History of The Willamette National Forest

Chapter II

The period from 1898-1905 in the history of the Willamette National Forest was one of changes trending toward protection of the forested land and alpine meadows, custodial management of resources, and an evolution toward professional land management and a federalized type of administration, which culminated in the Regional (District) system of administration. In some areas of the West, and the Pacific Northwest, it was a scene of stress with major problems in reconciling differing interests. This was particularly true of the range lands of Oregon, and the timbered lands in northwestern Washington. For the middle Cascades of Oregon, by contrast, it was a period of quiet transition, and minimum differences in reconciling interests of various groups. The period is one relatively neglected by historians, who in their study of the emotional geology of the conservation movement tend to stress the spectacular episodes of volcanism rather than the quiet process of sedimentation or the concealed ones of metamorphism.


The Sundry Appropriations Act of 1897 gave several administrative agencies duties in the forest reserves. The U.S. Geological Survey had $150,000 appropriated to survey the forest reserves already created, or to be created, A division of Geography and Forestry was created within the agency to handle surveying and mapping of the reserves, and to collect data on their resources. Administration of the reserves was handled by the General Land Office. The Division of Forestry and, after 1901, Bureau of Forestry in the Department of Agriculture had no jurisdictional power, but worked with the Department of the Interior to supply technical data and make recommendations for forest policy. [1]

At this point it will be desirable to digress and examine the state of the land which was included in what later became the Willamette National Forest, the land use pattern and its people. The term "environmental impact statement" had not yet been invented, but the Survey's reports were its equivalent. Reports gave general descriptions by townships of drainage, topography, soils, vegetation, mineral locations, hot and mineral springs, wild and domesticated animal life, and land use of all types. They collected data on volume of standing timber, not only making their own estimates but also collecting information from the landlookers working for timber companies. They reported on burns and their origins, and on alienated land. The descriptions by Fred Plummer, who worked on the central part of the Cascade Range Reserve as far south as Township 18, and of Arthur Dodwell and Theodore Rixon, who worked on the area to the south, are valuable tools for the historian.

River valleys were vital factors in determining the pattern of settlement, transportation routes, and resource utilization. In the north the North Fork of the Santiam with its tributaries the Little North Fork and the Breitenbush, were routes into the interior. To the south the Santiam, the McKenzie, and the Middle Fork of the Willamette played the same role. Wagon roads, trails, and projected railroads followed the valleys, and settlers made their homes where transportation was available; while major river valleys provided the easiest access to reach the passes to the other side of the mountains.

In the Detroit area, commercial logging had developed early. The Corvallis and Eastern Railroad, was built from Mill City to Idanha, a town two miles east of Detroit. The plan of the railroad promoters was to continue the line across the mountains by way of Hogg Pass (Santiam Pass), and several miles of right-of-way had been cleared east of Idanha The railroad however, did encourage logging in the Detroit area, where two sawmills operated from time to time, and where a shingle mill was built at Idanha. Some cutting developed also on the lower reaches of the Breitenbush River. Timber speculators used existing agricultural land laws to secure often fraudulent timber claims.

Breitenbush Hot Springs, homesteaded at an early time, was already well known as a health resort. There were two tubs hollowed out of rock and a bath house built of shakes. Access to the springs was by trail; the trail continued on to connect with a wagon road on the east side of the Cascade Range. Another well known trail, the Minto Trail, led up the North Fork of the Santiam. There was also a network of poor roads and trails on the Little North Fork of the Santiam, where some mining speculation was going on. Mining in the Little North Santiam Mining District came in several waves—discovery in the 1850s, numerous claims in the 1860s, limited mining in the early 1880s, and large scale mining operations in the late 1890s, which extended for about 30 years. The Little North Fork Mining District produced only a reported $25,257 between 1880 and 1947. About 15 miles to the south is the Quartzville Mining District that was discovered in the 1880s. Most of the Quartzville mining activity occurred in the 1890s. Quartzville Mining District produced a reported $181,255 between 1880 and 1947.

To the south, the Willamette Valley and Cascade Mountain (Santiam) Wagon Road ran from Lebanon across the mountains to Prineville following the Santiam River and crossing the range at Santiam Pass. Near the reserve border, a side road ran to Quartzville, where there was a mining rush about the turn of the century. Further south, the McKenzie Wagon Road, which had been a toll road but after 1895 was a county road, crossed the mountains by way of McKenzie Pass. The McKenzie Valley was the most settled of the river valleys. Some ranchers and stockmen settled in the area near McKenzie Bridge, and a summer hotel was located there also. Two popular resorts, Foley Springs and Belknap Springs, both near the wagon road, were served by stages from Eugene. There were a number of other hot or mineral springs not yet developed, such as Upper Soda on the Santiam and Terwilliger near the South Fork of the McKenzie. These were frequently visited by travelers. A mining boom had developed north of the community of Blue River in the 1880s but was about played out by 1903. The Blue River Mining District reportedly produced $173,780 from 1880 to 1947.

The Oregon Central Military Wagon Road followed the Middle Fork of the Willamette to cross the mountains at Willamette Pass. Most settlements in the area were on or near the road. They included farms and ranches near the present site of Lowell, where some logging also took place, Hazel Dell (now Oakridge) which had a post office and a store, Kitson Hot Springs, and several undeveloped hot springs on Salt Creek, and Rigdon Meadows, an important camping site for people traveling over the mountains. The series of large lakes on the west side of the divide—Waldo, Crescent, and Odell—were tourist attractions and were also viewed as reservoir sites. There were many trails in the area—Indian trails across the range, sheep trails into the high country, and trails to the Bohemia Mining District in the southwest, which was then experiencing a boom.

Few people had their homes in the area, but the roads and trails were thronged with a colorful variety of travelers. They included chittum bark collectors looking for fresh groves; Indians from the Warm Springs Reservation in search of huckleberries, fish, and employment in the western Oregon hopfields; hunters and fisherman; prospectors and landlookers for lumber companies; amateur naturalists like John Minto and John B. Waldo; professional scientists like Frederick W. Coville and Gifford Pinchot; sheepherders; horse dealers; and outlaws. [2]

All the townships in the reserve had been scorched by fire. Frederick V. Coville, during his six weeks reconnaissance of 1896, counted 40 forest fires, some large, most of them small. The U.S. Geological Survey compiled a long list of fires. Of the 27 that they could date, seven had occurred before white settlement. Indians used fire as a tool for food gathering, firing meadows to kill and roast grasshoppers, to hunt deer, and probably for signaling. White settlers burned down trees to get them out of the way when clearing land, and some sheepherders set fire to mountain meadows to encourage a new growth of grass. Both Indians and whites were in the habit of igniting alpine trees at night for the "stately and magnificent" effect. In the mountains, fire was responsible for many of the meadows now grown up to huckleberries, as well as for snags in the timbered areas. [3]


Administration of the reserves was under jurisdiction of the General Land Office (GLO) in the Department of the Interior. Traditionally, the GLO had been in charge of the survey and sale of the public domain, and enforcement of laws guarding its occupancy. It was the most politicized division of the Department of the Interior, and often had been rocked with scandals. At the time the reserves were created, the Commissioner of the GLO was Binger Hermann of Oregon. Hermann was an enigmatic figure. He had some knowledge of the land use problems of Oregon, and some of his suggestions on management made sense. On the other hand, he was given to nepotism, and had a large number of relatives on the Federal payroll as Land Office agents; and he was alleged to have the habit of granting special favors to cronies. [4]

The administration of the GLO can be divided into two phases, 1897-1901 and 1901-1905. No plan was developed for administration, but only $18,000 was appropriated for fiscal 1897-98. This provided funding for only a few field men. Appropriations for fiscal 1898-99 went up to $200,000 and were raised in subsequent years. At first, the administration was in the hands of the special agents of the General Land Office. By 1899, however, a somewhat decentralized system of administration was adopted.

The 36 existing forest reserves in the West were divided into nine districts, each having a general office with an officer with the title of Forest Superintendent in charge. Each district in turn was divided into supervisor's districts, the number depending on the area of the reserve and its topography. For each supervisor's district there was appointed a forest supervisor. Each reserve was divided into patrol districts, with a ranger appointed for each. Rangers were appointed on a seasonal basis, serving from May 2 until October 15. Rangers reported to superintendents who in turn reported to and received orders from the Commissioner of the General Land Office.

In Oregon, three supervisor's districts were set up in 1898. The Northern Division of the Cascade Range Reserve and the Bull Run Reserve were under supervisor William Henry Harrison Dufur; the Central Division under Ralphael "Ralph" Berton Dixon (who was replaced in 1900 by his brother Enos Dixon); and the Southern Division under Nathaniel "Nat" Langell. Forty rangers were assigned for the 1899 season: 37 for the Cascade Range Reserve, two for Bull Run, and one for Ashland. The Superintendent was Capt. Salmon B. Ormsby, of Salem. Appointment to ranger or other positions was largely a matter of political patronage. [5]

As time went on changes occurred. In April 1901, Gifford Pinchot wrote at length on the forest problems to Malcolm Moody, Congressman from The Dalles area, and a strong supporter of conservation. Pinchot reported that the Geological Survey work was temporary, consisting of mapping and describing the forest, and establishing permanent boundaries on the ground. The General Land Office administered the reserves but had no trained foresters on its staff. On the other hand, the Division of Forestry, in the Department of Agriculture, worked largely to promote practical forestry among private owners, and reported on technical forestry matters at the request of the Secretary of the Interior. There was need to put the forests in charge of trained foresters, but titles to land and patents should remain in Interior. Both the Secretary of Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture agreed about this, but action was impossible In the short session of Congress. So a plan was agreed on, that technical problems related to the forest be referred to the Forester and his assistants, while the Department of the Interior furnished maps and other assistance. [6]

A series of changes occurred after 1901. In 1901 a forestry division was organized in the Interior Department, Division "R." Heading it was Filibert Roth, a trained forester who had worked under Bernhard Eduard Fernow for the Division of Forestry. Smith Riley and William Henry Boole Kent (with the initials W.H.B. he was also referred to as "Whisky High Ball" Kent), both forest school graduates, were named as chief rangers, Edward Tyson Allen as Inspector, and Henry J. Tompkins as forest expert. Various rules were made governing grazing permits, allowing permits for a five year period, and giving preference to people living in the vicinity of reserves. Local questions were to be decided on local grounds, and some provision for timber sales were made. [7]

Transfer of the Reserves from Interior to Agriculture was desired by the President, and by the Secretaries of both departments, but Congress acted with glacial slowness, and not until 1905 was the transfer made. Some changes did occur. Superintendent S.B. Ormsby resigned in 1902 probably as a result of his association in land fraud, and Binger Hermann resigned in 1903 because of allegations of mishandling land claims. Superintendent Ormsby was not replaced. Edward T. Allen and later Harold D. (Doug) Langille, as Inspectors, made recommendations which rid the Division of some of its incompetents. Meantime political influence in the department was lessened by President Roosevelt's decision to clear requests for political jobs with Malcolm Moody and Governor George E. Chamberlain of Oregon. In December 1904, just before the transfer of jurisdiction to Agriculture, the Division "R" staff were placed in Civil Service. [8]

Changes also occurred in the inner administration of the Division. Supervisors were given greater authority and direct communication with the Washington Office. They were given authority to issue free use permits, and to make timber sales under $20. Supervisors were given year-round appointments rather than the previous per year appointments. Rangers were divided into classes, first, second, and third, with wages per month respectively of $90, $75, and $60. They were allotted in proportion of one supervisor to one first class ranger, four in class two, and twelve in class three. Head rangers could supervise all ranger districts in a forest reserve, and act as deputy supervisors. Rangers of the first two classes were kept on year-round rather than being furloughed with the end of fire season, and gained their posts by promotion and knowledge. There was also hope of getting technically trained men as head rangers. [9]

As time went on, there developed a close symbiotic relationship between the Division of Forestry (changed to Bureau of Forestry in 1901) in the Department of Agriculture and Division "R" of the Department of the Interior. This division had the technically trained foresters. Gifford Pinchot himself worked as special agent in the Department of the Interior, without pay, inspecting the reserves and making recommendations. Forest experts within the Bureau of Forestry were used to locate and map areas suitable for new reserves, to make growth studies of commercially valuable trees, and to study range problems. A number of men had dual appointments, reporting both to Division "R" and to the Bureau. As it became increasingly apparent that the transfer of jurisdiction over the reserves would soon occur, the cooperation became closer. [10]

It is hard to arrive at an overall evaluation of the forest administration in the period 1898 to 1905 when the transfer from Interior to Agriculture took place. Pinchot in his autobiography gave it low marks, H.D. Langille somewhat higher. The evaluation by E.T. Allen was probably most accurate. As most writers agree, the administration was riddled with politics, which hindered a consistent administration of the forest lands. Yet progress was made in several areas: In decentralization of administration to some degree, and giving more authority in field offices; in developing free use policies, and grazing policies; and in cultivating favorable community relations. The USDA Forest Service, when it took jurisdiction, built on some firm foundations. [11]

The three Divisions of the Cascade Range Forest Reserve were reduced to two in 1902. In the Central Division, sixty-year-old Raphael "Ralph" B. Dixon was the first supervisor, serving in 1898 and 1899. Dixon was succeeded by his brother Enos Dixon in 1900. Enos served for two years, until the Central Division was eliminated and divided between the Northern Division under Miles P. Isenberg, who served for two years, and the Southern Division under Smith C. Bartrum in 1902, who served until 1907.


There were a large number of rangers who served in the area, some of whom, like Bartrum, continued in the Forest Service. These included Cyrus (Cy) James Bingham, ranger from 1903-1907 in the area; Addison Schuyler Ireland, who was transferred in 1906 to the Blue Mountains (West) Forest Reserve in eastern Oregon and later did some outstanding work in Alaska; Henry Ireland, who also went over to the east side; and William Haneman, patrolman at McKenzie Bridge who went over to state forestry. Capt. C.V. (or C.J.) Dodd, from Springfield, was a Civil War veteran with a full beard, whose equipment consisted of a pistol with four shells, two horses and a large badge; and Samuel Royal Thurston, who was a University of Oregon graduate and disabled Spanish American War veteran. Of others, most are only names whose records have not come to light: T.P. Claypool from Sisters; F.G. Connely and Z.O. (or Z.A.) Davis from Eugene; Jas D. Fay and Newt Ferrel from Salem; A.B. Haines and Ephriam Henries from Gates; F.V. (or S.V.) Herbert from Hazel Dell; W.A. "Andy" Hixon (or Hickson) from Elliston; A.W. Jones, F.L Kent, and James Kirkwood from Hull; Arthur B. Lacey from Parker; T.C. Lewis from Salem; L.R. Livermore from Eugene; Milton D. Markhorn, Ike Muller, W.H. Nash, and George Petriquin from Roseburg; Albert S. Powers from McKenzie Bridge; C.C. Presley, Sidney Scott, W.J. Stanley, and Robert W. Vetch from Cottage Grove. [12]

Records on Ralph Dixon, who died in 1930 at age 92, are scarce, but mention of him in the diaries of Addle L. Morris show him to have been a vigorous field man. [13] Smith C. Bartrum was a major figure in early Oregon conservation. A powerful stocky man, he came west from his home in Vermont and joined the reserve force as a ranger in 1899. He was not only a capable field man but highly skilled in public relations. In 1902, Bartrum was placed in charge of the newly enlarged Southern Division of the Cascade Range Forest Reserve. After the transfer he continued in the Forest Service and became the first Supervisor of the Umpqua National Forest, serving until 1920 when he retired. A picture of him at a 1907 Roseburg ranger meeting shows him in a business suit and bowler hat, in contrast to the field clothing worn by most of the rangers. [14]

Among the rangers, Cy Bingham and Addie Morris were noteworthy. Bingham was one of those legendary figures who show up often in records of old time rangers. A large, powerful man, standing well over six feet and weighing 258 pounds, he could take a hundred pound sack of flour in his teeth and toss it over his head. He was born in Michigan in 1870, came west, and worked as a miner and cowboy before becoming a ranger in 1903. He worked first in the Bohemia Mining District, then patrolled the forest from the McKenzie River south to Crater Lake. He traveled with his wife, who, like him, loved the outdoor life. He carried with him a timber scribe, and carved his name on so many trees in the high Cascades that at his retirement the Forest Service presented him in jest with a bill for the timber he had cut. [15] He continued with the Forest Service after the transfer, moving to the Malheur in 1907 and retiring in 1920.

Addle Morris was an important figure, largely because his diaries have survived. He was born in Harrisburg, Oregon in 1858. He was appointed ranger by the influence of Senator Thomas Tongue in 1899 at $60 per month, raised to $75 in 1902. His beat covered the area from West Boundary (Lowell) to the McKenzie divide, south to the Umpqua divide and east to Crescent and Davis Lakes. He built a cabin at Big Prairie near Oakridge, as headquarters. He received a Forest Service appointment but left the Service in April 1905 in order to put his children in school. To his diaries we are indebted to much of our information on the work of the Division "R" rangers on the Willamette National Forest. [16]

What were the activities of the rangers? Bartrum's correspondence with Morris, and the Morris diaries, give us a clear picture. In timber sales, for individuals or road supervisors who wanted timber for construction of bridges, the rule was that of free use, up to $20 value; for emergencies, the timber could be used and settlement made later. In grazing, the right of farmers to have a few head of stock was recognized; for the commercial grazers, the system of permits and allocated ranges was adhered to. Permits were to be issued for stock crossings. Morris was asked to gather statistics on homesteads and on all agricultural settlements. Free use of timber for settlers was to apply to dead and down timber only; for sales of standing timber, the areas were to be marked before cutting. Fire notices were to be posted, and reports indicating the cause and size of fires were to be made. In case of large fires, Morris had discretion to hire fire fighters. In case of timber trespass, the trespasser should be assessed $3 per thousand board feet.

Their activities were manifold. Cy Bingham built a cabin at the north end of Crescent Lake, and a series of trails in the high country from Crescent Lake to Diamond Lake and Crane Prairie. He worked on this in 1903 with Addie Morris and A.S. Ireland. Others worked on the Fall Creek trail and patrolled the area around Fish Lake. Patrol work was carried on from the Bohemia mines to Rigdon Ranch and West Boundary. Cabins were built at Rigdon Ranch, Fish Lake, and other areas. A trail was built from Hazel Dell to Foley Hot Springs, and from Foley Hot Springs to Horse Pasture, and up Horse Creek. A horse corral was built at Sparks Lake. A major part of rangers' work was in trail work and maintenance, in much of which they were assisted by campers and settlers.

The diaries of Addie Morris indicate the many duties of the rangers. They included surveying, examination of land claims and timber trespass, patrolling, and issuance of grazing permits. His instructions from the GLO dealt with patrol service, largely simple range riding; timber work, including marking timber, scaling logs, and examining cuttings; survey work, including both running lines and making timber estimates; and a variety of special works, including examining lands and rights-of-way, examining sites for mills, hotels at hot spring sites, reporting on and fighting fire, and examining allegations of game law violations. Other duties included burning brush, planting trees, erecting cabins, and acting as a government witness.

We find preliminaries to the fire lookout system in his diaries. On July 2, 1902, he wrote, "Rode up Lookout Mountain in company with Forest Ranger S.R. Thurston. Used my glass and found no fire in sight. We returned to camp. Distance traveled 8 miles." He dealt with the variety of people traveling in the forest. September 14, 1901, he wrote, "Left camp at 6:45 am. and went to Buck Creek. Met Forest Ranger Thurston. Passed two 4-horse freight teams going to valley, 83 2-horse teams of tourists and emigrants. Passed five bands of Indians for east mountains and returned at 4 p.m. Traveled 30 miles. Put fire notice at Hills. Put out camp fire near Hazel Dell post office."

Many entries are of interest. On July 27, 1903, he wrote, "left camp 7:30 am. on horseback and rode to Rigdon Ranch, found C.J. Bingham and instructed him on his duties as ranger." On July 31, "instructed Forest Ranger F.G. Connely on his duties." January 13, 1903, he collected plants and sprouts to send to the Pacific Coast Laboratory and Plant Improvement Gardens, Santa Ana, California From May until June 1904, he spent a good deal of time in dealing with chittum bark trespass. The bark of cascara tree (Rhamnus purshiana), also called bearberry, bearwood, cascara buckthorn, coffeeberry, coffee-tree, bitter bark, wahoo, and chittumwood, was used a great deal in patent medicines because of its tonic and laxative qualities, and collecting in Washington and Oregon was an important local industry. Large numbers of trees were destroyed annually by peeling. Morris was instructed by Bartrum to look for illegal cuttings in the Fall Creek area, and on May 14 he located the trespass on the ranch of C.A. Logan. A large number of trees had been cut and peeled, and 70 pounds of green bark collected, which would dry to 45 pounds. James Kleinsmith was found guilty of timber trespass. [17]

The work of ranger attracted many applicants; so many in fact that the General Land Office felt compelled to issue a warning. "The large number of applications for positions as forest rangers at the Cascade Forest Reserve Oregon, coming from men of every walk of life, some of them old men and invalids, has led to the announcement that the reserve is not primarily a sanatorium, and that only those will be appointed who are vigilant, vigorous, and fearless in dealing with violations of forest law." [18] Judge John Breckenridge Waldo, in his journal wrote, "The rangers are having a good time; but is this to be deplored? If at the expense of the masses of people, possibly so; but the people will get value received." [19] Generally speaking relationships of the rangers with the people were cordial, and their work in the forest, particularly in improving trails, was highly appreciated.

The period from 1898 to 1905 was an interesting transition time for the Middle Cascades. It was a period of a shift from no management to some management on a capable but not on a professional level. Steps were taken in building what later became the Skyline Trail; some principles of fire control and range management were established; and above all, the area became aware that the forests were under management. A great deal of the Forest Service program was carried over from the GLO administration.

On the national scene, the period from 1898 to 1905 was one of transition, involving a complex interplay of forces. On the political and bureaucratic side, it involved wise land decisions, which were often undercut by petty or corrupt actions. A dedicated field force made up in part of members of Division "R" of the Department of the Interior, and in part of professional foresters from the Division of Forestry in the Agriculture Department, slowly emerged. The public gradually accepted forest management; this acceptance was accompanied by rage at the corrupt forces that hindered such an administration.


1 This material is conveniently summarized in Jenks Cameron, The Development of Governmental Forest Control in the United States (Baltimore, 1928), 220-221.

2 Fred G. Plummer, "Central Portion of the Cascade Range Forest Reserve," 71-146; and Arthur Dodwell and Theodore Rixon, "Cascade Range Forest Reserve Between Townships 18 and 29 South," 144-228, in Forest Conditions in the Cascade Range Forest Reserve, Oregon, Professional Paper No.9 Series H, Forestry, 6 (Washington, U.S.G.P.O., 1903). James B. Cox Jr., Little North Santiam Mining District Cultural Resource Evaluation Report, (Eugene, OR, 1985).

3 Forest Conditions in the Cascade Range: Coville, Forest Growth, 29-38; Fred H. McNeil, Wy'east: The Mountain (Portland, 1937), 66.

4 Gifford Pinchot, Breaking New Ground (New York, 1947, is almost consistently critical of Hermann. Most writers have followed him. On the other hand, his writings and directives indicate some awareness of land problems and of common sense principles of management. He needs a good biography.) Also see Rakestraw, Forest Conservation, Chapters 3-6.

5 Binger Hermann, "Government Forests and their Preservation," The Forester, 5:4 (April, 1899), 76-79; Hermann, "The United States Forest Ranger System," The Forester, 5:9 (September, 1899), 195-199; The Forester, 7:12 (December, 1901), 298; Filibert Roth, "Administration of the U.S. Forest Reserves," Forestry and Irrigation, 8:4 (May, 1902), 191-193; Forestry and Irrigation, 8:6 (June, 1902), 241-243; Forestry and Irrigation, 8:7 (July, 1902), 279-282.

6 Gifford Pinchot to Malcolm Moody (n.d.) cited in The Forester, 7:4 (April, 1901), 98; Pinchot, Breaking New Ground, 193-196.

7 Filibert Roth, "Administration of Forest Reserves," Forestry and Irrigation, 8:4 (May, 1902), 191-193.

8 H.D. Langille, "Mostly Division R Days: Reminiscences of the Stormy, Pioneering Days of the Forest Reserves," Oregon Historical Quarterly, 57:4 (December, 1956), 301-313; Inspection Correspondence, E.T. Allen, 1899-1905, (microfilm from National Archives in this writer's possession); Elting Morison (ed.) The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt (Cambridge, 1950-1953), Vol. 3, 447, 572-573, 594-595; Rakestraw, Forest Conservation, 192-194.

9 Forestry and Irrigation, 8:6 (June, 1902), 241-243; 8:7 (July, 1902), 279-282.

10 Dana, Forest and Range Policy, 122-124; Coert DuBois, "Autobiography" in The Biltmore Immortals (Darmstadt, Germany, 1953), 149-197; E.T. Allen, Inspection Corr.

11 Edward Tyson Allen, "The Application and Possibilities of Federal Forest Reserve Policy," Society of American Foresters Proceedings, I (1905), 41-52.

12 Haneman and the two Ireland's are mentioned in Timberlines, 16 (June, 1961) 6-8, 26-28. A biography of Addison Schuyler Ireland is found in Timberlines, 14 (June, 1960) 40-41. Some of Asher Ireland's, younger brother of A.S. Ireland, later diaries while on the Umpqua National Forest are in Special Collections, University of Oregon. The Division "R" rangers and their work are mentioned in the Willamette National Forest Historical Collection (hereafter abbreviated as WNF/H); the Daily Eugene Guard in 1898 (August 8th, 9th, and 19th, Sept. 1st, and Oct. 20th) in 1899 (June 21st); Eugene Weekly Guard in 1898 (August 6th) and 1899 (June 24th); Eugene Register in 1898 (July 26th, August 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 30th, Sept. 7th, and Oct. 14th) and 1900 (Jan. 7th); and the Smith Bartrum papers, University of Oregon Special Collections.

13 The Ranger 6:5 (April, 1930), 35.

14 There is a great deal of material on Smith C. Bartrum. Some dealing with his Cascade Range Forest Reserve career include mentions in The Ranger, 1:1 (January 15, 1923), 15-16, 6:8 (October, 1931), 44, 7:2 (October, 1932), 20 and 8:1 (October, 1933), 23; Six Twenty-Six, 4:3 (February 5, 1920), 16 and 5:5-6 (May-June, 1921), 33; Timberlines, 14 (June, 1960), 38 and 19 (June, 1967), 104. The Cyrus Bingham file, WNF/H also has material on Bartrum, as do the Addie Morris papers. See also Bartrum papers, University of Oregon Special Collections, especially the manuscripts "U.S.F.S. History of Early Forest Work" (eight pages) and "Appointment as Ranger, June 1899" (fifty-two pages), which concern his initial appointment and his first summer on what is now the Umpqua National Forest. Other important papers in the collection concern letters of recommendation and appointment as Supervisor for the Southern Division of the Cascade Range Forest Reserve in 1902.

15 Some of Bingham's papers—not the most important ones—are in the University of Oregon Special Collections. The most valuable ones, however are in WNF/H. See also references to Bingham in the Bohemia Nugget, published at Cottage Grove, in 1903 (February 20th, July 31st, October 23rd, and October 30th); The Ranger, 7:1 (April, 1932), 24 and 45 and 8:1 (October, 1933), 29-30; Six Twenty-Six, 15:11 (November, 1931), 5 and 15:12 (December), 10; Timberlines, 16 (June, 1961), 2; Jerry L. Mosgrove, The Malheur National Forest: An Ethnographic History (John Day, 1980), 108-115.

16 Bingham and Morris files, WNF/H.

17 Morris diaries, WNF/H. On chittum bark, see George B. Sudworth, Forest Trees of the Pacific Slope (Washington, U.S.G.P.O., 1908), 404-407.

18 The Forester, 5:5 (May, 1899), 118.

19 John Breckenridge Waldo, Diaries and Letters from the High Cascades of Oregon, 1880-1907. With an introduction and survey by Gerald W. Williams (Eugene, 1989), entries for July 22, 1901, and September 3, 1903.



Coville's recommendations to reopen the Forest Reserves to sheep grazing were implemented by the General Land Office (GLO).

The Sundry Civil Appropriations Act (Organic Act) of July 1, 1897 (30 Stat. 597,618) made the first appropriation ($75,000) for protection and administration of the forest reserves. First forest rangers were hired during the summer months of 1898.

Gifford Pinchot succeeded Bernhard E. Fernow as chief of the USDA Division of Forestry, with the title of Forester.


The "Mineral Springs Leasing" Act of February 28 (30 Stat. 908) authorized the Secretary of the Interior to lease ground near or adjacent to mineral, medicinal, or other springs in forest reserves for the erection of sanitariums or hotels, under such regulations as he might prescribe. All receipts were to be covered into a special fund to be expanded in the care of public forest reservations.

The "Public Land Surveys" Act of March 3 (30 Stat. 1074) authorized the Secretary of the Interior to establish all standard, meander, township, and section lines within the forest reserves. The U.S. Geological Survey was to supervise the establishment and marking of the exterior boundaries of the reserves.

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