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Field Division of Education
Material Culture of the Pima, Papago, and Western Apache
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As there is little suitable for simply museum display, I merely append the sources. (Pima, Russell, 1908, 182-200; Parsons, 1928. Apache, Reagan, 301; 309-315; Bourke, 1892, 1890; Hodge, 1910, 63 et. seq.)


This might properly come under the discussion of religion and ceremonialism. References to paraphernalia and concepts will be found in the references given above. A list of plants is, however, known for the Pima. (Russell, 1908, 79-80.) It is undoubtedly incomplete.

Museum Display

Specimens of plants and their uses may be shown along with the food plant exhibit or may form a small separate case.


A large body of myths and poetical prayers and songs are used by all three people. These are in a large measure inaccessible in adequate translations. Russell's Pima translations warp the form of the original text almost beyond recognition and give no real flavor of the original. (Russell, 1908, 206 et. seq; Densmore, 1929; Walton and Waterman; Goddard, 1918; 1919a; 1919b; 1920; Lloyd.)

Historical annals were kept by the Pima by means of mnemonic stocks. These had a mark for each year and sometimes a symbol. They were meaningless, however, to anyone but the owner. (Russell, 1908, 34-66.)

Museum Display

A sketch of one of the mnemonic sticks and a portion of the annals with their symbols as given by Russell should be interesting. Emphasis should be laid on the different concept of what is historically important. Such a chart could be placed almost anywhere convenient in the museum room.

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Last Modified: Mon, Dec 24 2001 10:00:00 am PDT