp. 3-8.
Bryant, Harold C., 1954. Museum development in the
National parks. Amer. Civic Annual, 5, pp. 40-44.
Bryant, Harold C., 1925. Nature guiding. Amer. Nature
Society, Wash., D. C., Bull. 17, 12 pp.
Bryant, Harold C. and Atwood, W. W., Jr., 1955.
Research and education in the national parks. Government Printing
Office, 66 pp., illus.
Bumpus, H. C., 1930. Museum Work in the National
Parks. The Museum News, V. 7, No. 14.
Bumpus, H. C., 1930. Outdoor Education. The part
played by our National Parks. Hobbies, Vol. 10, No. 10.
Bunnell, Lafayette H., 1911. Discovery of Yosemite
and the Indian War of 1815 which led to that event. Gerlicter, Los
Angeles, Calif., 355 pp., 34 pls., 1 map.
Butler, Ovid, 1935. American conservation in picture
and story. Amer. Forestry Assoc., Washington, D. C., 144 pp., illus.
Cahalane, V. H., 1938. A wildlife picture of Olympic
National Park. Nat'l Parks Bull. V. 14, No. 66. Nat'l Parks Asso.
Cameron, Jenks, 1922. The National Park Service, its
history, activities, and organization. D. Appleton & Co., New York,
xii, 172 pp.
Carr, Win. H., 1927. Signs along the trail. American
Museum of Natural History, New York, 28 pp.
Chatelain, Verne E., 1936. Archeology and historic
sites, objectives. American Planning and Civic Annual, pp. 39-43.
Chatelain, Verne E., 1935. History and our national
parks. American Planning and Civic Annual, pp. 33-36.
Chatelain, Verne E., 1934. National history told by
parks and monuments. American Civic Annual, V, 36-40.
Chittenden, H. M., 1934. The Yellowstone National
Park, historical and descriptive. R. Clarke Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, x,
Coffman, John D., 1937. How Much and What Kind of
Forest Land Should be Devoted Exclusively to Recreation and Aesthetics?
Journal of Forestry, xxxv, pp. 210-214.
Coffman, John D., 1932. Opportunities in park work.
Jour. of Forestry, xxx, pp. 187-189.
Coffman, John D., 1935. The Relationship of
Recreational Foresters to the Forestry Profession. Journal of Forestry,
xxxiii, pp. 658-661.
Committee on Conservation of Wildlife Resources,
1936. Wildlife restoration and conservation. Proc. N. A. Wildlife
Conference, Government Printing Office, xvi, 675 pp., illus.
Connery, Robert H., 1935. Governmental problems in
wildlife conservation, Columbia University Press, 250 pp.
Coombs, Howard A., 1956. The geology of Mount Rainier
National Park. University of Washington, Pub. 3, pp. 135-212, 28 figs.,
Cooper, Win. S., 1923. The recent ecological history
of Glacier Bay, Alaska. Ecology, 4, pp. 93-128.
Cramton, Louis C., 1932. Early history of Yellowstone
National Park and its relation to national park policies. National Park
Service, 146 pp.
Darton, N. H., 1921. Story of the Grand Canyon; a
popular illustrated account of its rocks and origin. Fred Harvey Co.,
Kansas City, Mo., 79 pp., illus.
Dellenbaugh, F. S., 1926. A canyon voyage. A
narrative of the second Powell expedition down the Green Colorado River
from Wyoming and the explorations on land in the years 1871 and 1872.
Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn., xxviii, 277 pp., illus.
Dept. of Interior, 1938. Park and recreation
structures, by Albert H. Good, Architectural Consultant, National Park
Service. Government Printing Office, 3 parts, 604 pp., illus.
Dept. of Interior, 1935. Park structures and
facilities. Quinn and Boden Co., Rahway, N. J., v, 246 pp., illus.
Dixon, Joseph S., 1938. Birds and mammals of Mt.
McKinley National Park, Alaska; Fauna Series No. 3, National Park
Service. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., xii, 236 pp.,
Fewkes, J. W., 1909. Antiquities of the Mesa Verde
National Park. Bur. American Ethnology, viii, 57 pp., 21 pls., 37
Flett, J. B., 1922. Features of the flora of Mount
Rainier National Park. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 48
Flickinger, B. Floyd, 1936. Historical methods.
American Planning and Civic Annual, pp. 48-53.
Frothingham, Robert, 1932. Trails through the golden
west. Robert McBride & Co., New York, x, 272 pp.
Fry, Walter, and White, John R., 1938. Big Trees.
Stanford University Press, California, xii, 114 pp., 20 illus., map on
Fryxell, Fritiof M., 1930. Glacial features of
Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Augustana Book Concern, Rock Island, Ill., 129
Fryxell, Fritiof M., 1938. William H. Jackson,
Photographer, Artist, Explorer. The American Annual of Photography 1939,
American Photographic Publishing Co., Boston, Mass., vol. 53, pp.
Gillmor, F. and Wetherill, L. W., 1934. Traders to
the Navajos. Houghton Mifflin, New York, 265 pp., illus.
Good, Albert H., 1938. Park and Recreation
Structures. National Park Service, Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C., 3 vol., 604 pp., illus.
Goodwin, William A. R., 1930. Colonial Williamsburg.
American Civic Annual, II, 27-29.
Grinnell, Joseph; Dixon, Joseph; and Linsdale, Jean
M., 1930. Vertebrate natural history of a section of northern California
through the Lassen Peak region. Contribution from the Museum of
Vertebrate Zoology of the University of California. University of
California Press, Berkeley, Calif., v, 594 pp., 181 figs., 1 map.
Grinnell, Joseph, and Storer, T. I., 1916. Animal
life as an asset of national parks. Science, n.s., 44: pp. 375-380.
Grinnell, Joseph, and Storer, T. I., 1924. Animal
life in the Yosemite. University of California Press, Berkeley,
California, xviii, 752 pp., 60 pls., 65 figs., 2 maps.
Hall, Ansel F., 1921. Handbook of Yosemite National
Park. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, xiii, 347 pp., illus.
Hall, Harvey M., and Hall, Carlotta C., 1912. A
Yosemite flora. Paul Eder, San Francisco, vii, 282 pp., 11 pls., 171
Hewett, E. L., 1930. Ancient life in the American
southwest. Bobbs Merrill Co., New York, xvii, 392 pp., illus.
Hill, C. L., 1928. Forests of Yosemite, Sequoia and
General Grant National Parks, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.
C., 40 pp., illus.
Kane, J. F., 1935. Picturesque America. Fred
Gumbrecht, Brooklyn, New York, 256 pp., illus.
Lapham, Stanton C. The enchanted lake; Mount Mazama
and Crater Lake in story, history and legend. J. K. Gill Co., Portland,
Oregon, 138 pp., 21 pls.
Lee, Willis T., 1917. The geologic story of the Rocky
Mountain National Park, Colorado. Government Printing Office, 89 pp., 45
pls., 1 map.
Lee, Willis T., 1926. Stories in stone. D. Van
Nostrand Co., New York, 226 pp., illus.
Leopold, Aldo, 1925. Wilderness as a form of land
use. Journal Land and Public Utility Economics, 1, pp. 398-404.
Lutz, Frank, 1926. Nature trails. American Museum of
Natural History, New York, 36 pp.
Matthes, Francois E., 1930. Geologic history of the
Yosemite valley. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., U. S.
Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper 160, vi, 137 pp., 38 figs., 52 pls. (incl.
McDougall, W. B., and Baggley, Hernia A., 1936.
Plants of Yellowstone National Park. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C., iv, 160 pp., illus.
Merriam, John C., 1927. Inspiration and education in
national parks. National Parks Bulletin 9, pp. 3-5.
Merriam, John C., 1932. Parks, national and state.
Carnegie Institution, Washington, D. C., 19 pp.
Merriam, John C., 1931. The unity of nature as
illustrated in the Grand Canyon. Scientific Monthly, September, 33, pp.
Muir, John, 1916. The mountains of California.
Houghton Mifflin, New York, 309 pp.
Muir, John, 1916. My first summer in the Sierra.
Houghton Mifflin, New York, 272 pp.
Muir, John, 1916. Our national parks. Houghton
Mifflin, N. Y., 310 pp. National Conference on Outdoor Recreation, 1925.
Proceedings Senate Document 151. Government Printing Office, Washington,
National Park Service, 1916-1932. Annual report of
the Director of the National Park Service. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C.
Nelson, Beatrice W., 1928. State recreation; parks,
forests and game preserves. National Conference on State Parks,
Washington, D. C., xi, 436 pp., illus.
Pernot, J. F., 1916. Forests of Crater Lake National
Park. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 39 pp., illus.
Raisz, Erwin J., 1929. The scenery of Mt. Desert
Island: its origin and development. Annals New York Academy of Sciences,
vol. 31, pp. 121-186.
Rinehart, Mary Roberts, 1928. Through Glacier Park,
seeing America first with Howard Eaton. Doubleday Doran, New York, x, 92
Rolfe, Mary, 1927. Our national parks. Sanborn &
Co., New York, 320 pp., 2 vols.
Rush, Win., 1931. The northern Yellowstone elk study.
Montana Fish and Game Commission, Helena, Montana, 132 pp., 1 map.
Russell, Carl P., 1931. One hundred years in
Yosemite. Stanford University Press, Stanford University, 242 pp.
Russell, Carl P., 1938. The conservation of historic
values, National Parks Bulletin, v. 14, no. 66, National Parks
Russell, Carl P. Scientific Investigations in
Yellowstone National Park, with bibliography, 144 pp., mimeographed,
National Park Service.
Salomon, Julian Harris, 1937. The National Park
Service in the field of organized camping, National Park Service,
Schmoe, F. W., 1925. Our greatest mountain. G. P.
Putnam's Sons, New York, 366 pp., illus.
Scoyen, Eivind T. and Taylor, Frank, 1931. The
rainbow canyons. Stanford University Press, Calif., ix, 105 pp.
Shirley, James C., 1937. The redwoods of coast and
Sierra. University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 84 pp.,
Skinner, Milton P., 1925. Bears in the Yellowstone.
A. C. McClurg, Chicago, Ill., x, 158 pp., 56 illus.
Skinner, Milton P., 1925. The birds of Yellowstone
National Park. Roosevelt Wild Life Bulletin, Feb. 1925, Vol. 3, No. 1,
Roosevelt Wild Life Forest Experiment Station, Syracuse, N. Y., 192 pp.,
4 pls., 47 figs., 2 maps.
Skinner, Milton P., 1924. The Yellowstone nature
book. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, Ill, viii, 229 pp., 58 illus., 1
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the Yellowstone National Park, with descriptions of the park waters and
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A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
James F. Kieley
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
HAROLD L. ICKES, Secretary
CIVILIAN CONSERVATION CORPS
JAMES J. McENTEE, Director
Brigadier General JAMES A. ULIO
Representing the Secretary of War
CONRAD L. WIRTH
Representing the Secretary of the Interior
Representing the Secretary of Agriculture
CHESLEY W. BAILEY
Representing Veterans Administration