The National Forests of the Northern Region
Living Legacy—


Collectively or individually, the authors of this work have participated in similar studies in the Southwest, the South, and now the Northern Region. In every instance, the participation and cooperation of those within the Regions have been critical. The foresters and staff of the Northern Region have been exceptional in their assistance and participation, and they have done so invariably in the critical spirit of "getting the story right." This work also has been facilitated by Judson N. Moore, the Regional History Coordinator, and Elizabeth L. Horn, Director of the Regional Information Office,

The authors have been uniquely assisted by the work, review, and advice of a special Northern Region Retirees History Advisory Committee, headed by Robert R. Milodragovich. The committee includes Jack Bennett (President of the Northern Rocky Mountain Retiree Association), Jack Puckett, Charles E. (Mike) Hardy, Anthony B. Evanko, Vern Thompson, Carl W. Wetterstrom, Dallas W. Beaman, and the late Henry J. Viche. The committee and other readers labored over the preliminary drafts of the manuscript and offered valuable direction and advice; however, this does not mean that they totally agree with the contents of the finished document. Their concern and considerable efforts are appreciated. The authors also wish to thank many people within the Region for sharing their information and views. They, too, may not approve or condone this work, but the authors are nonetheless grateful.

Neal Rahm, a former regional forester, played an important role in helping establish the general perceptions and approaches for the writing and research. Ray Karr offered insightful suggestions relating to the environmental controversies of the 1960's. Retired forester Bill Sharp assisted in developing the Civilian Conservation Corps history. Zone archaeologist Milo McCleod provided useful early directions. The retired and active foresters from the Region listed under "Correspondence" or "Interviews" in the bibliography also provided valuable input.

During the course of the research, the authors visited each national forest headquarters and the Regional Office and were greatly assisted by the staff and personnel at every level. Forest supervisors who should be particularly acknowledged for their personal assistance include Frank E. Salomonsen (Deerlodge, now retired), the late Robert S. Morgan (Bitterroot), Robert S. Gibson (Helena), Curtis W. Bates (Custer), and Tom Kovalicky (Nez Perce). Many foresters and staff in the visited ranger districts provided their time and assistance, and the authors are truly grateful. Dr. Will Clark is particularly appreciated; he loaned the authors original source materials from the Custer National Forest library.

Major research collections used include the Federal Records Center collections and the National Archives Collections in Seattle, the Montana Historical Library in Helena, the University of Montana Mansfield Library in Missoula, and the University of Idaho Library in Moscow. The forestry collections at Stephen F. Austin State University in Nacogdoches, Texas, and the documentary and secondary resources of the Texas A&M University Library provided essential reference and documentary sources. Professor Dale Johnson, archivist at the Mansfield Library, has kindly consented to house the materials collected in the course of this study.

There are many others, unnamed here, who have the authors' heartfelt thanks for the assistance they provided. Especially appreciated is the response from the many retirees who agreed to provide anecdotes and experiences from their careers in the Region. Not all of these have been used in the manuscript, but they have been preserved in the University of Montana archives. They have been acknowledged in the reference notes and in the bibliography.

The authors would also like to thank Regional Forester James C. Overbay (now Deputy Chief, USDA Forest Service) and former Regional Forester John W. Mumma as facilitators of this work. Last, but not least, the authors thank former Forest Service historian Dr. Dennis M. Roth for his critical review of the manuscript and his willing responses to questions or problems and his successor Dr. Terry West, who, near the close of the project, provided advice and assistance and faced some difficult editorial and policy decisions.

The use of trade or firm names in this publication is for reader information and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture of any product or service.

Forest Service—Northern Region. (click on image for a PDF version)

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Last Updated: 10-Sep-2008