The National Forests of the Northern Region
Living Legacy—


Traditional bibliographic lists fail to indicate the relative value or frequency of use of resource materials. For that reason, the authors have combined the list and essay bibliographic styles. Specific references to resources can be accessed quickly from the Reference Notes associated with each chapter, and those sources are not wholly duplicated in the following bibliographic listing and essay. Rather, the chapter Reference Notes and this Bibliographic Essay should be considered complementary research tools.

Historical resources generally fall into two broad categories: primary materials and secondary materials. Primary materials usually are those considered to be contemporary with the event. Secondary materials are what others have said or written about an event. Letters, manuscripts, reports, and documents generated by an institution or agency are considered primary sources for the history of that institution or agency, as are the letters, memoirs, diaries, oral histories, and memoranda of persons associated with the agencies or involved in a particular activity or event relevant to the work or activities of that agency. Books and articles, even those technically classified as Government documents (such as a Regional History of the Forest Service published by the Forest Service) are usually secondary sources. Both categories of resources are valuable in the development of a history. Primary sources tend to define "history as it happened," while secondary sources, usually written sometime after an event and often evaluating the event in the context of other historical events or time periods, are helpful in promoting an understanding of the past. Each generation is constantly involved in the process of determining what happened in the past and in developing an understanding of that past and its application to the present. Historians seek to provide intelligent and trained assistance toward that effort.

Bibliographies particularly recommended for initial review of forest history material include:

Ashby, Charlotte M., ed. "Preliminary Inventory of the Cartographic Records of the Forest Service," Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives, 1967. 71 pp.

Davis, Richard, ed. Encyclopedia of Forest and Conservation History. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan Co., 1983.

North American Forest History: A Guide to Archives and Manuscripts in the United States and Canada. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio Press, 1977. 376 pp.

Dictionary Catalogue of the Yale Forestry Library. 12 vols. New Haven, CT: Yale University, Henry S. Graves Memorial Library.

Fahl, Ronald J. North American Forest and Conservation History: A Bibliography. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio Press, 1977. 408 pp.

Kinch, Michael P. Forestry Theses Accepted by the Colleges and Universities in the United States, July 1966-June 1973. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 1979. 220 pp.

Neiderheiser, C.M. Forest History Sources of the United States and Canada. St. Paul, MN: Forest History Foundation, 1956.

Ogden, Gerald. The United States Forest Service: A Historical Bibliography, 1876-1972. Davis: University of California, 1976. 439 pp.

Osborn, Katherine Whipple. Forestry Theses Accepted by Colleges and Universities in the United States, 1900-1952. Corvallis: Oregon State College, 1953. 3:4 (January 1970):104.

__________. "Preliminary Inventory of the Records of the Forest service," Washington, D.C.: U.S. National Archives, 1949. 17 pp. (Revised 1969,23 pp.)

Shands, William E. Forest Land USA: Annotated Bibliography of Policy, Economic and Management Issues, 1970-1980: A Conservation Foundation Report Washington, D.C.: The Foundation, 1981. 62 pp.

Primary Sources


Primary sources used in the history are largely manuscripts, documents, and interviews. Most of the writing derives from these resources. The major historical source, in terms of both volume and value, are the files and records generated by the Northern Region. These are on deposit at the Federal Records Center, Seattle, Washington, and in the Seattle Branch of the National Archives. Records generated by the ranger districts, national forests, and regional headquarters are filed according to Forest Service Handbook 6209.11—Filing System Handbook. At the Federal Records Center, each forest is assigned a Prefix Group Identification; materials are assigned an accession number, preceded by the general forestry designation (095), and a box number within the accession group.

Additional manuscript sources and historical records have been retained by the regional headquarters and by some of the national forests within the region. These have been stored or managed in various ways, usually by placing the records in file cabinets and giving the cabinets a very loose designation such as "Historical Files and Records." The Custer National Forest has a very strong historical collection. The Bitterroot National Forest has selected historical materials, some related local history manuscripts, and an outstanding photographic collection. The Nez Perce historical collections are useful, but at the time of the research these were physically scattered. The Clearwater National Forest has selected materials, which are very useful, and a good historical photographic collection. The Idaho Panhandle National Forests has an excellent historical file, a very well organized (by data base) photographic collection, and a good map collection. The Lolo National Forest has strong archaeological records and some oral interviews. The Deerlodge has a few scattered historical records. Other forests in the Region have relatively few historical resources. Manuscript sources are identified below:

Beaverhead National Forest, historical files, Dillon, MT
Bitterroot National Forest, historical files, Hamilton, MT
Custer National Forest, historical files, Billings, MT
Deerlodge National Forest, historical files, Butte, MT
Federal Records Center, Seattle, WA
Helena National Forest, historical files, Helena, MT
Idaho Panhandle National Forests, historical files, Coeur d'Alene, ID
National Archives—Seattle Branch, Seattle, WA
Regional Office, historical files and records, Missoula, MT
University of Montana Archives, Missoula, MT

The rather extensive files and records gathered in the research of this book have been deposited in the University of Montana Archives at Missoula.

Documents generated by the Northern Region are deposited in libraries designated as Government document depositories, but the holdings are often incomplete and difficult to access. Documents generated within the Region are not always accessed by the Library of Congress or other Government depositories: thus the documents used in this history are physically located in a variety of libraries and forest offices.

Documentary sources are, of course, voluminous. One of the most useful historical documentary resources in the Region is the four volume compilation of interviews with and commentaries by early foresters (Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Early Days in the Forest Service, I—IV). The Region or forests within the region also have published a number of forest and ranger district histories; while technically identified as "documents," having been generated by a Government agency, these are secondary historical sources and are noted under Secondary Sources.

Copies of the Northern Region Press Releases are available in bound volumes for the years from approximately 1926 to date in the regional offices. Copies of Northern Region News also are available, and these are a valuable resource. The Region and each forest have independently generated documentary sources over the years. The individual forest plans are a prominent resource for contemporary history. These are in three or four volumes (some with supplements) and are summarized below:

Beaverhead National Forest, Dillon, MT. Forest Plan. April 1986. Parts I—VIII, Appendices.

_____________. Final Environmental Impact Statement. April 1986. 2 vols.

___________. Record of Decision. 30 pp.

Bitterroot National Forest, Hamilton, MT. Forest Plan. September 1987. Parts I—VII.

___________. Maps. Forest Plan and Environmental Impact Statement. September 1987.

__________. Forest Plan: Final Environmental Impact Statement. II. September 1987. Parts I—VIII. Appendices.

Forest Plan: Final Environmental Impact Statement. II. September 1987.

Clearwater National Forest, Orofino, ID. Forest Plan. September 1987. Parts I—IV, Appendices.

__________. Forest Plan: Environmental Impact Statement. I September 1987. Parts I—VI, Appendices.

__________. Forest Plan: Environmental Impact Statement. II. September 1987. Parts I—VIII.

___________. Record of Decision. September 1987. pp. 1-47.

Custer National Forest, Billings, MT. Management Plan. October 1986. 186 pp.

__________. Final Environmental Impact Statement. October 1986. 380 pp.

. Record of Decision. June 1987. 37 pp., Appendices.

Deerlodge National Forest, Butte, MT. Forest Plan. September 1987. Parts I—VI.

_____________. Forest Plan: Final Environmental Impact Statement. September 1987. Parts I—VIII.

___________. Forest Plan: Appendices to the EIS. September 1987. Parts A—C.

_____________. Forest Plan: Record of Decision. September 1987. 36 pp.

Flathead National Forest, Kalispell, MT. Forest Plan. December 1985. Parts I—VII. Appendices.

_____________. Environmental Impact Statement: Summary. 28 pp. tables.

Gallatin National Forest, Bozeman, MT. Nelson, Thomas C. "The Evolution of National Forest Planning," Forest Planning 1 (April 1980):13-14; USDA Forest Service, Northern Region.

Helena National Forest, Helena, MT. Forest Plan. April 1986. Parts I—VI. Appendices.

_____________. Forest Plan: Final Environmental Impact Statement. April 1986. Parts I—VII.

___________. Forest Plan: EIS, Appendices A, B, C. April 1986. Parts A—C.

Idaho Panhandle National Forests, Coeur d'Alene, ID. Overview, Forest Plan. 1987. pp. 1-22.

______________. Forest Plan. August 1987. Parts I—V.

_____________. Forest Plan: Final Environmental Impact Statement. August 1987. Parts I—VIII.

__________. Forest Plan: Final EIS, Addendum to Appendices A, B, and C. Parts A—C.

_____________. Forest Plan: Record of Decision. 1987. pp. 1-50.

Kootenai National Forest, Libby, MT. Forest Plan. Vol. I. September 1987. Parts I—VI.

___________. Forest Plan. Vol. II. Appendices.

_____________. Forest Plan: Final Environmental Impact Statement. I. 1987. Parts I—IV.

______________ Forest Plan: Final Environmental Impact Statement. II. 1987. Parts I—VI.

_____________. Forest Plan: Public Comments and Forest Service Response. 1987. 2 vols.

Lolo National Forest, Missoula, MT. Plan. February 1986. Pans I—VI.

_____________. Final Environmental Impact Statement. February 1986. Parts I—VI.

___________. Final Environmental Impact Statement: Appendices. February 1986. Parts A—C.

Nez Perce National Forest, Grangeville, ID. Forest Plan. October 1987. Pans I—VII. Appendices.

_____________. Final Environmental Impact Statement. October 1987. Parts I—VI.

_____________. Final Environmental Impact Statement: Appendices. October 1987. Parts A—D.

Research reports of the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station and the Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station are many and diverse and also are useful historical documents.

Correspondence and Memoranda From Retirees

In response to a letter requesting anecdotes and information that was sent to Region 1 retirees, a considerable volume of interesting and informative personal history was received. Much of this has been incorporated in the history. Respondents included the following:

Amsbaugh, Byron C.Redding, CA
Alt, Bernard W.Kalispell, MT
Arvish, Andrew J.Orofino, ID
Beebe, John D.Hayden Lake, ID
Bennett, JackMissoula, MT
Bingham, Richard T.Moscow, ID
Blackmer, FredMissoula, MT
Blessing, Mildred (Cheney)Federal Way, WA
Bruesch, L.D.Missoula, MT
Cheyney, Hugh R.Des Moines, WA
Collins, John G.Missoula, MT
Cowles, Floyd R.Portland, OR
Evanko, Anthony B.Missoula, MT
Fallis, Willard R. (Bill)Frenchtown, MT
Farbo, Thomas P.Orofino, ID
Frayer, HumeJefferson, OH
Gillam, Bertha C.Salt Lake City, UT
Green, Geoffrey E.Great Falls, MT
Gutkoski, JoeBozeman, MT
Hahn, Walter R.Superior, MT
Hardy, Charles E. (Mike)Missoula, MT
Harper, Mrs. James M.Missoula, MT
Hoeger, VirginiaGallatin Gateway, MT
Hunter, Ray D.Victor, MT
Johnson, Maurice R.Kalispell, MT
Jorgensen, Rolf B.Coeur d'Alene, ID
Karr, RayMissoula, MT
Lockhart, Russell E.St. Ignatius, MT
Milodragovich, RobertMissoula, MT
Miner, RayLibby, MT
Navratil, TedSandpoint, ID
Nelson, Junia BenedictKalispell, MT
Norman, Kenneth P.Redding, CA
Nousanen, Arne D.Hamilton, MT
Odell, CharlieCamp Crook, SD
Peterson, Neil O.Shendan, MT
Peterson, Walter S.Kalispell, MT
Powell, L.M.Hamilton, MT
Rahm, NealMissoula, MT
Robe, H.O.Las Vegas, NV
Rowland, Harvey C.Butte, MT
Sampert, L.R.Coeur d'Alene, ID
Sandberg, Victor O.Sun City, AZ
Sharp, BillBozeman, MT
Sievers, Edwin R.Polson, MT
Sinclair, Clarence S.Coeur d'Alene, ID
Slusher, Edward M.Rockport, TX
Smart, Robert A.Colville, WA
Smith, LarrySandpoint, ID
Snyder, NathanSeeley Lake, MT
Space, Ralph S.Orofino, ID
Stem, JerrySagle, ID
Stewart, F.K.Missoula, MT
Stiger, Everett M. "Sonny"Wolf Creek, MT
Swift, Bernie A.Hamilton, MT
Van Gieson, Bayard R. (Bob)Missoula, MT
Viche, Henry J.Missoula, MT
Weatherstrom, CarlMissoula, MT
Welton, HowardCoeur d'Alene, ID
West, Raymond M.Portland, OR
White, Eric P.Helena, MT
Williams, Donald V.Chino Valley, AZ
Williamson, Lester M.Post Falls, ID
Wilson, Mary Lou (Hamblet)Coeur d'Alene, ID

Oral History Interviews

Interviews were conducted With a number of both active and retired Northern Region foresters and interested parties. They included:

Beaman, Dallas W. (Bill)
Beck, Barbara
Blake, Clyde
Clark, Wilson F.
Davis, Dan
Dawson, L.H.
Denne, John
Emerson, John
Espinosa, Al
Finch, Thomas
Giannettino, Susan
Gibson, Robert
Hansen, Ronald
Hardy, Charles E. (Mike)
Hawkins, Gordon, Sr.
Hearst, Loren
Heid, Jim
Helseth, Carter
Holland, Tom
Kovalicky, Tom
Hoverson, Robert
McKenzie, Ellen
McLean, Gary
McLeod, C. Milo
Milodragovich, John
Milodragovich, Robert R.
Morgan, Robert
Purcell, Neal (Pete)
Raddon, Charles H.
Robinson, Johnny
Roenke, Karl
Ruediger, Bill
Salinas, Joe
Salomonsen, Frank
Sims, Cort
Space, Ralph S.
Trevey, Fred
Viche, Henry J.
Warren, Nancy
Wetterstrom, Carl W.

Secondary Sources

Many of the national forests in Region 1 have narrative histories of the forests, written by persons who previously spent most or all of their active careers within the region. A number of these have been published by the forest, the region, or on occasion by private presses or individuals. Some of these history manuscripts have not been published, but instead are retained as part of the historical record of the forest or Region. Prominent published histories of specific forests include: Ralph Space, The Clearwater Story (1964); Charlie Shaw, The Flathead Story (1967); Wilson F. Clark, A General History of the Custer National Forest (1982); and Albert N. Cochrell, History of the Nez Perce National Forest (rev. 1970).

Unpublished histories available in the Regional Office include: Bettie Doetch, "History of the Kootenai National Forest," and Lewis Hawkes, "History of the Gallatin National Forest," (1988). There are brief manuscript histories of many of the forests, ranger districts, and ranger stations.

Books that have been published by private persons or presses within the geographical region and that bear directly on the history of the Northern Region include: Clyde P. Fickes, Recollections (1972); Elers Koch, Forty Years a Forester (n.d.); Elers Koch, ed., When the Mountains Roared: Stories of the 1910 Fire (n.d.); Kenneth D. Swan, Splendid Was the Trail (1968); Robert C. Gildert, Montana's Early Day Rangers (1985); Stan Cohen and Don Miller, The Big Burn: The Northwest's Fire of 1910 (1983); Stan Cohen, Smokejumpers (1983); and Neal Parsell, Major Fenn's Country (n.d.).

A selected list of some of the more significant secondary resources and historical narratives relating to the Northern Region are listed below:


Athern, Robert G. High Country Empire: The High Plains and Rockies. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1965.

Beckes, Michael R.; Keyser, James D. The Prehistory of the Custer National Forest: An Overview. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Region 1, 1983.

Behan, Richard W. "Wilderness Decision in Region 1, United States Forest Service: A Case Study of Professional Bureau Policy Making," Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1972.

Brandon, William. Indians. New York: American Heritage, 1985.

Burk, Dale A. The Clearcut Crisis, Controversy in the Bitterroot. Great Falls, MT: Jursnick Printing, 1970. 152 pp.

Burlingame, Merrill G. The Montana Frontier. Bozeman: Big Sky Books, Montana State University, 1942.

Burroughs, Raymond Darwin, ed.. The Natural History of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1961. 340 pp.

Bryan, William L, Jr. Montana's Indians: Yesterday and Today. Helena: Montana Magazine, 1985.

Carhart, Arthur H. The National Forests. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1959. 289 pp.

Carriker, Robert C. The Kalispel People. Phoenix: Indian Tribal Series, 1973.

Chittenden, Hiram Martin. The American Fur Trade of the Far West: A History of Pioneer Trading Posts and Early Fur Companies of the Missouri Valley and Rocky Mountains and of the Overland Commerce with Santa Fe. New York: Rufus Rockwell Wilson, 1936. Vol. I.

Clary, David A. Timber and the Forest Service. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1986.

Clawson, Marion. The Western Range Livestock Industry. American Forestry Series. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1950. 401 pp.

_____________. Man and Land in the United States. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1964. 178 pp.

Clepper, Henry. Professional Forestry in the United States. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1971. 337 pp.

Coats, J.H. Communications in the National Forests of the Northern Region: A History of Telephone and Radio. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, 1984.

Cochrell, Albert N. A History of the Nez Perce National Forest. Rev. ed. by Gayle Hauger and Morris Reynolds. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, 1970. 129 pp.

Coon, Shirley J. "The Economic Development of Missoula, Montana." Ph. D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1926.420 pp.

Cox, Thomas R.; Maxwell, Robert S.; Thomas, Phillip Drennon; and Malone, Joseph J. This Well-Wooded Land. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.

Cunningham, Bill. Montana's Continental Divide. Helena: Montana Magazine, 1986. 111 pp.

Dana, Samuel Trask, and Fairfax, Sally K. Forest and Range Policy, Its Development in the United States. American Forestry Series. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956. 455 pp.

Davis, Kenneth P. Forest Fire: Control and Use. American Forestry Series. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959. 584 pp.

Denig, Edwin Thompson. Five Indian Tribes of the Upper Missouri: Sioux, Arickaras, Assiniboines, Crees, Crows. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1961.

DeVoto, Bernard, ed. The Journals of Lewis and Clark. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1953.

Ewers, John C. The Blackfeet: Raiders on the Northwestern Plains. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.

Frome, Michael. Whose Woods These Are: The Story of the National Forests. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1962. 360 pp.

______________. The Forest Service. New York: Praeger, 1971.241 pp.

______________. Battle for the Wilderness. New York: Praeger, 1974. 246 pp.

Gibson, Morgan. The American Indian: Prehistory to the Present. Lexington, KY: D.C. Heath, 1980. 246 pp.

Gildart, Robert C. (Bob). Montana's Early-Day Rangers. Helena: Montana Magazine, 1985. 135 pp.

Glover, James M. A Wilderness Original: The Life of Bob Marshall. Seattle: The Mountaineers, 1986. 323 pp.

Goetzmann, William H. Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West, 1805-1900. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966. 656 pp.

Gray, Gary Craven. Radio for the Fireline: A History of Electronic Communication in the Forest Service, 1905-1975. Washington, D.C.: USDA Forest Service, FS—369. 1982.

Greever, William S. The Bonanza West: The Story of the Western Mining Rushes, 1848-1900. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

Grinnell, George Bird. The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Ways of Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1923. 2 vols.

Haines, Francis. The Nez Perce: Tribesmen of the Columbia Plateau. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1955.

Hardy, Charles E. (Mike). The Gisborne Era of Forest Fire Research: Legacy of a Pioneer. Washington, D.C.: USDA Forest Service, 1983.

Harris, Burton. John Colter: His Years in the Rockies. New York: Scribners, 1952.

Hassrick, Royal B. The Sioux: Life and Customs of a Warrior Society. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964.

Hedges, James Blaine. Henry Villard and the Railways of the Northwest. New York: Russell & Russell, 1930.

Hibbard, Benjamin H. A History of the Public Land Policies. New York: Macmillan, 1924. 591 pp.

Hidy, Ralph W.; Hill, Frank Ernest; and Nevin, Allan. Timber and Men: The Weyerhaeuser Story. New York: Macmillan and Co., 1963.

Hoebel, E. Adamson. The Cheyennes: Indians of the Great Plains. New York: Holt Rinehart, and Winston, 1960.

Hutchison, S. Blair, and Winters, Robert K. Northern Idaho Forest Resources and Industries. USDA Miscellaneous Publications, No. 508. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1942. 75 pp.

Hyde, George E. Indians of the High Plains: From the Prehistoric Period to the Coming of the Europeans. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1959.

Johnson, Olga Wedemeyer. Flathead and Kootenay: The Rivers, the Tribes, and the Region's Traders, Glendale, CA: Arthur H. Clark, 1969.

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. The Nez Perce Indians and the Opening of the Northwest. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1965.

Kaufman, Herbert. Forest Ranger: A Study in Administrative Behavior. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1960. 259 pp.

Kehoe, Alice Beck. North American Indians: A Comprehensive Account. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1981. 360 pp.

Koch, Elers. When the Mountains Roared: Stories of the 1910 Fire. Coeur d'Alene, ID: USDA Forest Service, Coeur d'Alene National Forest, 1942. 39 pp.

Kresek, Ray E. Fire Lookouts of the Northwest. Fairfield, WA: Ye Galleon Press, 1984. 412 pp.

Lamar, Howard Roberts. Dakota Territory, 1861-1889: A Study of Frontier Politics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1956.

Lavender, David. Westward Vision: The Story of the Oregon Trail. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.

LeMaster, Dennis C. Decade of Change: The Remaking of Forest Service Statutory Authority During the 1970s. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Lowie, Robert H. Indians of the Plains. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1954.

_____________. The Crow Indians. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1935.

McLeod, C. Milo, and Melton, Douglas. The Prehistory of the Lolo and Bitterroot National Forests: An Overview. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Region 1, 1986. 51 pp.

Madsen, Brigham D. The Northern Shoshoni. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Printers, 1980.

Malone, Michael P., and Roeder, Richard B. Montana: A History of Two Centuries. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976.

Martin, Albro. James J. Hill and the Opening of the Northwest. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Meinig, D.W. The Great Columbia Plain: A Historical Geography, 1805-1910. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1968.

Messelt, Tom. A Layman and Wildlife. n.p.: 1971. 73 pp.

Morgan, George T., Jr. William B. Greeley: A Practical Forester, 1879-1955. St. Paul, MN: Forest History Society, 1961.

Nash, Roderick. Wilderness and the American Mind. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1967.

Nelson, Bruce. Land of the Dakotas. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1946.

Oakley, Robert D. The Phillipsburg Story: A History of the Phillpsburg Ranger District, 1905-1980. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Region 1, Deerlodge National Forest, August 1981. 228 pp.

Ogden, Gerald R., ed. The United States Forest Service: A Historical Bibliography, 1876-1972. Santa Cruz, CA: Forest History Society, 1973.

Oglesby, Richard Edward. Manuel Lisa and the Opening of the Missouri Fur Trade. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.

Otis, Aleson T.; Honey, William D.; Hogg, Thomas C.; and Lakin, Kimberly K. The Forest Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps: 1933-1942. USDA Forest Service, FS—395. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986. 219 pp.

Parker, Watson. Deadwood: The Golden Years. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1981.

Paul, Rodman Wilson. Mining Frontiers of the Far West, 1848-1880. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1963.

Peters, William Stanley, and Johnson, Maxine C. Public Lands in Montana: Their History and Current Significance. Montana State University, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Regional Study No. 10. Missoula, MT. 1959. 69 pp.

Pinchot, Gifford. Breaking New Ground. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1947; Reprinted by Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1972. 552 pp.

Pomeroy, Earl S. The Pacific Slope: A History of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah and Nevada. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1965. 412 pp.

Reese, Rick; Graetz, Rick, Aitchison, Stewart Alt, Dave; and Phillips, Wayne. Montana's Mountain Ranges. Helena: Montana Magazine, 1981.

Reynolds, Robert V., and Pierson, Albert H. Lumber Cut of the United States, 1870-1920: Declining Production and High Prices as Related to Forest Exhaustion. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 1119. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1923. 63 pp.

Riegel, Robert E. The Story of the Western Railroads. New York: Macmillan, 1926. 208 pp.

Robbins, Roy M. Our Landed Heritage: The Public Domain, 1776-1936. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1942; Reprinted. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1962. 450 pp.

Roberts, Paul H. Hoof Prints on Forest Ranges: The Early Years of National Forest Range Administration. San Antonio, TX: Naylor Press, 1963. 151 pp.

Robinson, Elwyn B. History of North Dakota. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966.

Robinson, Glen O. The Forest service: A Study in Public Land Management. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975. 368 pp.

Ronda, James P. Lewis and Clark Among the Indians. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.

Roth, Dennis M. The Wilderness Movement and the National Forests. College Station, TX: Intaglio Press, 1988. 92 pp.

Schell, Herbert S. History of South Dakota. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1975.

Shaw, Charlie. The Flathead Story. Kalispell, MT: USDA Forest Service, Flathead National Forest, 1967. 145 pp.

Smith, Duane A. Rocky Mountain Mining Camps: The Urban Frontier. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1967.

Smith, Steve. Fly the Biggest Piece Back. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press, 1979. 278 pp.

Space, Ralph S. The Clearwater Story: A History of the Clearwater National Forest. Missoula, MT: USDA Forest Service, Northern Region, 1964. 163 pp.

Spence, Clark C. Montana: A History. New York: W.W. Norton, 1976.

Steen, Harold K. The Forest Service. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1976.

Strong, Clarence C., and Webb, Clyde S. White Pine: King of Many Waters. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press, 1970. 212 pp.

Sunder, John E. The Fur Trade on the Upper Missouri, 1840-1865. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1965.

Swan, Kenneth D. Splendid Was the Trail. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press, 1968. 170 pp.

Thompson, Larry S. Montana's Explorers: The Pioneer Naturalists. Helena: Montana Magazine, 1985.

Trenholm, Virginia Cole, and Carly, Maurine. The Shoshonis: Sentinels of the Rockies. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964.

Turney-High, Harry Holbert. Ethnography of the Kootenai. Menasha, WI: American Anthropological Association, 1941.

Twaites, Reuben Gold, ed. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 1804-1806. New York: Antiquarian Press, 1959.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Western Range: Letter from the Secretary of Agriculture Transmitting in Response to Senate Resolution No. 289, A Report on the Western Range A Great but Neglected Natural Resource. Senate Doc. 199, 74th Cong.. 2nd. Sess. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1936. 620 pp.

Walker, Deward E., Jr. Indians of Idaho. Moscow: University of Idaho Press, 1978.

Webb, Walter Prescott. The Great Plains. Boston: Ginn and Company, 1931.

Widner, Ralph R. Forests and Forestry in the American States. Washington, D.C.: Association of State Foresters, 1968. 255 pp.

Winther, Oscar Osburn. The Great Northwest: A History. New York: Knopf, 1950.

Wishart, David J. The Fur Trade of the American West, 1807-1840: A Geographical Synthesis. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979.

Wood, Nancy. Clearcut: The Deforestation of America. San Francisco: Sierra Club, 197l. 151 pp.

Wood, John V. Railroads Through the Coeur d'Alenes. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Printers, 1983. 195 pp.


The major journals for articles relating to forest history in the Northern Region include Forest History, Journal of Forestry, American Forestry, The Timberman, Journal of Range Management, North Dakota History, and Montana, Magazine of Western History. Selected articles from these and other sources are listed below.

Benedict, Warren V. "The Fight Against Blister Rust: A Personal Memoir," Forest History 17 (October 1973):21-28.

Billings, C.L.; Rettig, B.C.; Baggs, John T.; and Rapraeger, E.F. "Forest Management by Potlatch Forests, Inc., with Special Reference to Clearwater County, Idaho," Journal of Forestry 40 (May 1942):364-70.

Blackorby, Edward C. "Theodore Roosevelt's Conservation Policies and Their Impact upon America and the American West," North Dakota History 25 (Oct. 1958):107-17.

Champ, F.P. "National Parks and National Forests in Relation to the Development of the Western States," Proceedings of the American Forestry Association (1941), pp. 11-22.

Chapman, Herman Haupt. "The Case of the Public Range," American Forests 54 (February 1948):56-60, 92-93; 54 (March 1948):116-18, 136, 138-39.

DeVoto, Bernard. "The Smokejumpers," Harper's 203 (Nov. 1951):54-61.

Dutton, W.L. "History of Forest Service Grazing Fees," Journal of Range Management 6 (Nov. 1953):393-98.

Dyche, William K. "Log Drive on the Clearwater," Forest History 5 (Fall 1961):2-12.

Elgin, Max. "Girard, A Timberfaring Man of the Mountains," American Forests and Forest Life 30 (Jan. 1924):34-35, 51-52.

Girard, James W. "Forest Service Stumpage Appraisals," Journal of Forestry 15 (Oct. 1917):708-25.

Gisborne, Harry T. "Principles of Measuring Forest Fire Danger." Journal of Forestry 34 (Aug. 1936):786-93.

Godwin, David P. "The Evolution of Fire-Fighting Equipment," American Forests 45 (Apr. 1939):205-07.

Hidy, Ralph. "Lumbermen in Idaho: A Study in Adaptation to Change in Environment," Idaho Yesterdays 6 (Winter 1962):2-17.

Hutchinson, S. Blair. "A Century of Lumbering in Northern Idaho," The Timberman 39 (Aug. 1938):30.

Loveridge, Earl W. "The Fire Suppression Policy of the U.S. Forest Service," Journal of Forestry 42 (Aug. 1944):549-554.

McArdle, Richard E. "The Forest Service's First Fifty Years," Journal of Forestry 53 (Feb. 1955):99-106.

Merriam, Lawrence C., Jr. "The Bob Marshall Wilderness Area of Montana" Some Socioeconomic Considerations," Journal of Forestry 62 (Nov. 1964):789-795.

Olson, David S. "The Savenac Nursery," Forest History 11 (July 1967):15-21.

Rakestraw, Lawrence. "Forest Missionary: George Patrick Ahern, 1894-1899," Montana. Magazine of Western History 9 (Oct. 1959):36-44.

Rapraeger, E.F. "Frontier Sawmill," The Timberman 42 (May 1941):14-15, 36.

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Last Updated: 10-Sep-2008