Research and Education in the National Parks|
by Harold C. Bryant and Wallace W. Atwood, Jr.
THE LOFTY TETONS
Viewed from the valley 7,000 feet below
the crest of the range. Giant upheavals within the earth's crust
brought this mighty range of mountains into existence. Since then
glacial sculpture and stream erosion have been at work shaping the
present landscape which makes Grand Teton National Park one of the
scenic wonderlands of the world. ©Crandall
THE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM IN THE NATIONAL PARKS
Among the most valuable of this country's assets is
the system of national parks now comprising 0.017 per cent of the total
land owned by the Government. The establishment of these reserves
constitutes one of the most important phases of the conservation
movement that has characterized our national life during the past 60
years. The people of the United States have seen the wisdom of
preserving in national ownership for posterity the conspicuous and
unique natural wonderlands of our country.
Complying with the high standards required for the
establishment of national parks a remarkable group of reserves has been
created for the benefit and enjoyment of the people. These areas are of
outstanding value to the Nation because of the permanent inspirational
and educational values contained therein. Dr. John C. Merriam, president
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, has defined the use of
national parks thus:
While the national parks serve in an important sense
as recreation areas, their primary uses extend far into that fundamental
education which concerns real appreciation of nature. Here beauty in its
truest sense receives expression and exerts its influence along with
recreation and formal education. To me the parks are not merely places
to rest and exercise and learn. They are regions where one looks through
the veil to meet the realities of nature and the unfathomable power
To provide each visitor to a national park with an
opportunity to interpret and appreciate its superlative features has
become the goal of all those interested in the highest use of national
parks and has led to the establishment of an educational program to
attain this end. In this program there is little that pertains to
classrooms, textbooks, or other formal educational methods.
The extensive educational program now found in the
national parks was brought about as the result of two factorsthe
need of the average visitor for explanations of major features and the
desire of the Park Service to find the highest use of national parks.
Both led to emphasis on proper interpretation of the features which
characterize the parks.
FIGURE 1.In the midst of a Glacier
Park flower garden. The wealth of natural science features along the
trail side is unlimited. A ranger naturalist frequently accompanies the
horseback parties. By Hileman.
Nearly every person who visits a national park does
so either out of curiosity to see some natural wonder or from a desire
to interpret and appreciate superlative features. No matter what the
motive there is always awakened a desire to have phenomena explained.
Contact with real things, with unusual things awakens a desire for
explanation, for an increase of knowledge. This awakened craving for
knowledge needs to be satisfied when the desire is uppermost.
On the other hand, the National Park Service
discovered that in fulfilling its duty to the public the educational and
inspirational opportunities must be developed to the fullest and that
appreciation of the major features must be actively carried to visitors
by means of National Park Service men who have the training to interpret
and the enthusiasm to impress the public.
As a result opportunity for improving one's knowledge
regarding park features is a stabilized service afforded the public in
all major parks. The Park Service feels that a contribution is being
made to the enrichment of the lives of the park visitor because
opportunities are provided whereby the visitor may learn about his
natural environment and the laws of life. It is a program that helps to
make education a continuous process, that emphasizes avocational
pursuits, that stimulates the proper use of leisure time.
FIGURE 2.A nature-guide party
returning from a visit to Bryce Canyon. In the background are the
well-known Queens Garden and Queens Castle. At the left is sunset Point
on which is located a small outlook station.
The exceptional opportunities for outdoor education
available in the national parks are being recognized more and more by
scientists and educators throughout the country. Each season numerous
college and university classes, science clubs, and nature organizations
visit the parks and study the superlative exhibits of geology, biology,
history, and archeology. These trips are encouraged by the Service and
every effort is made to assure these groups a worth-while program.
In addition to this educational use there has grown
up an actual educational program. Four years after the establishment of
the National Park Service in 1916, field trips and lecture programs were
offered free to all visitors to Yosemite National Park. This small
beginning, first supported by individuals keenly interested in the
educational possibilities of the parks, has grown until now there is a
complete field trip, lecture, museum, and research program in all major
national parks of the country. The history of this educational movement
from the conception of the idea to the establishment of the Branch of
Research and Education is told in a later chapter. A discussion of
accomplishments is to be considered first.
FIGURE 3.Close to the tree line in
Rocky Mountain National Park. A horseback trip into this wilderness
country is one of the finest ways to become acquainted with nature.
Courtesy The Colorado Association.
In the development of the enlarged program of
educational activities several main general policies have been followed.
Important among these are the following:
Simple, understandable interpretation of the
major features of each park to the public by means of field trips,
lectures, exhihits, and literature.
Emphasis upon leading the visitor to study the
real thing rather than to utilize second-hand information. Typical
academic methods are avoided.
Utilization of a highly trained personnel with
field experience, able to interpret to the public the laws of the
universe as exemplified in the parks, and able to develop concepts of
the laws of life useful to all.
A research program which will furnish a
continuous supply of dependable facts suitable for use in connection
with the educational program.
Never has there been an idea of making the
educational work of purely academic character. Rather has emphasis been
placed on a plan to make the work fit the outstanding
opportunitythat of stressing first-hand information. Furthermore,
the program had to be developed to fit the average park visitor.
Lectures and exhibits play their part, but enthusiastic leadership by a
nature guide who takes parties afield to study special features is the
educational contribution that is unique. The universities may afford
better classroom work, better library facilities, and better lectures,
but it is believed that nowhere can people find better objective
materials for study or receive better training in interpreting phenomena
than is afforded when the studdent is in direct contact with nature out
There is hope that new methods in adult education will
be discovered, and that the national parks will become the great
universities of the out-of-doors for which their superlative scientific
exhibits so finely equip them.
In commencing this discussion of the educational work
in the parks and monuments. it is quite appropriate to refer first to
the guided trip which has been the outstanding feature in its
popularization. There is recognition that "Nature is the supreme
school-teacher and master textbook." Walking trips, under the escort of
ranger naturalists, are routed through areas rich in the natural
phenomena especially exemplified in the park, and the features of
outstanding interest along the way are pointed out and explained. (See
figs. 4 and 5.) In parks and monuments where history is prominent in the
educational program, the ranger historians stress first-hand
acquaintance with scenes in which major human events have transpired and
in this way motivate interest in our historical heritage.
FIGURE 4. In the flower garden at the
foot of Mount Rainier. The ranger naturalist is identifying the flora
and explaining the life zones. Later he will take the party to
localities where the work of the Mount Rainier glaciers may be
Guided trips vary in length throughout the national
park system, from a few hours to those of several days' duration,
extending into the mountainous back country. This guide service is
offered in all parks where educational work is being carried on. Despite
the increase in the educational personnel, it is not possible to handle
adequately the increasingly large crowds desiring to take the nature
The method stressed is expressed in Agassiz's old
dictum : "Study nature, not books." The enthusiasm of a nature guide is
contagious. He is able to make a trail side interesting. He brings
senses seldom used into prominence. Plants are recognized by odor and
taste. Birds are recognized by call-note and song. Trees are recognized
by feeling the bark. Geological stories are made plain through careful
observation. Leading events in history are made vitally interesting
through acquaintance with historic landmarks and remains of ancient
civilizations. Too often a study of biology is sought through tedious
dissection and microscopic analysis; too seldom is there study of the
living thing in its natural environment.
FIGURE 5.At the brink of Grand
Canyon with the park naturalist. The different stages in the cutting of
the great gorge are being explained and the interesting contrasts in
vegetation pointed out.
From an educational standpoint, the method (of the
field trip has several outstanding advantages:
1. First-hand information involving all five series
is available, real experiences are gained, and better concepts
2. Common interest is gained because of the
superlative teaching materials available. There is opportunity to follow
the interest of the group. Individual attention is afforded the
3. Aesthetic and inspirational values are
FIGURE 6The auto caravan visits
Moro Rock Sequoia National Park. From this exceptionally fine outlook
point the park naturalist calls attention to the principal mountain
peaks. He also takes this opportunity to tell the visitors something of
the major geologic processes which have combined to produce the rugged
High Sierra scenery so magnificently exhibited in the eastern portion of
Nature guiding is an inspirational method of
teaching. To inspire the student to continue to observe carefully is
more important than to make new information stick in his mind. To pay a
personal visit to an historic shrine is to give a concept such as no
book can supply. As a rule, a ranger naturalist or historian has but a
couple of hours in which to impress his followers with the possibilities
of a trail side. He has done his work well if he has opened their eyes
and unstopped their cars, demonstrated how much fun it is to study
geologic and historic features and living things first hand, and left a
vision of the great natural processes involved.
It is interesting to note that in 1930 nuture-guide
service was introduced in the Canadian national parks by the Dominion
Government. According to the Canadian Department of the Interior, the
nature guides' duties "will be simply to open the eyes of the visitors
to the interesting things which most of us miss, and to explain their
meaning," and "to act as curator of the natural treasures and
curiosities of the parks, and to introduce all who are interested to the
flowers, trees, birds, butterflies, and rocks which can be seen along
the main trails within easy reach of the chief resorts."
One of the most popular innovations in the naturalist
program is known as the auto caravan. Visitors driving their own
automobiles are conducted to points of special scenic, historic, or
scientific interest. Daily caravan trips, under expert guidance of a
trained naturalist or historian, are scheduled in all of the major
national parks and the demand for this service is increasing rapidly.
FIGURE 7.An auto caravan conducted
by a ranger naturalist has stopped to observe interesting features of
the plateau vegetation at Grand Canyon National Park. Thus motorists are
given an opportunity to see and understand the natural features of the
The nature trail, carefully selected and labeled, is
proving an efficient method of helping visitors to get acquainted with
interesting geologic and biologic features. There are many who prefer
studying things quietly by themselves, and labeled rocks, trees, and
plants fulfill this requisite. In Yosemite National Park short trails
have been built and labels placed to indicate the best localities in
which glacial polish and striae may be seen. In Mount Rainier National
Park the former locations of the slowly retreating Nisqually Glacier
have been marked. This has proved very interesting and instructive to
the thousands of visitors.
While nature trails are very helpful and supplement
the guided trips in an excellent manner, they will never gain the
popularity which has come to the field trips conducted by ranger
naturalists. The chief difficulty with the nature trail is that the
animal life can not be labeled. For the naturalist there are few
limitations as to what he may bring into his field trip talks, but the
self-guiding trail will always be limited to stationary exhibits.
FIGURE 8.Entrance to the Mammoth
Nature Trail in Yellowstone National Park. Markers along the way contain
short statements, frequently illustrated, regarding the trees, flowers,
birds, and principal geologic phenomena.
The attractiveness of the label has much to do with
the success of a trail. It has been necessary to experiment for several
years before deciding on the best type of material to use and the amount
of information to place on a single label. An attempt has been made to
make the labels inconspicuous. Some trouble with collectors of labels
was experienced in Yosemite, necessitating abandonment of one trail.
This problem is not serious, however, and nature trails are increasing
in number throughout the park system. At Mount Rainier National Park
there are more than 600 metal labels used on trails.
Self-guiding nature trails are now available to the
public in all of the major parks, including Crater Lake, Glacier, Grand
Canyon, Mount Rainier, Grand Teton, Rocky Mountain, Sequoia,
Yellowstone, Yosemite, Zion, and Carlsbad Caverns. The actual number of
visitors served by these trails is not known because of the difficulty
Comparable to the nature trail is the historic trail.
The method used in marking the Yorktown battlefield in Colonial National
Monument is much the same as is employed on nature trails in western
parks. Information is supplied by attractive markers which give the
visitor the knowledge necessary to understand the historic events which
are associated with the terrain. In many national parks and monuments
the nature and historic trails are often identical, for natural and
historic phenomena frequently occur in the same setting.
EXHIBITS IN PLACE
In a number of the parks certain features along
permanent trails and roads have been labeled and termed "exhibits in
place." A good example of this is seen at Grand Canyon, where trails have been
constructed to localities where particularly important geologic features
are to be found. Figure 9 shows one of the numerous markers
calling attention to fossil shells and sponges in the Kaibab limestone.
Others are placed at localities where fossil footprints and fossil
plants may be seen. In Yosemite the metamorphic rocks near El Portal are
labeled as well as numerous other features in various parks.
FIGURE 9.Along the trail the hiker
finds interesting, instructive markers. Here his attention is being
called to the Kaibab limestone which contains seashells, corals,
sponges, and shark teeth indicating that it was laid down beneath the
A seasonal wild-flower display is to be found in
almost all national parks. By means of specially constructed exhibit
cases in certain of the parks, the flowers are kept fresh for several
days. (See fig. 10.) Exhibits are commonly located in the hotels and
lodges as well as in the museums and information offices.
The planting and labeling of a wildflower garden as a
means of acquainting the visitor with the common plants has received
consideration in recent years. In Sequoia such a garden was planted near
the museum in Giant Forest. About 70 species of wild flowers were
transplanted and labeled with metal signs. Many were brought down from
timber line and others from lower elevations, thus affording a compact,
comprehensive view of the more important plants.
FIGURE 10.A seasonal flower
display at Yosemite Museum where visitors can see and identify the park
wild flowers. A specially constructed exhibit case with running water
keeps the flowers fresh for several days. A naturalist is constantly
adding to the collection and replacing those specimens which have
At Grand Canyon near Yavapai Station a series of
gardens has been arranged which display plants from the different life
zones in the canyon. All specimens are properly labeled. Little trouble
has been experienced in making the plants grow; consequently this type
of exhibit is proving most attractive. In Glacier National Park a
wild-flower garden has been established at Many Glacier. The most
pretentious in the park system is the fine development just back of the
Yosemite Museum where living plants take the place of artificial
In the course of a trip through a national park it is
seldom that the visitor does not catch a glimpse of several different
kinds of wild animals. If one is fortunate in Yellowstone, he may see
deer, elk, antelope, and bear to his heart's content. These animals are
not always seen by the people who hurry through the park in their
automobiles, but the quiet watcher on the trails is sure to be rewarded.
At certain times of the year the visitor may see mountain sheep, bison,
and moose if he journeys into their distant retreats. In other parks the
wild life is likewise abundant and usually to be seen from roads and
FIGURE 11.A portion of the Lamar
valley buffalo herd, Yellowstone National Park. In the summer months
when the herd is far away in the range country, a number of the buffalo
are kept in a corral at Mammoth, where thousands of tourists go to see
them. If it were not for this arrangement, the buffalo would seldom be
seen by summer visitors.
Because of frequent disappointment expressed by
visitors who have failed to see the wild life which abounds in the
parks, certain of the rare animals have been captured and temporarily
kept on display. In Yosemite two mountain lions and a wild cat are kept
in a small zoo. Yellowstone has a buffalo herd and usually a few coyotes
on display in an inclosure. The general policy has been to reduce such
displays of captive animals to a minimum.
Reptiles also make a valuable educational display. At
Yosemite it has been shown that lizards and snakes may be easily kept
during a summer season and then liberated in the fall. Similar displays
of reptiles are found at Grand Canyon and Zion National Parks. By means
of such displays the old superstitions and fear of reptiles are
dispelled in the minds of visitors who have a chance to study them at
Through the medium of lectures and camp-fire talks,
much valuable information relative to the historic and scientific
features of the parks is disseminated. The talks are given by members of
the educational staff in the hotels and lodges, in community houses, at
the camp fires in the public automobile camp grounds, in the museums or
at such specialized places as the Old Faithful Geyser of Yellowstone and
at the bear-feeding grounds in many of the parks. Such discussions touch
on all phases of park educational work, including geology, vulcanology,
zoology, botany, history, and numerous other more specialized fields.
The lectures and camp-fire meetings conducted by the naturalists are all
informal and usually end in valuable discussion resulting from questions
raised by the tourists.
FIGURE 12.A lunch counter for
bears only, located in Sequoia National Park. Throughout the tourist
season crowds of people assemble at this feeding ground to watch the
"dinner party." In most parks, where bears are common, arrangements have
been made by the Park Service so that the great carnivores may be
observed without danger fo visitors. Frequently talks about the hears
are given ranger naturalists in attendance at the feeding
Among the naturalists serving in the parks there are
many who can tell the interesting stories of geology and biology with
great success. The evening talks are becoming more and more popular, as
demonstrated by the constantly increasing attendance. (See figs. 13 and 14.)
Visitors are anxious to learn more about the parks which they have
traveled so far to visit. The need is for highly trained men, who can in
simple, enthusiastic manner portray to the public the
scientific features and leave an understanding of the great truths best
exemplified in the park.
FIGURE 13.An evening around the
camp fire in Yellowstone National Park. A ranger naturalist is telling
of his experiences with game animals. The listeners are keenly
interested for they have seen many animals during the day and wish to
know more about them. ©J.E. Haynes.
An interesting innovation in Yosemite and Mesa Verde
programs has been the special Indian presentation. Local Indians give
their native dances, play their games, and sing their tribal songs.
A series of lectures by outside talent also has been
tried. Unfortunately, the LeConte Memorial Lectures under the auspices
of the Extension Division of the University of California have been
discontinued because of lack of funds. A series of lectures on the
"Past, Present, and Future of the Giant Sequoia," by Dr. Ralph W.
Chancy, was offered in July, 1929, at Sequoia National Park under the
auspices of the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
FIGURE 14.The evening camp-fire
talk in Yosemite conducted by the part naturalist. The program, always
informal, begins with a short talk on the natural phenomena of the park
and ends with the naturalist annswerinng questions. As many as 3,000
persons have been known to gather around one of these camp
MUSEUMS AND OBSERVATION
Museum development has received considerable
attention in the past few years with the result that many of the
national parks and monuments have natural history or historical museums,
even though the exhibits are not as yet adequately housed in every case.
Three of the national parks have more than one museum building each.
Yellowstone has five, Yosemite three, and Grand Canyon two. The national
monuments are not so well served, only a few of them having temporary
housing facilities for exhibits.
In Yosemite the headquarter's museum functions with
extraordinary success as a center for educational activities throughout
the year. (See fig. 15.) New exhibits are being prepared from time to
time by the museum preparators and other members of the permanent
naturalist staff. A display of living plants, arranged scientifically,
supplements the herbarium specimens.
FIGURE 15.Situated over 2,500 feet
below the Yosemite Falls, close to the wall of the canyon, is the
central museum, a gift of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial. In
addition to numerous exhibits, the museum building houses the park
library and educational headquarters.
In the open area back of the museum a replica of one
of the early Indian camps has been constructed. An old squaw occupies
the camp daily; she demonstrates the weaving of baskets, preparation
of foodstuffs, and sings Indian songs. This "live exhibit" has proved to
be of great interest to Yosemite visitors. (See fig. 16.)
FIGURE 16.The Yosemite Indians
take part in the naturalist program. Park visitors are invited to watch
the Indians at work annd learn the secrets of basket weaving. Frequently
dance programs are arranged and special ceremonies conducted.
There is much to see on the floor of the Yosemite
Valley, but for those who climb out of the gorge there is a still
greater thrill. From Glacier Point, 3,254 feet above the valley floor,
one can view the summit of the High Sierra through a sweep of 180°.
There is a little stone lookout perched on the very rim of the gorge and
here telescopes are available for those who wish to study in detail the
waterfalls and granite domes of the Yosemite region. A ranger naturalist
is in constant attendance at the trail-side station to answer questions
regarding the geology, the trees, wild life, and history of the park. On
Sentinel Dome there is another station, established solely for the study
of granite. Here the visitor may learn of the giant forces of nature
which have produced the granites of Yosemite.
In the Mariposa Grove of Big Trees a very attractive
little museum building has been constructed. (See fig. 17.) It is a
replica of an old log cabin which formerly stood in this grove of giant
sequoias. Through the activities of the park naturalist, pertinent
exhibits have been installed and the little cabin has been made the
center of educational activities in the Mariposa Grove.
FIGURE 17.The Mariposa Grove
museum in the depths of a giant sequoia forest, Yosemite National Park.
This structure, a replica of a log cabin which stood in this grove for
many years, serves as a center for educational activities in this
portion of the park. The visitors are looking at a section of a giant
sequoia tree which has been placed at the end of the museum
The greatest activity in museum construction in the
national parks has been centered in Yellowstone, where under the general
supervision of Dr. Hermon C. Bumpus, president of the Association of
American Museums, four trail-side museums and a trail-side shrine have
The Old Faithful Museum was opened to the public in
June, 1929. Near the entrance is located the information desk, presided
over by a ranger naturalist ready to answer questions. Leading from the
foyer is the museum room proper, in which exhibits are devoted to geyser
activities, the geology and physical geography of the geyser basin, and
the local fauna and flora. The visitor is invited to sit down, use
microscopes, handle and study specimens. An inclosed area open to the
sky forms a delightful auditorium, affording additional exhibit space
and an excellent location for a wild-flower garden. Evening lectures are
given here, and in the event of rain the audience finds shelter in the
covered passageway which surrounds the open-air theater.
The trail-side museum at Madison Junction, which is
located near the spot where the Washburn-Langford exploring party of
1870 proposed the establishment of the Yellowstone area as a national
park, specializes in the human history of the park. There the
information dealing with the history of Yellowstone is furnished by
means of charts, maps, transparencies, photographs, and other source
The Norris Museum is located close to the famous
geyser basin of that name, easily one of the most interesting features
of the park. Twelve miles to the northwest can be seen the Gallatin
Mountains, and close at hand the colorful steaming geyser basin. The
building is architecturally beautiful. The information desk occupies a
central position, and near it are some large rock specimens. On one side
an exhibit room contains a series of small realistic groups with
transparent backgrounds showing the fauna and flora which the visitor
has encountered on the trip from Mammoth to Norris, or anticipates what
will be seen on the next section of the loop. The opposite wing contains
material designed to explain thermic activity of the area. Charts
picture the geologic history of the region. One may learn of rock
composition and formation. In fact, a short course in petrology is
available. A relief model on the wall at the end of the wing is always a
center of attraction.
FIGURE 18.A front view of the
Fishing Bridge Museum, Yellowstone National Park. Pleasing
architectural lines and careful landscaping make this building one of
the most attractive of the entire park system.
The fourth Yellowstone museum is at the Fishing
Bridge auto camp grounds. Superbly located on a slight elevation
overlooking Lake Yellowstone, this rustic little museum takes its place
among the most attractive buildings in the park system. (See fig. 18.)
The planning of this building, as well as the ones at Norris and Yavapai
(Grand Canyon), is the work of Herbert Maier. The exhibits depict the
bird life of this locality and the interesting geology of the
Yellowstone Lake region. Installations are unique in character and add
greatly to the series of educational exhibits in Yellowstone museums. In
addition to mounted specimens of the diving birds, there are diagrams
and explanations of the anatomy which makes these birds excellent
divers. Flight mechanism is explained as a "related-story" exhibit of
the pelican group. Relief maps and diagrams with simple text, prepared
by Dr. Erwin J. Raisz, of Columbia University, make clear the geologic
story of the region. A reference library will be an additional feature.
The Fishing Bridge Museum is considered a model of what a trail-side
museum should be, both in architecture and installation.
In the woods close by the museum is an attractive
outdoor lecture amphitheater. It is equipped for illustrated talks as
well as camp fire demonstrations. (See fig. 19.) Every evening large
crowds assemble around the fire to hear the ranger naturalist give his
in formal presentation.
FIGURE 19.The attractive outdoor
amphitheater at Fishing Bridge Museum, Yellowstone National Park.
Crowds attend the evening lectures given here regularly throughout the
summer season. A special booth containing a lantern slide projector has
been constructed, and illustrated talks are now regular features of
these outdoor programs.
The trail-side shrine erected at Obsidian Cliff
describes and makes understandable this formation. Built of columnar
basalt, this unique structure presents a pleasing appearance, and by
chart and specimen tells the story of volcanic glass. (See fig 20.)
FIGURE 20.The small trail-side
shrine at Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park. This little
structure shelters several very interesting exhibits which explain the
origin of obsidian and tell the story of bow the rock contributed to the
making of fighting implements for the Indians.
To complete the educational unit, there are
contemplated a small museum at Canyon and a larger master museum at
Mammoth. The plan envisages a suitable headquarters plant at Mammoth
which will provide facilities for the educational staff and exhibits
dealing not only with the immediate region but those acting as an index
to all of the other museums comprising the unit. This master museum is
to occupy a commanding position comparable to the importance of its
service to the public. Years of collecting have made available fine
materials already on exhibition in the temporary museum. Dr. Carl P.
Russell, field naturalist, has supervised the installation of exhibits
and general museum activities.
Thus it can be seen that splendid progress has been
made in Yellowstone toward the goal of a "complete educational unit,
fully serving the needs of the public."
Development at Grand Canyon has been planned and
executed under the general direction of Dr. John C. Merriam, president
of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. At his request a number of
scientists spent several weeks at the Grand Canyon studying the problem
of interpreting this masterpiece to the public. As a result of this
careful study it was decided to erect a scientific observation station
on the rim of the canyon at Yavapai Point. Particular pains were taken
that the building should harmonize with the natural surroundings.
In the plan of the station, for it can not be called
a museum, the primary objectives are the things of interest as they
appear in the canyon, not as artificial representations. The station is
in effect a window through which one looks into the canyon from an
unusually favorable place.
Operation of the station involves two groups of aids
to the visitor; first, the parapet views arranged along the outer or
parapet wall of the observation porch (see fig. 21), and second, the
supporting exhibits of photographs and specimens in the exhibit room to
the rear of the porch.
FIGURE 21.Viewing the Grand Canyon
at close range through the telescopes erected on the parapet at Yavapai.
The station is designed to aid visitors to become acquainted. With the
principal features of the Grand Canyon not easily seen or understood
The parapet views are so arranged as to locate
features of extraordinary interest, to give closer views in many
instances by telescopes or field glasses, to give small close-up views
with photographs accompanying the telescopes, to illustrate the
localities with specimens and to point out trails by which they can be
reached. One telescope permits a view of the rushing, muddy Colorado
River, another the top of Cedar Mountain, and still others, certain rock
strata. In the boxes may be seen the tools used by the river in cutting
its channelmud, silt, sand, pebbles, and bowlders. A sample of the
water from the river shows the large amount of sediment carried. Other
boxes show specimens indicating crustal movement, oldest rocks of the
canyon, remains of ancient life, and present-day life.
A "formations column" constructed of actual rocks
brought from the strata in the canyon forms a notable exhibit at the
southwest corner of the porch. (See fig. 22.) Alongside is a "fossil
column" which shows the evidence of life that has been found in the
different horizons. A remarkable block illustrating an unconformity of
hundreds of millions of years is displayed at the rear of the
observation porch. Here also are several large sandstone slabs
exhibiting fossil footprints. Some of these are pictured in Figure
FIGURE 22.On the parapet of the
Yavapai Station, Grand Canyon National Park. At the left is a geologic
map of the region. At the extreme right is a "formations column" showing
the succession of rocks in the Grand Canyon by use of actual specimens
placed in the order in which they appear in the canyon walls.
Supporting exhibits in the interior room amplify by
means of transparencies, specimens, motion pictures, and lantern slides
the story of the canyon as told on the parapet. Exhibit cases are
oriented to correspond to the parapet views and are similarly numbered.
Automatic machines show films of the Colorado River in action.
The cutting of the Grand Canyon has made visible to
the eye one of the greatest geologic time-tables in the world. Although
it takes us but a moment to shift our glance from the depths of the
inner gorge to the canyon rim above, the time period recorded in that
mile of sediments is many hundreds of millions of years. With this
tremendous story of earth history before the visitor at Yavapai Station
there is a chance to teach geology as in no other part of the world. In
order to link this story with the physiographic history of the
surrounding country, a large airplane diagram of the entire canyon
region has been prepared and placed on the parapet of the Yavapai
Station. This has proved of real assistance to the geologist as well as
to the lay visitor.
FIGURE 23.Footprints of 4-footed
animals preserved in the rocks of the canyon walls. These tracks were
made by amphibians and reptiles that lived in the Grand Canyon region
many thousands of years ago. Although several good specimens are on
exhibit in the Yavapai Station, the visitor is urged to follow some one
of the trails into the canyon where he may observe the footprints in
As an aid to visitors using the Yavapai Station a
carefully prepared guidebook interpreting the parapet views and exhibits
has been issued. The story of the canyon as brought out in this little
booklet is divided into four stages: (1) Forces which produced the
canyon and its walls; (2) history of earth building; (3) record of life
through the ages; (4) forming of Grand Canyon as affecting life of
to-day. The 15 views illustrating these stages are indicated in table
form in the booklet as follows:
VIEWS FROM PARAPET OF YAVAPAI STATION
1. How the Colorado River cuts its canyon.
2. How the Canyon walls were built.
Movement of earth's crust makes possible canyon cutting and formation
Evidence of movement in earth's crust.
Colorado River makes new formations from products of canyon erosion
accumulated at its mouth.
3. Oldest rocks in the canyon, and among the oldest in the worldso
old that their original character has been lost.
4. Oldest rocks which retain their original character as gravels, sands,
5. Greatest single geological story told by the canyon.
6. Tremendous changes in surface of the earth shown by widely differing
formations of the upper canyon walls.
7. Most ancient relics of life preserved in walls of Grand Canyon,
8. Oldest remains of animals in Grand Canyon walls, crab-like creatures
and shell fishtrue fishes in still higher strata.
9. Earliest imprints of ferns and insects in canyon formations.
10. Oldest traces of four-footed animals preserved in canyon walls.
11. Continuation of Grand Canyon story of earth history and of life
through isolated hill of strata near canyon rum at Cedar Mountain.
LIFE OF TO-DAY
12. Cutting of Grand Canyon as influencing variation of life by
geographical separation of North and South Rim plateaus.
Distribution of animals and plants to-day according to zones of climate
developed in cutting Grand Canyon.
13. Life of highest land in North Rim area, like that of southern
14. Life of the South Rim area.
15. Life of the canyon floor region, like that of desert areas in
The Yavapai project is best considered as an
educational experiment to determine the best methods to employ in
interpreting national parks to visitors. In construction, installation,
and method of presentation it is unique. It is designed to be
self-operating. The visitor may, on his own initiative, obtain such
general or orientation views as will present the major features in their
natural relation to each other. Emphasis is upon leading the visitor to
see and interpret the thing itself from the best viewpoint rather than
lead him away from it to see fragments or artificial explanations.
Near Lipan Point, some 15 miles to the east of
Yavapai Point, several Indian ruins have been excavated under the
supervision of Dr. Harold S. Gladwin, of the Gila Pueblo. Mrs. Winifred
Mac Curdy donated funds for the construction of a small museum to house
the artifacts found in this and other ruins. The building was completed
during the summer of 1931.
In recognition of many years of service as chairman
of the Committee on Public Lands of the House of Representatives, during
which time important park legislation was enacted, Congress authorized,
by act approved May 14, 1930, the construction within the boundaries of
Crater Lake National Park of a memorial to the late Representative
Nicholas J. Sinnott of Oregon.
Following this recommendation an attractive stone
building was constructed on Victor Rock just inside the rim of Crater
Lake. The structure, with its broad parapet looking out over the lake,
serves as an orientation point for all park visitors. (See fig. 24.) A
gift of $5,000 from the Carnegie Corporation has made possible the
installation of instruments and numerous exhibits which assist the
visitor in interpreting the geologic history of the lake and in
appreciating the relationships between the scenic and the scientific.
The installations at Sinnott Memorial as well as the general development
of the educational program at Crater Lake have likewise been carried on
under the supervision of Dr. John C. Merriam. Here again, as at Grand
Canyon and at Yellowstone, an educational experiment has been arranged
to determine the best means of presentation.
FIGURE 24.A view of Crater Lake as
seen from the rim wall. Wizard Island, a perfect little volcano, is
reflected in the deep blue waters of the lake. At the left partially
hidden in a stand of mountain hemlock is the Sinnott Memorial building
where visitors may view the lake from an unusually fine vantage point
and at the same time learn something of the geologic history of the
In 1931 Government appropriations made possible the
construction of a museum and information office in Rocky Mountain
National Park. The building contains several very attractive habitat
groups of local birds and small mammals donated by the Jonas Brothers,
of Denver. The Colorado Museum of Natural History cooperated in securing
specimens and in the preparation of accessories to the groups. The
museum serves as the center of educational activities in the park.
FIGURE 25.A view of the Rocky
Mountain Front Range from Estes Park. The small glaciers and snow
fields hidden away among the higher peaks are remnants of mighty ice
masses which sculptured the U-shaped valleys of the park. Guided trips
into the high country are regular features of the educational program of
Through the generosity of the Hawaiian Volcano
Research Association and the contribution from Hui O Pele funds, an
excellent museum building has been constructed of volcanic rock at
Uwekahuna Bluff and donated to Hawaii National Park. It consists of a large
lecture room, approximately 50 by 25 feet, with adjoining small rooms
for office and photographic laboratory space, and a museum room, 40 by
20 feet, adjoining which is the seismograph room.
Between Manzanita and Reflection Lakes in Lassen
Volcanic National Park, Mr. and Mrs. B. F. Loomis established a
museum as a memorial to their daughter, Mae. The gift was made in order
that the many valuable photographs of the eruption might be properly
housed. This museum, constructed of softly tinted native stone, and 40
acres of land were donated to the National Park Service in 1929. The
main building is 72 feet long and 27 feet wide and has an oval roof with
20 skylights. Extending from this main building in the form of a T is
another building, 27 by 52 feet, which contains wild life exhibits. The
main building is devoted primarily to volcanic exhibits, including a
photographic history of Lassen Peak during its recent eruptions.
In a separate building, constructed on the same plan
as the central museum, is an exhibition seismograph so arranged that
the public may watch its operations at all times. The seismograph
instruments were installed by the United States Geological Survey.
An interesting museum containing relics of the Stone
Age period of Indian culture, established near the Sieur de Monts Spring
in Acadia National Park, was deeded to the Government in August, 1930.
The museum and its equipment, together with an endowment, were provided
through the generosity of the late Dr. Robert Abbe, of Bar Harbor and
New York, and friends inspired by his interest and rare enthusiasm. A
perpetual lease for its maintenance and operation was given the museum
trustees by the Government, as the trustees hold an endowment fund of
$60,000 for this purpose. An archeologist is in charge of the museum
during the summer season.
Unique among national-park buildings is the Mesa
Verde archeological museum constructed in 1924 along the lines of pueblo
architecture. (See fig. 26.) The original structure was made possible by
the generous donations of Mrs. Stella M. Leviston, of San Francisco, and
John D. Rockefeller, jr. Additional units have been added in recent
years, and the installations have been augmented with archeological
material of prime importance. The quality and scope of the exhibits make
this little museum one of the most valuable in the United States in its
FIGURE 26.The archeological museum
at Mesa Verde National Park. Many fine relics of pueblo culture are to
be found in the exhibit rooms. The accumulation of valuable material
taken from the cliff dwellings makes this little museum one of the
finest of its kind in the country.
The small museum at Longmire Springs in Mount Rainier
National Park, although temporary in character,
has materially contributed to the educational program. New displays have
been prepared and several donations from the University of Washington
have added to the exhibit collection.
In the community building at Paradise a temporary
museum has been established. Hotel guests and campers visit the exhibits
which portray the park features.
Extensive collections dealing with the
natural-history features of Sequoia National Park are exhibited in the
small museum at Giant Forest. Indian baskets given to the park by the
late Jesse B. Agnew, of Visalia, Calif., constitute one of the
principal attractions in the exhibit rooms. Due to limited space and the
fire hazard in the temporary museum building, many exhibits can not be
Several of the national monuments have museum
collections which are inadequately housed in temporary buildings. This
situation occurs at Aztec Ruins, Gran Quivira, Montezuma Castle, and
Tumacacori. Other monuments have recently acquired museum space. At
Petrified Forest National Monument a combined museum and administration
building was completed in 1931. Exhibits explaining the geology of the
region are being installed. At Casa Grande National Monument one wing of
the new administration building has been made available for museum
Museum development throughout the park system is
moving ahead steadily, and plans are under way for the installation of
exhibits in several of the parks where new buildings are now being
constructed. It is essential, however, that this phase of the
educational work move cautiously. The Service is feeling its way toward
an ideal relationship between field and museum activities in the
national parks. There is a place for both in the educational
FIGURE 27.One of the cliff
dwellings at Montezuma Castle National Monument, Ariz. Archeological and
historic record found here indicate that an advanced civilization
existed in this region in prehistoric times.
Most of the major parks have built up small reference
libraries for the use of the educational staff. In only a few instances,
however, has it been possible to provide a public reading room. In
Yosemite there is a very attractive library in the museum building. (See
FIGURE 28.An interior view of the
Yosemite Museum Library, which is available to visitors at all seasons.
Valuable reference books and current nature magazines are to be found
Yellowstone also has developed a fine technical
reference library much used by the staff and open also to the public.
Branch county libraries have been established in two or three parks, but
in such cases the books available are not of particular value to the
naturalist or historian. With the increase in use of the park
educational facilities by field classes from colleges, universities, and
high schools, it is becoming essential that complete reference libraries
be available in all major parks. This need is being met as rapidly as
FIGURE 29.An interior view of the
Fishing Bridge museum, where special exhibits have been prepared to
illustrate the bird life of the Yellowstone Lake region. The second,
room is devoted to geology, and at the extreme end of the building is a
small library and reading room.
NATURE NOTES AND TRAIL-SIDE
In all national parks where permanent naturalists are
in charge of the educational activities there is issued each month an
attractively illustrated mimeographed publication known as Nature
Notes. This contains a series of short articles on natural-history
subjects and serves to acquaint the visitor with the interesting
features of the park. In many cases the historic element is prominent in
the educational program, and articles pertaining to discovery, early
trade routes, and happenings with the Indians are frequently included in
the publication. This has resulted in the building up of a mailing list
composed of many who have visited the parks and also of many who have
never had this opportunity. Hundreds of schools receive Nature
Notes regularly from several different parks. These serve as
excellent natural-history material for the classroom.
In Yosemite, through the cooperation of the Yosemite
Natural History Association, Nature Notes has been published as a
printed booklet with several photographic illustrations. Rocky Mountain
Nature Notes was the second to appear in printed form.
In connection with the development of a complete
educational unit in Yellowstone, it was evident that the motorist needed
some guidance in the understanding of park features. This realization
led to the preparation of a publication entitled "Trail-side
Notes." The pamphlet is arranged in two columns with vignettes
giving the outlines of the particular points of interest to be noted
along the route. Below each drawing is a brief but reliable statement
regarding the natural-history features. Trail-side Notes have
been worked up for several of the main-traveled routes in Yellowstone,
with the result that the motorist may add greatly to the value of his
visit to the park. More and more the visitor is learning how to
appreciate the country through which he travels. The reaction to
Trail-side Notes is such as to warrant the extension of this
means of helping the public.
YOSEMITE SCHOOL OF FIELD NATURAL
The Yosemite School of Field Natural History is a
summer school for the training of naturalists, where emphasis is placed
on the study of living things in their natural environment. The school
was founded in 1925 in answer to a demand for better trained naturalists
for the Yosemite Nature Guide Service. Furthermore, there was need for a
training not furnished by the universities. The California Fish and Game
Commission cooperated with the National Park Service in making this
school possible. The staff is composed of Dr. Harold C. Bryant,
assistant director of the National Park Service, Charles A. Harwell,
park naturalist, and the regular Yosemite ranger-naturalist force. The
term lasts seven weeks, corresponding with the University of California
summer session at Berkeley. The last week of the field period is spent
in making studies at timber line.
FIGURE 30.The Yosemite school of
Field Natural History gathered around the camp fire for informal
discussion, several members of the Park Service naturalist staff are
present, each contributing to the program.
Two years of college work, or the equivalent, is
required of those registering. There is no tuition but there is a
registration fee of $5. Thus far each class has been limited to 20.
Students are housed in a circle of tents.
As the name implies, emphasis is placed on intensive
field work and each student is expected to know and to identify all of
the more common Yosemite trees, shrubs, wild flowers, insects, fishes,
amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The work is of university
grade, although for the present no university credit is offered. A
certificate showing that the work has been satisfactorily completed is
issued. The course is not a duplicate of university summer work but is
supplementary thereto, for it stresses first-hand information gained
from the living thing. Field observation and identification occupies 60
per cent of the student's time. Graduates of this school are filling
positions as nature guides in parks and summer camps throughout the
country. Many of the naturalist positions in the National Park Service
are held by graduates of this field school.
THE YOSEMITE JUNIOR NATURE
The Yosemite Junior Nature School is planned for
those children wishing to study the wild life of Yosemite National Park
under the leadership of a ranger naturalist. Many features of the
trail-side are brought to the attention of the keen young observers.
There are usually several volunteer workers who assist the ranger
naturalist during the 6-week session.
The work is divided into six subjects. Each subject
is taken the same day every week, the course being organized so that a
child attending only one day will learn a complete lesson. To those
attending any one course throughout the full session, and showing
satisfactory progress, a certificate of completion is awarded.
Classes meet at the museum building each morning,
where fine relief maps of the park, a collection of mounted and fresh
flowers, specimens of trees, etc., are available for study. A nature
walk follows the discussion at the museum and during its course children
are encouraged to ask questions as to the "why" of the objects
encountered along the way. The school is divided into groups based on
ages and grades.
The valley itself is one of nature's greatest outdoor
museums. An abundance of material within easy walking distance of the
museum makes it possible to conduct practically all of this work out of
FIGURE 31.A large labeled
photograph which serves to orient the visitor. Several of these have
been covered with glass to protect them against the rain and placed at
exceptionally good orientation points in Yosemite National Park. They
are proving very popular and instructive.
COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY FIELD
Utilization of the national parks and national
monuments by universities and colleges as outdoor classrooms to
supplement academic study of the natural sciences is increasing. Many of
the outstanding educational institutions of the country are taking
advantage of the exceptional opportunities for such field work, notably
Princeton University, Clark University, University of Virginia, Western
Reserve University, Montana State University, University of Missouri,
University of North Carolina, and University of California. (See fig.
FIGURE 32.The Yosemite Museum
serves as a laboratory for field classes. This class, conducted by Prof.
Edward O. Essig of the University of California, shown in the
foreground, spent seven weeks in Yosemite National Park. The museum
served as headquarters throughout this period.
It is desired to encourage this use of the parks and
monuments, for it is realized that these areas are the ideal outdoor
laboratories for practical study of geology, biology, archeology, and
other field sciences.
The National Park Service cooperates gladly with all
such study groups, arranging facilities so that field work and
demonstrations can be most effectively accomplished. Members of the
educational staff in the various parks render valuable assistance.
Proper interpretation of park features by ranger
naturalists is dependent upon the possession of accurate scientific
knowledge. This needed basis for the educational work is being secured
through the cooperation of Government bureaus, universities, and
scientific institutions, and through the building up of a staff of field
naturalists equipped to undertake scientific research. The intention of
the Park Service in launching a research program is not to duplicate
work done elsewhere nor to trespass upon fields amply covered by other
Government bureaus, but solely to gather the scientific information
necessary to the development of the museum, educational, and wild-life
administration programs of the national parks.
Studies undertaken by the Park Service deal with
questions of particular interest to science, and the publication of the
results contribute to the furtherance of knowledge and education
throughout the country. Such researches serve as an extraordinary
stimulus for development of knowledge in the fields represented, by
reason of the fact that they come to the attention of a large majority
of investigators and students visiting the parks in a state of
open-mindedness and relaxation, and desirous of learning something of
the unique phenomena there presented.
In 1929, as a privately supported enterprise under
the auspices of the National Park Service, George M. Wright, Joseph S.
Dixon and Ben H. Thompson undertook a survey of animal life in the
national parks to determine the problems most needing solution and to
secure basic data for the building of a wild-life policy for the parks.
Realizing the importance of this wild-life survey, the Park Service in
1931 appointed Mr. Dixon field naturalist and Mr. Wright and Mr.
Thompson park naturalist aids. The work is now being carried on under a
cooperative arrangement, funds being supplied by Mr. Wright and the
National Park Service. This field research staff undertakes the solution
of wild-life problems of purely national park importance.
FIGURE 33.The small natural
history museum in Zion National Park. Many excellent rock specimens and
biologic exhibits are on display. In a special cage close to the museum
building is a collection of reptiles and amphibians.
In the field of earth sciences research is being
carried on by members of the Park Service scientific staff. During the
summer season of 1931 Dr. Wallace W. Atwood, Jr., one of the assistants
in the Washington office, conducted special physiographic studies in
Crater Lake National Park. The results of his investigations have been
incorporated in the Crater Lake educational program. Associated with the
researches in geology and physiography are those dealing with history
and archeology. It is anticipated that studies in these fields will be
conducted by the Park Service historian and other members of the
historical staff recently appointed.
A number of geological, geophysical, and
paleontological studies in Grand Canyon, Yellowstone, Yosemite, Lassen,
and certain other parks have been carried forward by the Carnegie
Institution of Washington and the National Academy of Sciences. A study
of the geology of Yosemite National Park, by François E. Matthes,
of the United States Geological Survey, has been brought to completion
and a report published. The University of California Museum of
Vertebrate Zoology made a thorough biological survey of Lassen Volcanic
National Park and published a report thereon. There have been many
archeological studies carried on in Southwestern parks and monuments by
the Bureau of Ethnology, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and
other scientific organizations. The Bureau of Plant Industry has
cooperated in plant disease investigations and the Bureau of Entomology
in insect investigations and control.
This brief review of researches, carried on by
Government bureaus, scientific institutions, and individuals, gives an
idea of the character and amount of material which is being made
available for the educational work in the national parks. The Branch of
Research and Education has developed its unique program on the basis of
authentic scientific and historic information. It is believed that in
this way only can the educational program achieve the success which is
essential to its growth and inclusion in the National Park System.
HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENT
The use of the national park domain as field
laboratories began many years ago when a few universities conducted
field courses into the wilderness areas which later became national
parks. As early as 1899 Prof. Rollin D. Salisbury escorted University of
Chicago geological classes into what afterwards became Glacier National
Park. Drs. Thomas C. Chamberlin, Wallace W. Atwood, and J. Paul Goode
followed his example. Harvard University classes visited Grand Canyon
under the guidance of Prof. William Morris Davis. Dr. Douglas W. Johnson
took Columbia University classes into several national parks. In this
manner a dozen universities might be listed that took advantage of the
exceptional opportunity to study science in the Nation's parks.
Shortly after the establishment of the National Park
Service in 1916 the germ of the educational idea came into being. As
first director of the National Park Service, Stephen T. Mather early
launched his plans for the development of an educational program. In
1917 Robert Sterling Yard was appointed as chief of the educational
division. Additional information circulars were prepared and a
beautifully illustrated National Parks Portfolio was issued. These
publications contained material of particular educational value and were
enthusiastically welcomed by park visitors.
In the field John Muir, of the Sierra Club, had
attracted interest to national parks and stimulated in many persons a
desire to study the geologic and biologic features of these areas. Enos
Mills, in Rocky Mountain National Park, had developed nature guiding and
had written articles describing methods used. Many others interested in
the out-of-doors also had a part in drawing attention to the
desirability of field studies conducted in the open.
In June of 1918, realizing the growing importance of
national parks as field laboratories for educational institutions, a
National Park Educational Committee was organized by Dr. Charles D.
Walcott, of the Smithsonian Institution. This committee, numbering about
75 members, was composed of university presidents and representatives of
leading conservation organizations throughout the country. By May of
1919 this committee merged into the National Parks Association and Mr.
Yard left the Park Service to become associated with this new
FIGURE 34.Magnificent mountain
scenery in the wilderness of Glacier National Park, On foot or on
horseback the traveler may wander over the trails which lead to the
beauty spots of the park.
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE
While plans were being formulated in Washington to
advance educational work in the parks, far away on the Pacific coast
nature-guide work was finding its way into Yosemite. The concept of
nature guiding in reality was a product of the world survey which
brought the idea from Europe and planted it in America. In 1918 the
California Fish and Game Commission sent its educational director to
Yosemite National Park to deliver a number of lectures. As a stimulus to
further interest in natural sciences, field trips were offered. This
service met with immediate popularity and the following year saw a more
extensive program developed at other places in California.
FIGURE 35.A naturalist telling the
story of Yosemite Valley to a small group gathered at Glacier Point,
Yosemite National Park.
Mr. Mather and certain friends having become keenly
interested in the educational possibilities of the parks, were greatly
attracted by this work, and, in 1920 they supported the movement with
private funds. In that year Dr. Harold C. Bryant and Dr. Loye Holmes
Miller conducted trips afield and gave lectures in Yosemite and laid the
foundation for later work. The same year Milton P. Skinner was appointed
park naturalist in Yellowstone National Park and a program of Government
guiding and lecture service began. In 1921 two rangers were assigned to
educational work, and the following year this number was increased to
five. Thereafter the work in this park expanded rapidly.
In the spring of 1921, through a cooperative
arrangement with the California Fish and Game Commission, the National
Park Service instituted a "free nature guide service" in Yosemite. The
aim of this service was to furnish useful information regarding trees,
wild flowers, birds, and mammals, and their conservation, and to
stimulate interest in the scientific interpretation of natural
phenomena. The means used to attain this aim were: Trips afield; formal
lectures, illustrated with lantern slides or motion pictures; 10-minute
camp fire talks given alternately an the main resorts of the park; a
stated office hour when questions regarding the natural history of the
park could be answered; a library of dependable reference works, and a
flower show where the commoner wild flowers, properly labeled, were
displayed. Occasionally, visiting scientists helped by giving
FIGURE 36.A group of visitors at
Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park. Specially selected and
instructed ranger guides conduct all visitors to and through the ruins.
At special gatherings through the day, and around the camp fire in the
evening, the superintendent and rangers tell the story of the cliff
dwellers and of the prehistoric cultures in the Southwest.
Coincident with the above development, the National
Park Service began the interpretation of park phenomena by means of
museum exhibits. Ansel F. Hall, previously in charge of information for
Yosemite National Park, was made park naturalist for that park in 1921
and developed a museum which was installed in a temporary building
opened to the public in that year.
Enlarged programs marked the year 1922, and by 1923
Glacier National Park, with the aid of Montana State University, had
inaugurated nature-guide service, thus becoming the third park to
establish the work. Here also emphasis was placed on a lecture program.
In that year Director Mather, realizing the importance of the rapidly
expanding educational program at Yosemite, designated Ansel F. Hall as
chief naturalist to extend the field of educational development to other
parks. The years 1923 and 1924 saw beginnings made at Grand Canyon,
Mount Rainier, Rocky Mountain, and Sequoia National Parks. A year later
Zion was added to the list of parks undertaking educational work. In
1923 Carl P. Russell was appointed park naturalist in Yosemite National
Park and Mr. Hall thereafter devoted himself to developments in all the
FIGURE 37.A corner inn the museum
reading room at Mesa Verde National Park. An excellent collection of
books on the archeology of southwestern United States is available for
use by park visitors.
In order to develop a plan of operation, Director
Mather appointed Dr. Frank R. Oastler to investigate the educational
work being carried on, and, in collaboration with Chief Naturalist Hall,
to draw up a general policy. Doctor Oastler spent four and a half months
in the field during the summer of 1924. An organization plan was
prepared. This outline of the various educational activities defined the
duties of the chief naturalist and of the park naturalists, and
advocated the development of an "educational working plan" for each park
which would contain a statement regarding the qualifications and
training of the staff, an outline of each educational activity, plans of
necessary buildings, necessary equipment, and required budget. This
report also recommended that "each park should feature its own
individual phenomena rather than try to cover the entire field of
In 1924 the American Association of Museums made a
careful study of the educational opportunities in the national parks and
developed certain concrete plans looking toward the establishment of
natural history museums in a number of the larger parks. As a result of
this study the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial be came interested in
the museum program and donated funds through that association for the
construction of an adequate fireproof museum building, including
equipment and other important accessories, in Yosemite. Later,
additional donations made further museum construction possible in this
and other parks.
FIGURE 38.Lassen Peak, one of the
few active volcanoes in North America. On the slopes of this mountain
the student of geology may study many interesting features of volcanic
In the spring of 1925, on the occasion of an
inspection of the new Yosemite Museum, the Secretary of the Interior
approved a plan submitted by Director Mather providing for the
establishment of the headquarters of the Educational Division at
Berkeley, Calif., under the direction of Chief Naturalist Ansel F. Hall.
Administration of the division was handled from these headquarters from
July 1, 1925, until the establishment of the Branch of Research and
Education in Washington on July 1, 1930. During this period
administrative plans were developed for the educational activities of
each individual park in cooperation with the park superintendents and
the park naturalists. At the same time a plan of administration for the
division as a whole was drafted. This was approved by the director on
June 4, 1929, and has formed the basis of operation and administration
in the field.
COMMITTEE ON STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL
PROBLEMS IN THE NATIONAL PARKS
In 1928, realizing the importance of stimulating this
growth of educational activities in the parks, the Secretary of the
Interior appointed a committee to make a thorough study of and to report
on the educational possibilities of the national parks. The Laura
Spelman Rockefeller Memorial covered the expenses of the committee. This
group of educatorsconsisting of Dr. John C. Merriam, chairman, and
Drs. Hermon C. Bumpus, Harold C. Bryant, Vernon Kellogg, and Frank R.
Oastlermade field studies during the summer of 1928 and rendered a
preliminary report full of practical suggestions for promoting the
educational and inspirational aspects of the parks.
This preliminary printed report issued January 9,
1929, contained the following:
A statement of general principles agreed upon by
the committee for guidance in study of the educational problem of
A group of specific recommendations relating to
organization of educational work in national parks, together with an
outline of program for such work.
A memorandum regarding necessity for further
research on problems involved in the educational program of national
Recommendations by the committee relative to
methods of initiation and development of an educational program for
Lassen Volcanic National Park, this being a park in which educational
work has not been developed. The recommendations presented relative to
this park may be considered both as covering a general type of
organization and as having reference specifically to the needs of Lassen
Particularly significant among the specific
recommendations made by the committee are the two following which relate
to organization of educational work in national parks:
In view of the fact that the purpose of national
parks is to be found in their inspirational and educational values,
there should be an advisory body of five to seven of the ablest men
conversant with national parks, appointed by the Secretary of the
Interior, on nomination by the Director of National Parks, to serve
without salary, whose duty it shall be to advise the Director of
National Parks on matters pertinent to educational policy and
developments in national parks.
There should be a division of education
coordinate with other divisions of the National Park Service directed by
a man with the best of scientific and educational qualifications who
shall administer the educational program in the parks.
NATIONAL PARK SERVICE EDUCATIONAL
ADVISORY BOARD JOINS IN PROGRAM
The committee's recommendations were favorably
received and on March 29, 1929, the Secretary of the Interior invited
several eminent scientists and educators to serve as members of a
National Park Service Educational Advisory Board. The group included
those already serving on the educational committee, with the exception
of Dr. Harold C. Bryant, and in addition Drs. Clark Wissler, Wallace W.
Atwood, and Isaiah Bowman. At the same time the committee on study of
educational problems in national parks was enlarged by the appointments
of Dr. Atwood and Dr. Wissler.
FIGURE 39.Devils Tower National
Monument, Wyo. A striking view of the huge columns of lava which rise
600 feet into the air to form one of the well-known landmarks of early
exploring days. This great monolith records an interesting scientific
During the summers of 1929 and 1930 members of the
educational committee and advisory board conducted field investigations
in the parks and monuments. As an indication of the work accomplished
attention is called to the fact that one member of the committee visited
13 of the 22 national parks and 11 of the 36 national monuments. Another
member visited 11 of the parks and 3 of the monuments. The chairman
visited 9 of the parks and other members a lesser number. Individual
reports of these studies have been prepared and put into permanent form
by means of gathered proof sheets. These have proved of great assistance
to the Park Service in the development of the educational program.
A final report of the committee was submitted to the
Secretary of the Interior on November 27, 1929, detailing points
discussed at the committee meetings and pointing out responsibilities
and opportunities for education and research in the fields of history,
earth sciences, and life sciences. The following topics were
The term "education" with possibility of
redefining educational functions with special reference to use and
enjoyment of national parks.
Limitation of educational functions in accordance
with the principle that the Federal Government should handle only such
educational matters as may not be cared for adequately by other
Division of functions into recreational,
intellectual, and spiritual. Recognition of recreational use as a
naturally correlated function, and expressed both in physical exorcise
and in mental or spiritual relaxation.
Special responsibilities and opportunities for
education and research in the field of history.
Peculiar responsibilities for education and
research in the field of earth sciences.
FIGURE 40.A nature-guide party in
the Temple of Sinawava, Zion National Park. The park naturalist is
explaining the origin of the giant red-walled canyon and pointing out
certain interesting features of the vegetation peculiar to the
Special opportunities for education and research
in the field of life sciences.
Exceptional opportunities for education and
research in the field of appreciation of nature.
Consideration of recommendations which may
strengthen the development of education through research in the specific
aspects of education mentioned above.
Consideration of specific problems of individual
national parks with reference to recommendations which may be made for
betterment of conditions or initiation of new work.
In addition to the individual and committee reports
mentioned above there are certain specific recommendations made by the
The following relating to personnel and organization
of the proposed educational unit are especially significant:
* * * that the position of educational director
of the National Park Service should he filled by a man of the best
scientific and educational qualifications.
* * * that headquarters of the educational
division should be a part of the central organization of the National
Park Service in Washington.
* * * that two assistants be appointed and that
the two assistants together with the head should represent the subjects
of geology, biology, anthropology, and history.
BRANCH OF RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IS
Acting upon the above recommendations of the
Educational Advisory Board and the Committee on Study of Educational
Problems in National Parks, the Park Service established a Branch of
Research and Education in Washington to coordinate the various
educational phases of park work. Accordingly, on July 1, 1930, Dr.
Harold C. Bryant, a biologist, was appointed assistant director , in
charge of all educational activities, and Dr. Wallace W. Atwood, Jr.,
assistant in charge of work relating to the earth sciences. A year later
Verne E. Chatelain was appointed assistant in charge of historical and
archeological developments, thus rounding out the Washington office
educational personnel as it was originally conceived by the advisory
With this recognition of park educational work and
the completion of the individual studies within the parks, the main work
of the Educational Committee was completed and the group disbanded
February 21, 1931.
In the same year Dr. John C. Merriam, chairman of the
Advisory Board since its establishment, resigned his position and
membership on the board due to increased work in other activities. Dr.
Hermon C. Bumpus was appointed to the chairmanship and shortly there
after Dr. Waldo G. Leland was selected to fill the vacancy caused by Dr.
Merriam's resignation. The board continues to function, meeting at least
once annually to consider park educational problems, to make
recommendations relative to those problems presented by the Director of
the National Park Service, and to report on field studies conducted by
HOW THE BRANCH OF RESEARCH AND
Administrative activities of the Branch of Research
and Education are centered in Washington. The assistant director in
charge of the branch organizes and directs all matters pertaining to the
conservation and interpretation of the natural phenomena in the national
parks and monuments. In association with the two assistants of the
branch, he coordinates the work within the office and the educational
and research work in the field to assure economical and efficient
administration and development.
Responsibility for the educational program rests with
the administrative head of the park or monument in which the program is
being conducted. The Branch of Research and Education determines all
matters of general educational policy and is helpful in planning park
educational work. The formulation of specific policies is left to the
superintendent and the park naturalist. The organization of the
ranger-naturalist staff and the execution of the educational program are
duties of the park naturalist.
FIGURE 41.Announcement of free
Government naturalist service at Sprague Creek Camp Grounds, Glacier
In addition to administrative work, the Washington
office educational staff prepares and revises scientific and historical
literature dealing with the parks. The assistant director in charge of
the Branch supervises the revision of material relating to biology. The
assistant in charge of work relating to earth sciences digests special
publications on the geology and physical features of the parks,
coordinates all geological research projects and prepares useful
scientific publications. The assistant in charge of historical and
archeological developments coordinates research in these fields and
organizes historical material for presentation to the park visitors.
The work of preparing speeches, radio talks, press
releases, special magazine and newspaper articles, and maintaining
contact with special organizations interested in park publicity is under
the jurisdiction of the division of public relations, a section of the
Branch of Research and Education. The activities of this division result
in dissemination of accurate information regarding the Park Service and
the educational work. This division also edits the various park
information circulars, scientific bulletins, and special Park Service
booklets. With but few exceptions, all this material is published by the
Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
FIGURE 42.The historic Moore House
in the Colonial National Monument area, Yorktown, Va. The photograph was
taken following the 1931 restoration. On October 18, 1781, the American,
French, and British commissioners met in this house and drew up the
articles of surrender for Cornwallis' Army, thus bringing the
Revolutionary war to a successful conclusion.
Recent educational developments have awakened
interest in the national parks to such a degree that it has been
necessary to materially increase the scope of the publications.
Information circulars are being constantly revised and brought up to
date and the scientific material is receiving special attention. A
series of scientific booklets is being prepared. This task will require
several years, but it is hoped that eventually there will be a complete
set of educational booklets for each national park. The subjects covered
will include geology, biology, archeology, history, and geography. Each
booklet will be well illustrated, short, and authoritative, the
information being secured through careful research by well-known
scientists and members of the Park Service research staff. It is
anticipated that this series of scientific booklets will supplement the
field-naturalist activities and will fill a definite need in the
educational program not only in the parks but throughout the
Demand for slides, photographs, and motion pictures
has increased tremendously in the past years, with the result that the
loan service has been greatly augmented. Visual education material
available for free public distribution in 1931 amounted to 2,200 slides
(all of them colored), 8,000 photographs, and 31 reels of motion-picture
Sound pictures are being requested by schools, clubs,
and various organizations throughout the country, desiring to feature
the national parks in their programs. It is hoped that funds will be
provided for the production and distribution of such distinctly
The recent transfer of George A. Grant, the official
park photographer, from field headquarters to the Washington office
should operate to make the photographic department far more valuable to
the Service and the public. Mr. Grant has secured several thousand
excellent negatives of the parks and is contributing much to the
In developing this work, the public utility operators
of the parks materially assisted by donating the sum of $5,000 to be
used in purchasing necessary equipment and supplies and for defraying
the salary expenses of a clerk to assist in the upkeep of this material.
The Service has arranged to continue the work which the operators made
Through the generosity of Dr. Frank R. Oastler, the
Service has acquired numerous excellent motion pictures and colored
slides of wild animals in the parks. As a result of combined effort
there is now available a fine collection of negatives and prints of the
chief scenic features and points of educational interest in the parks
From July 1, 1925, to July 1, 1930, the educational
work was coordinated by Ansel F. Hall, chief naturalist, from the field
headquarters office of the National Park Service at Berkeley, Calif.
Through the courtesy of the University of California, ample space was
secured for the educational work. A fine group of office and laboratory
rooms in Hilgard Hall was made available to the National Park Service
Since the establishment of the Branch of Research and
Education, with headquarters in Washington, the field office has
continued to serve as a laboratory and office for the senior park
naturalist and forester, the fire-control expert, field naturalists, and
Chief photographer. Although the photographic department was transferred
to Washington on July 1, 1931, the important work at field headquarters
has continued unchanged, the laboratory functioning as a direct aid to
the naturalist and museum programs in the parks.
Efforts at field headquarters are being centered on
the preparation of relief models and museum exhibits of various kinds.
It is planned that a museum preparator work under the direct supervision
of the senior park naturalist and field naturalist. Library developments
in the parks and the preparation of statistical reports are duties
Field headquarters is scheduled to become the winter
laboratory for wild-life and museum research and the field educational
work of the Service.
On July 1, 1929, Carl Russell, former park naturalist
in Yosemite National Park, was appointed field naturalist and assigned
to the special field of museum planning and technique. Due to the
important museum projects in Yellowstone the greater part of the museum
advisor's time has been devoted to Yellowstone problems.
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARTICLES
RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL WORK IN NATIONAL PARKS
ADAMS, CHAS. C.
||The relation of wild life to the public in national and state parks.
Proc. Second Nat. Conference of State Parks, 1922, pp.
ALBRIGHT, HORACE M.
||General plan of administration for the educational division. U. S.
Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 16 pp., mimeo.
||A review of national park developments during 1930. American Civic
Annual 2: 3-6.|
||National park planning. American Civic Annual 2:
Annual Reports of the Director of the National Park
Service. 1917-1931. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
ATWOOD, WALLACE W.
||Mission of the National Parks Association, National Parks Bulletin
10 (58). (March.)|
||What are national parks? The American Forests 37 (9) : 540.
ATWOOD, WALLACE W., JR.
||Our national parks as field science laboratories. Meeting of
National Council of Geography Teachers, (Dec. 27, 1930.)|
BRYANT, HAROLD C.
||Yosemite nature guide service. Report of the director of the
National Park Service to the Secretary of the Interior for fiscal year
ending 1920. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 423 pp.,
||Nature play for the kiddies. Outers' Recreation 64 : 122-124,
153, 9 figs. (February.)|
||Nature guiding. American Nature Association Bul. 17. 12 pp.|
||Nature lore for park visitors. American Forests and Forest Life 35
(8) : 501-505. (August.)|
||Yosemite School of Field Natural History. The Nature Almanac, Am.
Nat. Assoc. : 139-140.|
||Research and education in the national parks. American Civic Annual
3 : 13-17, illus.|
|1931. ||Universities of the Out-of-Doors.
School Life 16 (8) : 152. (April.) Committee Report.|
||Reports with recommendations from the Committee on Study of
Educational Problems in National Parks. (Jan. 9-Nov. 27.)|
||Individual Reports of the Committee on Educational Problems in
DEMARAY, A. E.
||Nature guiding in our national parks. National Municipal Review 12:
56-58. (February, 1923.)|
DUNN, HARRY H.
||Uncle Sam teaches nature study to sixty thousand in West. Dearborn
Independent, p. 11, illus. (Nov. 26.)|
GOETHE, C. M.
||Learning to read a roadside. Nature Study Review 11 : 273 279, 3
HALL, ANSEL F.
||The Educational Development of Yosemite National Park. Sierra Club
Bulletin 9 (4) : 413-416.|
||Educational activities in national parks. First Pan Pacific
Conference on Education, Rehabilitation, Reclamation, and Recreation :
397-410. U. S. Government Printing Office.|
HAMLIN, CHAUNCEY J.
||Studying nature in place. First Pan Pacific Conference on Education,
Rehabilitation, Reclamation, and Recreation : 435-438. U. S.
Government Printing Office.|
HORNADAY, WILLIAM T.
||The right way to teach zoology. The Outlook : 256-263.|
JAGGAR, T. A.
||The opportunity for scientific research in the national parks of
America. First Pan Pacific Conference on Education, Rehabilitation,
Reclamation, and Recreation : 463-470. U. S. Government Printing
LUTZ, FRANK EUGENE.
||Nature trails and experience in outdoor education. American Museum
of Natural History. Miscellaneous publication No. 21. October, 36, p.
11, pa. 10¢.|
MATHER, STEPHEN T.
||Administration of the national parks of the United States. First Pan
Pacific Conference on Education, Rehabilitation, Reclamation, and
Recreation : 447-450. U. S. Government Printing Office.|
||National parks as educational centers. National Republic 14 (10) :
33-34, 60-61. (February.)|
MERRIAM, JOHN C.
||Educational opportunities in national parks. Estes Park Trail : 31.
||Inspiration and education in national parks. National Parks Bulletin
9 (53). (July.)|
||The meaning of national parks. Amer. Forests and Forest Life 35 (8)
: 471-473. (August.)|
MILLS, ENOS A.
||The children of my trail school. Saturday Evening Post : 49-53,
illus. (Mar. 1.)|
||The adventures of a nature guide; 14 : 271, illus. (Doubleday, Page
& Co., New York.)|
National Parks Bulletin.
|1929. ||Park System to be equipped for
education, 9 (56) : 1-2.|
The Nature Almanaca handbook of nature
||The American Nature Association. 399 pp.|
VINAL, WILLIAM G.
||Nature Guiding. 486 pp. Slingerland-Comstock Co., Ithaca, N.
WILBUR, RAY LYMAN.
||What the national parks mean to the people of the United States.
American Civic Annual 1 : 5-9.|
YARD, ROBERT STERLING.
||The book of the national parks. 444 pp., illus. Chas. Scribner's
Sons, New York City.|
NATIONAL-PARK PUBLICATIONS OF
THE NATIONAL PARKS PORTFOLIO
This portfolio is the best descriptive work
regarding our national parks and monuments sold by the Government. It
contains 274 pages, is securely bound in cloth, and has many beautiful
illustrations. The current edition, the sixth, was printed in 1931.
CRATER LAKE NATIONAL PARK
Forests of Crater Lake National Park, by J. F.
Pernot. 1916. 40 pages, including 26 illustrations. Contains
descriptions of the forest cover and of the principal species. Price,
GLACIER NATIONAL PARK
Origin of the Scenic Features of Glacier National
Park, by M. R. Campbell. 1921, 44 pages, including 25 illustrations.
Contains a general account of the forces that have caused the
development of the mountain ranges, the valleys, and lakes of Glacier
National Park, Price, 15¢.
Wild Animals of Glacier National Park. The
Mammals, by Vernon Bailey; The Birds, by Florence Merriam Bailey. 210
pages, 94 text figures, 37 plates, including map. 1918. Describes the
birds and animals both popularly and scientifically; tells how the
visitor may identify them. Price, $1.
Plants of Glacier National Park, by Paul C.
Standley. 1926. 110 pages, including 5 color plates and 150 text
figures. Price, 50¢.
MOUNT RAINIER NATIONAL PARK
Features of the Flora of Mount Rainier National
Park, by J. B. Flett. 1922. 48 pages, including 40 illustrations.
Contains descriptions of the flowering trees and shrubs in the park.
Forests of Mount Rainier National Park, by G.
F. Allen. 1922. 32 pages, including 26 illustrations. Contains
descriptions of the forest cover and of the principal species. Price,
Mammals and Birds of Mount Rainier National
Park, by Walter P. Taylor and William T. Shaw. 1927. 249 pages,
including 109 illustrations and maps. Price, 85¢.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK
The Geologic Story of Rocky Mountain National
Park, by Willis T. Lee, 1930. 89 pages, including 45 plates and 6
text figures. Contains detailed description of trails and scenic
features, as well as very interesting account of the geologic and
geographic development of the park. Price, 50¢.
Mountaineering in the Rocky Mountain National
Park, by Roger W. Toll. 1921. 106 pages, with 25 plates and 1 large
map. Contains directions for climbing principal mountains of the Rocky
Mountain Park region. For beginners as well as experienced mountaineers.
SEQUOIA AND GENERAL GRANT NATIONAL PARKS
See publications listed under "Yosemite National
YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK
Geological History of Yellowstone National
Park, by Arnold Hague. 1928. 24 pages, including 10 illustrations.
Contains a general resume of the geologic forces that have been active
in the Yellowstone National Park. Price, 10¢.
Geysers of the Yellowstone National Park, by
Walter Harvey Weed. 1928. 32 pages, including 23 illustrations. In this
pamphlet is a description of the forces which have produced the geysers.
Fossil Forests of Yellowstone National Park,
by F. H. Knowlton. 1928. 32 pages, including 15 illustrations. Contains
descriptions of the fossil forests of the Yellowstone National Park and
an account of their origin. Price, 10¢.
Fishes of the Yellowstone National Park, by
Hugh M. Smith and W. C. Kendall. (Bureau of Fisheries Document 904.)
1921. 30 pages, including 16 illustrations. Contains descriptions of the
species and lists of streams where found. Price, 5¢
YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK
Geologic History of Yosemite Valley, by
Fran&ccedi;ois E. Matthes. 137 pages, including 87 illustrations and 5
maps. 1930. An authoritative account of the evolution of the Yosemite
Valley based on detailed geologic investigations. Describes the
successive ice invasions that took place during the glacial epoch and
for the first time traces the preglacial history of the valley back to
its beginning. Besides numerous illustrations of the present features of
the Yosemite Valley the volume contains a series of bird's-eye views
showing the general form and character of the valley at each stage in
its development. Price, $1.10.
Forests of Yosemite, Sequoia, and General Grant
National Parks, by C. L. Hill. 1928. 40 pages, including 23
illustrations. Contains descriptions of the forest cover and of the
principal species. Price, 10¢.
The Secret of the Big Trees, Yosemite, Sequoia,
and General Grant National Parks, by Ellsworth Huntington. 1928. 24
pages, including 44 illustrations. Contains an account of the climatic
changes that are indicated by the thickness of the growth rings in the
big trees, and gives a comparative statement of the climatic conditions
in California and Asia during a period of 3,400 years. Price,
The Story of Yosemite Valley, by F. E.
Matthes. Making of American Scenery. Paper No. 1. 1922. 4 pages. Price,
The panoramic views listed below are based on
accurate surveys and give an excellent idea of the configuration of the
surface as it would appear to a person flying over it. The meadows and
valleys are printed in light green, the streams and lakes in light blue,
and cliffs atnd ridges in combinations of color, and the roads in light
brown. The lettering is printed in light brown and is easily read on
close inspection, but merges into the other colors when the sheet is
held at some distance.
Panoramic View of Crater Lake National Park. 16½
by 18 inches; scale 1 mile to the inch. Price, 25¢.
Panoramic View of Glacier National Park. 18½ by 21
inches; scale 3 miles to the inch. Price, 25¢.
Panoramic View of Mesa Verde National Park. 19 by
22½ inches; scale, three-fourths mile to the inch. Price,
1For sale by superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.;
also on sale in major national parks.
SUMMARY OF CURRENT EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES IN THE NATIONAL PARKS
Year ended September 30, 1931
||Auto caravans, vans, attendance
|Total number of contacts on all field trips||141,826|
|Total number of contacts on all auto caravans
|Total number of contacts at all lectures
|Total number of contacts at all museums