The Early Days:
A Sourcebook of Southwestern Region History — Book 2


From the Arizona Star.

December 10, 1913.

Headline: New Plan for Locating Forest Fires.

Telegraph and telephone poles along the railway lines are to play an important part in the work of fighting forest fires as a result of plan just worked out by the Chief Warden of the State. The poles along the right of way of each railway are to be numbered consecutively while the engineers traveling through districts where there is danger of fire are to be supplied with cards. On the discovery of a fire, the engineer will mark the number of the pole nearest the blaze and will then throw the card from his cab window to the first section crew that he passes. Under the present rule an engineer is required to report a fire at his first stop and much valuable time is sometimes lost in locating a section crew and dispatching it to the scene of the fire. Under the new plan this delay will be eliminated.

Arizona Star.

July 29, 1916.

Headline: 500 Plots Laid Off for Homes in the Catalinas. Will be Leased for Maximum Term of 30 Years at $10 to $25 per Year.

That the land in the Forest Reserve about Soldiers Camp in the Catalinas will be surveyed shortly and approximately 500 plots for homes laid off, was the statement made by Forest Supervisor Don P. Johnston at the meeting of the Tucson Luncheon Club yesterday noon at the Santa Rita Hotel.

These plots will be up to five acres in size and can be leased for a period up to 30 years. He stated that already SO applications had been received for such allotments. Mr. Johnston also stated that the complete maps and data for the Mt. Lemmon Highway would be ready within 2 weeks. He said that the work of compiling these maps and the data had taken quite as long as the work of the survey itself.

Tucson Citizen.

September 29, 1916.

Headline: Rangers Wanted For U. S. Forests.

Through the office of the Forest Service, the Civil Service Commission announces that examinations for the position of Forest Ranger will be held at all Forest stations in New Mexico and Arizona on October 30. The registry that resulted from examinations held in 1915 has been exhausted, and a number of appointments will probably be made within the next year from the registry that will be made at the coming examinations. To qualify for positions with the Forest Service, applicants must be between the ages of 21 and 40, be capable of enduring hardships and dangers, and passing a medical examination. The construction of cabins, telephone lines and trails, together with the performance of practical field work are included in the list of duties for which applicants must qualify. The examination is competitive. Rangers are started at an annual salary of $1100. Blanks for filing applications to take the examination may be secured at the Office of the Forest Supervisor, 40 West Pennington St.

Albuquerque Morning Journal.

October 7, 1916.

Headline: Forest Exhibit at El Paso Will Be Interesting. Unusual Feature of Display to Be Made by Service Consists of Showing of Windbreak Planting,

An exhibit devoted to forest windbreak planting, preservative treatment of farm timbers, and the administration of the national forests in their relation to the farmers of the West has been prepared for the International Soil Products Exposition at El Paso, Texas, October 14 to 17.

The central feature of the display is a miniature growing windbreak made of young trees of the various species suited for windbreak planting in the Southwest, and properly spaced as they would be in a full grown shelterbelt. Daily demonstrations of the proper manner of tree planting will be given at this exhibit.

Two models of 160-acre farms, one in the north and one in the south, show the proper location and composition of windbreaks. The shelter afforded by the rows and groves of the proper kind of trees upon farms in the sub-humid regions of the United States is most important in the economics of the farming in these regions. Crops and livestock will thrive better and the homestead will be more comfortable if sheltered from the drying winds of summer and the chilling winds of winter by well-placed windbreaks. It is important, however, that the right species be selected and that they be spaced properly and handled wisely. Information concerning these matters is given on charts showing prevailing winds during the growing season in the various regions, and in "Ten Rules for Windbreak Owners" and "Fourteen Don'ts for Tree Planters." Colored enlargements, transparent pictures and stereopticon views of windbreaks and windbreak handling will also be shown.

Another feature of the exhibit will be an actual working model of two types of post treating plants suitable for use by farmers in treating fenceposts and other farm timbers with preservatives. Many species of timber which rot quickly in contact with the ground if treated with preservatives can be made to last 3 or 4 times longer than if left untreated.

A system of fire protection upon the national forests will be shown by the miniature of a typical lookout tower from which the forest guard watches for signs of fire. The telephone system with the wires strung on swinging insulators from the trees, weatherproof telephones for use in exposed situations, the portable telephone with which the wires can be tapped at any point, and the fire-fighting tools and other equipment in a fire-fighting tool box placed at convenient locations throughout the forest. In this connection, a model camp is also shown with a campfire built safely, so as to prevent forest fires arising, as so many do arise, from campfires improperly built.

A model of a portion of a typical national forest shows various activities and uses of interest to farmers living in national forest states. Besides the fire protection system, the model depicts the grazing of livestock, the disposing of timber, watershed protection, and the improvement of the forest by roads, trails and bridges.

A very live exhibit which has attracted much attention wherever shown and which is to be displayed at El Paso, is a working erosion model. This model demonstrates that [sic] by the use of water sprinkled on mounds of actual soil representing forested and de-forested hills, the protection from soil erosion and floods afforded by a forest cover on slopes.

Mr. C. A. Lindstrom of the Forest Service, Washington. D.C. will be in charge of the exhibit and will give continuous demonstrations and distribute literature.

Silver City Independent.

November 28, 1916.

Headline: Proposed Increase in Forest Grazing. Rates Too Low, says Government. (By J.W. Miller, Secretary, New Mexico Cattle & Horse Growers Association.)

A plan to increase the grazing fee on the several national forests in New Mexico through a period of 3 years so that in 1919 the fees will be double those now charged, is announced by the District Forest Service office. The basis for this increase is well set forth in a letter from the Secretary of Agriculture D. F. Houston, To T. W. Tomlinson, Secretary of the American National Livestock Association, under date of November 3. The increase as proposed starts with all permits issued after March 1, 1917 and amounts to from 25% to 33% over the present charges, with like increases for the 2 succeeding years. Before taking final action on this matter, the Secretary of Agriculture asks that the stockmen in the country affected present their case and they will be given until Feb. 1, 1917 to file answer.

According to the letter of the Secretary of Agriculture, full consideration has been given to the matter of increasing the present grazing fees. He sets forth as a basis for this proposed action the fact that the Forest Service has been criticized in the past for not being self-supporting, and in place of an assist, the national forests are a drain on the national treasury. While timber from the forests has been sold on a commercial and competitive basis the grazing is being sold at extremely low rates.

Further, it is pointed out that since the forest grazing areas are not capable of taking care of all the stock for which applications are made those who fail to obtain permits are forced to pay higher rates for grazing on private lands, and it is claimed that stockmen who use forest ranges are receiving undue financial advantage over those who must either lease or buy land upon which to graze their stock.

It appears that an extensive study has been made by the government authorities to determine the relation between the rates on national forests and those paid on private lands. The study includes some 900 cases involving lands in the vicinity of forest ranges, covering private and state lands, reclamation withdrawals, Indian reservations, and railroad lands. It was found that the average charge a month for grazing on national forests was 1.4 cents a head for sheep and 3.9 cents a head for cattle. At the same time it was found that the average charge a month for grazing on private land was 3.6 for sheep and 11.7 a head for cattle — or that the Forest Service charges are but 36% of those paid on private lands.

The Government people claim that while they are furnishing grazing at a price far below that paid outside the national forests they cannot expect to make charges as great as obtained on other lands, as the forests are organized to protect and produce timber, to regulate the flow of streams and prevent erosion, There are certain restrictions that must be enforced and the grazing privileges are not so valuable as on private lands, where the stock-raiser has the liberty to do as he wishes. They contend that the grazing privileges on the national forests are worth about twice what is being paid at present, or about two-thirds the average price for the use of other lands. They assert that the reduction of one-third is a liberal allowance for the special restrictions and conditions under which the grazing permits are issued.

It is planned that all grazing permits to be issued after March 1, 1917 will be at the increased rate. During the first year the increase on cattle will be 12 cents to 20 cents a head for yearlong periods and with a proportionate increase for shorter periods. What this increase will mean in the forests of New Mexico is shown by the following table:


ForestPresent Rate 19171918 1919
Santa Fe.

The rate for sheep and goats is based on the rate for cattle at 25% of the above rates with a corresponding increase. The increase for horses will be made in the same manner, to be 25% to 40% more than the rate for cattle. The rate for swine is to be 25% to 40% less than the cattle rate, throughout.

It will be noted that the increase in the Datil and Gila Forests are greater than in other forests of the State. This, according to the Forest Service, is in accordance with the difference in the value of the grazing privileges on certain forests. It is claimed that the grazing permits on some forests are more valuable than on others, the forage being of superior value, the proximity to market, open range and farming area where winter feed can be secured, making the grazing privilege worth more than on areas less favorably situated.

The foregoing is the Forest Service side of the question and undoubtedly is well founded in its chief contention. However, the question of the justness to the stockmen of the proposed increase will have to be gone into in more detail. The Forest Service claims that they are not making expenses, that in place of an asset, the national forests are a liability to the nation as regards the grazing. On the other hand, the question will be asked: Is the forest being as efficiently managed as possible? Are they getting value received for their money? Yet the mere assertion that their overhead expense in grazing management is too great will not prove the point, but a rather exhaustive study of the matter may prove it.

On the other hand, the contention of the stockmen may be well founded in the assertion that the grazing in not worth the proposed increase. Does grazing on private land, railroad land, Indian reservations, land grants, and land bought outright coat what the government authorities claim it does — particularly in this State. It is difficult to see why the grazing rate that is now uniform in all the forests of the State should in two forests be increased so much more than in all the rest. In the case of the Datil and Gila forests the proposed increase is for greater than in any of the others and the advantage for these two are not evident.

The state Forestry Advisory Board has been notified of the proposed increase and will probably meet to consider the matter in all its phases in a very short time. This board is composed of William R. Morley, Dick Culberson, and Hugh L. Hodge. Governor McDonald has recently been added to the Board to represent the Alamo Forest.

Final action and any petition to maintain the present grazing rates will come through the national association. The National Advisory Board will have this matter under advisement, and the whole question will no doubt be brought up for an extended discussion at the next annual convention of the American National Livestock Association at Cheyenne in January. In the meantime this Association must learn the wishes of its individual members in regard to this increase, and must make a detailed study of what grazing outside the national forest is costing the stockmen in New Mexico.

The result of such an investigation will be presented to the National Advisory Board for their consideration. It may be found that the scheduled increase is just and equitable in certain districts but decided unfair in others. The Secretary is very desirous of hearing from members of this association who will be affected by this change to obtain their beliefs and desires in the matter.

Arizona Star.

December 3, 1916.

Headline: Hardy Forest Ranger Conquers Obstacles with his Trusty Ford.

The experiences of a forest ranger with a new Ford are told in a letter to Forest Supervisor Don P. Johnston from Don S. Sullivan, a ranger in the New Mexico Division of the Chiricahua Forest, who has just bought one of the machines. Sullivan's official report of the matter is as follows:

"I have purchased a Ford this week and the designs I left on the road, while not copyrighted, have drawn considerable attention. When I first started it up it was a success until I tried to stop it, and as I did not know the combination, I failed on this point."

"After circling the yard twice I concluded I needed about four more gates and as the only gate was closed. I compromised between the gateposts and took the gate on the northwest corner of the radiator. The conquest seemed to stimulate Lizzie and I was carried on an independent excursion over the mesquite thickets. I soon caught sight of an authority on Fords and tried to draw his attention by following his lead. By a flank movement he boarded and shut off the gas."

"By a liberal supply of paint and by moving the accordian bellows design out of the starboard fender, Lizzie and I have been able to recognize each other and expect to become fast friends."

Supervisor Johnston states that a number of Forest Rangers have been getting Fords recently to assist them in their work.

Arizona Star.

December 5, 1916.

Headline: Arizona Forest Ranger Transmits his Report in Wireless Message.

Subhead: Outfit costs $75 Whereas a Phone line would have cost $4,000.

A message received here this morning from District Forester Redington, who is inspecting the Apache National Forest in Arizona, states that a wireless message was transmitted yesterday from the Baseline Ranger Station to Clifton, a distance of 40 miles. This is believed to be the first time that wireless had been used in transacting national forest business.

The outfit was installed by Forest Ranger Warner and Ray Potter of Clifton, and cost $75. An ordinary telephone line between Clifton and Baseline would cost at least a hundred dollars per mile, or $4,000. The transmittal of the message demonstrates the practicability of overcoming the heavy static incident to the dry climate of the Southwest, and forest officers hope that wireless telephoning will be the next development in the national forest communication system. Wireless telephoning would eliminate the cost of special telegraph operators incident to an ordinary wireless system, and would be of incalculable value in combatting forest fires and transacting general forest business.

Tucson Citizen.

December 18, 1916.

Headline: A Self-sustaining Forest Service (from Flagstaff Sun).

While there are many good things about the Forest Service to take into consideration so far as the work has gone, there is one thing that is somewhat amusing when they make the statement that they propose to make the Forest Service "Self-sustaining." The general public was under the impression that the Forest Service was an institution for the protection of the forests of the country — that is, the trees that grew up a few hundred years ago in spite of the now Forest Service. It now appears that by the selling of this great area of virgin timber it is impossible to keep up the overhead expenses and pay the people who are handling the timber for the Government.

Give an ordinary rancher 160 acres of timbered land and he could usually sell it at a profit. The Forest Service has been unable to handle the virgin timber on that basis; the great point with them has been the "conservation of resources," whatever that may be.

Now with all the power given them by the great government of the United States to go and take that which would seem best to their purposes they claim that with all their stock-in-trade given to them they feel that more must be taken from the people in order that they can show profits to the Government.

It is a poor tradesman who can't make a living and pay expenses, when made a present of a stock of goods, if he wants the one who made him the present of the stock of goods to pay for the help and the overhead charges to get away with the gain. That is the exact condition of the Forest Service's contention today.

The timber turned over to them cannot be made to pay the expense of handling. Millions have been spent in excess of their "stock-in-trade" — a free gift; now it is proposed that they can raise the rate of postage, or rather grazing fees: they have absolute power, and there you are.

In other words, we have our own store, our own men, and there is no other store and no other men. If you can beat our combination you will surprise us.

If the Forest Service cannot pay expenses in handling the timber of the west, why should the stockmen and ranchers pay for it? That's the point.

The honest Wall Street broker and the poor man of the East firmly believe that the pioneer has taken too much away from him in the great frauds perpetrated on the Forest Service, and there should be some contribution.

Gladly we find that we are reserved for Indians, forests, power sites, national parks, monuments, land grants, Geological Survey, guide posts, etc., etc., but it does not seem reasonable that we should be responsible to the financial agent arbitrarily appointed over us to pay the expenses of all the people he feels freely disposed to appoint to see that we pay the freight.

El Paso Herald.

January 6, 1917 (An editorial).

Title: Raising the Grazing Fees.

Growers of cattle and sheep in New Mexico and Arizona are very properly aroused over an announcement by the United States Forest Service that charges for grazing livestock in the national forests are to be doubled in order to wipe out the deficit under [which] the Forest Service has been laboring and give it a balance on the credit side. Efforts will be made at the convention of the National Woolgrowers Association in Salt Lake on January 6 and at the meeting of the American National Livestock Association in Cheyenne January 18 - 21 to convince Secretary of Agriculture Houston of the unwisdom of saddling this deficit upon the stockgrowers. The Secretary will be present at the convention of the American National Livestock Association when the subject is discussed.

The position of the Secretary of Agriculture is that there is a deficit of $2,500,000 in the Forest Service fund; that Congress is continually asking why this Service cannot be made self-supporting, and that the Department of Agriculture, stung by the criticism, has determined to find some means of removing the deficit and has turned to the grazing permits as the source of income most available for an increase.

The opposition of the stockgrowers to an increase is based on the contention that the rates are already as high as they can afford to pay; that it is unfair to load the deficit upon them when there are 82 activities upon which the Forest Service spends money, many of which have no connection however remote, with the livestock industry and that when many of the grazing districts are already more than self-supporting, it is most unfair to increase the grazing rate of stockgrowers in those districts any further.

This is a sound contention. The Forest Service should first survey its expenditures to see if they may not be reduced. If not, and the great timber tracts of the Pacific Coast which have been withdrawn from entry in order to protect the watersheds, and the southern forests, withdrawn to protect the turpentine industry, cannot be made self-supporting, then the expense of their administration should be borne by the Federal Government as a measure of general public benefit. At the same time it might be fair to raise the rates somewhat in those grazing districts which are not self-supporting. But a doubling of the rates on all grazers, however situated, in order to make them bear the burden of Forest Service activities is not fair and the stockmen are right in fighting the proposal.

Tucson Citizen.

February 12, 1917.

Headline: Few Deer Bagged in Arizona in 1916.

Dateline: Albuquerque, February 12.

Five hundred seventy four deer, 597 turkeys, 25 bears, 28 wolves, and 39 mountain lions were killed by hunters in the Arizona National Forests during the season just passed, according to the District Forester's annual report on game conditions submitted today to the State Game Warden.

The number of deer killed is 46% less than in 1915, 35% less than in 1914, and 24% less than in 1913, says District Forester Redington. It is safe to assume that the number of hunters has increased. These figures, therefore, indicate an alarming decrease in the supply of deer. They speak for themselves as to the need for more game protective associations, prompt establishment of game refuges, better laws and above all, better law enforcement.

The report shows that the number of predatory animals killed has also decreased. This is regarded by forest officers as an additional cause for alarm. The game, they say, cannot possibly hold up unless predatory animals are kept down.

The decrease is especially notable in the case of black-tailed deer, according to the report, Forest officers from all over the state agree that the blacktail is disappearing. White-tail deer are holding up better. The report advocates a closed season on black-tails in all places where they are getting scarce.

Tucson Citizen.

February 20, 1917.

Headline: Arizona Gets the First Forest Road.

Dateline: Washington, February 20.

The first national forest road to be constructed under the Federal Aid Act will be located in the Apache National Forest, Arizona, a survey for which has been authorized by Secretary Houston. The piece of road will be 71 miles in length and will cost about $342,500 to be borne equally by the Federal government and the local community.

Among the advantages of the highway will be the opening up of enormous industrial resources and magnificent recreation areas for tourist travel.

Tucson Citizen.

March 2, 1917.

Headline: Grazing Demand Exceeds Records.

Demand for grazing privileges in the Coronado-Chiricahua National Forest this year has exceeded anything previously known, according to Supervisor Don Johnston today. The purchase of large areas of State selections from the public domain and the rapid expansion of homesteads and filing of new homesteads under the enlarged Homestead Act has resulted in marked reduction of open areas and the pressure of the small ranchers toward the national forest for grazing. Reports from other national forests indicate the condition is general.

Cattlemen are here in Tucson applying for grazing from distances of 200 or more miles, indicating that the local national forests will be crowded this year.

Arizona Daily Star,

March 3, 1917.

Headline: Arizona cattlemen ask Forest Reserves for State control.

Dateline: Globe, March 2.

A sensation was sprung at the afternoon session of the Arizona Cattle Growers Association meeting here today when a Resolution requesting from the Government all forest reserves and public domain in Arizona was passed. The Resolution proposes to put this land under state control. Conservation of the forest reserve would also be under state control.

Dwight B. Heard strongly opposed the Resolution, but through the efforts of Superior Judge G. W. Shute, a local cattleman, it was finally passed. This was said to be the most important Resolution ever presented by any stockgrowers association in the United States and has the distinction of being one of the strongest Resolutions ever passed. The 3-day convention will be brought to a close tomorrow night.

The Arizona Cattleman.

April 2, 1917.

Headline: The National Forest Reserve in Relation to the Cowman.

Subheading: Interesting letter by W. M. Marteny of Oro Blanco as to Why the National Forest Reserve is not Beneficial to the Cattlemen of Southern Arizona.

The Southwestern Stockman-Farmer of Phoenix published in its March 15 number the following interesting letter by W. M. Marteny of Oro Blanco, cattleman: "I was much pleased to read the views of so able and intelligent a gentleman as Mr. A. F. Poulson, President of the Tusayan Cattle Growers Association in your issue of January 30. It has seemed to me that I was alone in my fight against the national forests. (I have been fighting them since their introduction) but since I have read the views of Mr. Poulson I take hope and renew my fight with vigor for I am right, and right shall win. I would like to see our present Legislature send a Memorial to Congress asking that all lands included in the national forests in Arizona be returned at once as state lands. Then any settler or little cowman could buy one section at $3 per acre and lease one section at 3¢ per acre and have himself a pasture of 1,280 acres and be self-supporting and the state and county would get the benefit in taxes and in having an industrious, law-abiding citizenry. Then our state would soon drop her swaddling clothes."

"The two greatest drawbacks to the rapid advancement of our state are the national forests and Indian Reservations. It is appalling the number of acres of good land lying within the national forests and the Indian reservations which are good only to a few and very few of the elect. When the national forests were first introduced we were told the cattle barons had used these lands long enough gratis, and that our eastern brethern were now entitled to some revenue as their share, so the cowmen were ordered to pay a grazing fee and how much of this revenue has our eastern brethern seen? Not very much, for they have been helping Uncle Sam pay the expenses on this veritable White Elephant, for now after 5 years or more of the blessings of national forests we are told that they are not paying expenses, much less the revenues, and again this year the cowman is called upon to pay higher grazing fees. In this reserve we began by paying 35¢ per head, per year, then we had a raise to 40¢, then to 48¢, and this year to 60¢, and unless we all get busy it will be $1 next year — and pray tell me, who are the beneficiaries? This national forestry as it is conducted today is the greatest outrage any Government ever perpetrated upon her citizens. I hope to see every cattle association in Arizona this year come out plain and square as did Mr. Poulson and denounce this gross outrage until the whole world may know how the cowman is wronged and demand of the Government a return of this land to the Public Domain or to the state."

The Graham Guardian.

April 6, 1917.

Headline: Cattlemen Hold First Convention.

Subhead: Reorganization is Completed and Much Good Work Done on Ground.

Safford is now on the map as a convention town. Monday and Tuesday our people welcomed to their midst the visiting cattlemen of Cochise and Graham Counties who were here to attend as delegates and guests the first annual convention of the Cochise-Graham Counties Cattle Growers Association.

About 150 delegates and guests from both counties attended the convention, which was held at the Safford Armory. After organization of the Association and addresses by various people, the convention established a committee as follows: That we have a committee on forest reserves to confer with the head of that department so that they may have a better understanding of the needs and conditions of the cattle industry and that we cooperate with them in the extermination of the predator animals.

The Arizona Cattleman.

April 9, 1917.

Headline: Cattlemen and Forest Reserve Officers hold big Meeting at Arivaca.

Subhead: Plans are Agreed on for Building 50 miles of Fencing, the Government to Furnish Wire and Cattlemen to do Work. Cost to be $5,000.

A meeting of the Forest Reserve officers and the cattlemen was held in Arivaca last Wednesday in reference to dividing ranges, fencing the International Boundary. and the West line of the forest reserve. It was said a lot of hot air was spilled and some very fine theories advanced by the Forest people, but the outcome of the meeting was that the Forest people want the cowman to do all the work and pay most of the bills. They laid plans for 50 miles of fencing, dividing ranges, fencing the International Boundary and fencing the forest reserve on the West. and all the Reserve officers could offer was $2400 worth of wire. To build all the fence that was proposed will cost $5,000 in labor, which means that each individual owner or company must pay $2 per head on all cattle on the reserve, The cattlemen are already paying 60cent per head grazing fees. From estimates made at the meeting. they are paying the Government the equivalent of 3cent per acre lease. which is a pretty stiff price considering the character of most of the range, with no contract for future use. The cattlemen can get permits for only one year and the fee must be paid in advance.

Under this arrangement there is no incentive for a cowman to spend any sum of money on his range when he knows it may be taken from him next year, or some other fellow's cattle eat his grass, lick his salt, and drink his water. There is much dissatisfaction among cowmen because of the Government's arrangements and they feel that if the land reverted back to the Public Domain and let the State control it, they would get a fairer deal. Then the State could select the land and a citizen could lease, fence, and control what he pays for.

The Arizona Cattleman.

April 16, 1917.

Headline: Another Version of Forest Reserves in Relation to the Cowman.

Jack McVey, owner of the Las Jarillas Cattle Company near Oro Blanco, writes on the subject of cattlemen and forest reserves: "Tuscon, Arizona, April 14. Editor of the Arizona Cattleman, Tucson, Arizona. Dear Sir: In the April 2 issue of your paper I was very interested in a letter by Mr. W. M. Marteny of Oro Blanco concerning the national forests and the great outrage their creation was against the cowman. After reading this interesting letter I have decided that something should be said in defense of the forests and the real good they have done in some cases and can do in any case where the cowmen will cooperate with the forest officials.

The forests in this southern country at the time of their creation met with the disapproval of almost all cowmen and the forest officials "had a hard row to hoe," from the beginning. Many times the man in charge of a district allowed the Government red tape to make them unreasonable in the face of certain local conditions, and many times the cowman himself, having been for years "Lord of all he surveyed," thought any reasonable regulation of the uses of certain cow country, for years misused, was unfair to him. Both of these things caused friction. and it has taken years of education on both sides to bring the cowmen and the Forest Service to their present more agreeable relations.

Now as to the economic question between the use of forest and State lands. Take the two sections of land a man may get from the State, which will run a maximum of 60 head of cattle. On one he will pay $19.20 a year rent, and on the other, figuring the lowest possible rate of interest on the lowest possible purchase price, 5% on $1920 for the purchased section, he will pay $96 a year. The first cost of the $115.20 a year for running a maximum of 60 head of cattle. Then came taxes on one section and on all fences. On the forest, the same cattle may be run for $36 a year; no taxes on land or drift fences. And in many cases where cowmen and the Forest Service pull together, the cost of fences can be split between the cowman and the Service.

Then comes the question of the cowman needing more than two sections of land and 60 head of cattle to be a self-supporting and law-abiding citizen. The forest seems to me to be the only place left after the selection of so much land and since the passing of the Grazing Homestead Act, where a cowman may acquire use of enough grazing land to be able to support his family and lay aside something to keep him in his old age. The fenced range is coming fast and coming to stay, as it is the only way for the man willing to improve water conditions, salt his cattle, and use good bulls to keep a lot of parasites, willing to do none of these things, from making all of the profits from these improvements.

It also makes possible the conservation of a little left-over feed for that dry year which always comes eventually and puts someone out of business. By dividing the forest lands into ranges with fences, and limiting each cattleman to certain districts, the Forest Service will make a new and better era in the cow business in Arizona than ever before. This has already been done in many forest divisions and a carload of wire was promised for such use this coming summer at a meeting of practically all forest users on the west end of the Tumacacori Division of the Coronado National Forest after these users had themselves decided on and consented to certain range divisions. During the past year the Forest Service considered throwing out the whole Tumacacori Division and certain parts of the Huachuca and Santa Rita Divisions. It is interesting to learn that the very men, including myself, who for years had grumbled and kicked about these forests, were almost unanimous in their efforts to prevent these eliminations. It looks to me that if the forests are eliminated in southern Arizona it will be brought about by others rather than the cowman, and only after a hard fight with the cowman. Let well enough alone, Neighbor. The Baboquivari Forest Division was eliminated only to be gobbled up by the Indian Reservation.

It might be interesting for some people to know that 25% of gross receipts from the forest is returned to the States to be used on roads and schools in each country, according to the proportion of forest acreage in the County. Another 10% goes to roads in and adjoining the forest the revenue comes from. This is new, and results are only now being seen, the Canelo road in the Huachuca Mountains being the first one in this district. Also, 11% of the gross receipts goes to the schools in view of the use of school sections, No. 2, 16, 32, and 36. This means that 46% of the gross receipts stay right at home.

Now, Mr. Editor, you may not realize that the reservation, or rather let us say, the regulated use of even our scrub oak, pine, mesquite, and even the grass itself, is a great help in preventing the washing away of what poor soil we have in this much abused part of Arizona, by regulated use we can have as good a cow country here as in the north. What we lack in comparison of the ranges we make up in climatic conditions — and this little old end of the State is worth saving. Let's swing into line with our forest officers, help them all we can, and see what we can do by pulling together.

I admit that certain conditions have been bad on certain forest divisions but fully believe that by the cooperation of stockmen and the Forest Service these same divisions can be made of decided benefit to the cowman.

Yours truly,
/s/ J. H. McVey."

Tucson Citizen.

April 27, 1917.

Headline: One Hundred Farms in National Forest.

About one hundred desirable homesteads have been located in the national forests around Tucson and mapped for the use of those who wish to obey the country's call for crops, according to Supervisor Don P. Johnston of the local forest headquarters today.

Of course these are not the best lands, but they are good chances for farmers and the land is good; some better than others, he said. If anyone wishes to make entry on these lands we will be glad to give them all the information we have, maps, and their locations.

The Arizona Cattleman.

April 30, 1917.

Headline: He agrees with McVey.

In a business letter received from Sam Knight, the Sonoita cattleman, he had the following paragraph which is of interest as to his views on the forest reserve question: "Incidentally, allow me to compliment you on the success you are making of The Cattleman. It is sure interesting and of value to any cowman. I was especially interested in Mr. McVey's letter in your issue of April 16 and thoroughly agree with him as to the benefits that may be derived from cooperation between cowmen and the Forest Service." We will be glad to hear from any of the cattlemen interested in the reserve problem.

The Arizona Cattleman.

April 30, 1917.

Headline: W. M. Marteny of Oro Blanco writes again on forest reservation.

Subhead: He Thinks There is a Possible Chance of Regulating the Forest Reserves so that Cattlemen Can Afford to Use Them. Considers Use now as Needlessly Expensive.

"Oro Blanco, Arizona, April 28, 1917. The Arizona Cattleman: A meeting of the Southwestern Cattle Growers Association was held in Tucson on Saturday, the 21st, with a small attendance, and in my opinion was too rushed to be of the benefit which such a meeting is intended for. The idea of a cattle growers association is for neighbors to get together and talk over plans which are for the benefit of all cattle owners, and next year I hope to see ye editor in our midst.

"In reading my friend McVey's article in defense of the national forests I want to say that I am leasing some State land at 3¢ per acre per annum and just one-half mile to the East I am leasing forest land at 6¢ per acre per annum. All of this land is of the same quality, common grazing land in southeastern Pins County. It is needless to ask me which I prefer to do business with. Since the beginning of the Forest Service in this section the motto has seemingly been: "Bleed them for all they are worth." They started with a grazing fee of 30¢ per head per year and a land lease fee of 3¢ per acre per year and we have had regular increases until now we are paying the unreasonable fee of 60¢ per head grazing and 6¢ per acre leasing per annum and we are promised still higher fees in days to come.

"After 10 years of forest supervision our ranges are in poorer condition than under the system of free public domain. I write from experience of 27 years in the range cattle business in this country and I can name a number of prominent, practical cattle growers who will verify my statement. This talk of what is going to be done looks nice in print and sounds well when emanating from the oratorical voice of a national forest employee, but "Show us" before we become too jubilant. It was the general concensus of opinion at the recent Cattle Growers Association that short leases are not beneficial to the best interests of the stockgrower, and leases of 10 to 14 years were advocated and our worthy and esteemed educator. Mr. Thorber, advocated 25 or even 40-year leases for our grazing lands. Did you ever hear of a forest official offering us anything so good? No. If a long-term lease is given we would not be compelled to bow our heads and bend the knees once in every 365 days in order to be fleeced of what is really our own — when I say, "our own", I mean the grass that is growing on our public domain in a reasonable distance of the water (which water is invariably in fee simple by the ranchers) is of no benefit whatsoever only when used in connection with the water and why tax a man for grass which is really his own? And why make him pay two prices for this privilege? If the national forest will fence their land, develop water, and then lease for 10 years or more at $20 or even $25 per section per annum, giving each and every applicant the necessary number of sections which his business entitles him to, then we could say the national forests were working for the best interests of the stockgrowers. If they, the national forests, will give some practical demonstration that they are true businessmen working for the best welfare of the users of these national forest lands, issuing long-time leases, developing water where necessary, and improving conditions by actually doing something instead of red tape and hot air as we have had in the past, we would gladly cooperate. It seems to me that with these long years of experience some things should have been learned by the heads of these vast interests which can be put into actual practice which is of important interest to users of these reserves. But verily — No. Their modus operandi is just as primitive today as it was 10 years ago.

/s/ W. M. Marteny

Santa Fe New Mexican.

May 7, 1917.

Headline: Forest Ranges to be Stocked to Fullest Capacity.

Subhead: Government Aid in Increasing Supply of Beef, Mutton, Wool, and Leather.

Dateline: Albuquerque, New Mexico, May 7.

In order to increase the supply of beef, mutton, wool, and leather, the Forest Service is cooperating with the State Councils of Defense of Arizona and New Mexico by making plans to stock to the fullest capacity the national forest ranges of these States. Grazing specialists of the Forest Service estimate that in the sixteen forests of these two States there are about 400,000 acres of unoccupied grazing land and a considerable area that is only partially stocked and that by the building of trails, development of stock-watering facilities, and the construction of drift fences, room can be made for 90,000 more sheep and goats, and 40,000 more cattle. The conditions which this country is facing, the forester states, are such that it is believed that we should readjust our range allotments with a view to grazing every single domestic animal the ranges will carry.

Forest officers state that where increases can be made, they will be allowed first to regular users of the ranges but any surplus after this demand is met would be granted to outside applicants.

The Arizona Star.

May 20, 1917.

An editorial entitled, "Beef and Ideals."

To the spirit of the Forest Service the nation is indebted for the prospect of increased herds of beeves at a time when the country sorely needs more beef — needs it for the manpower which it will sustain; manpower which must sustain principles of Government far removed from thoughts of beef. Yet it but shows to what extent we are committed in this fight against the world menace of German domination. The waving corn in the sweet-smelling fields are massed banners of Democracy.

The Forestry Service has jealously guarded the national forests, fighting off in many battles insistent, grasping commercialism. Politicians have little use for conservation; it is not in the vocabulary of such men. It was repugnant to American Traditions of plenitude and profligacy. It took conservation a long time to grow roots in public opinion, particularly in parts of the country far removed from the great forest tracts.

Now that which has been jealously conserved will be used. The Forests have never been reserved in the sense that they were wholly withdrawn from public use, but now in order to stimulate an increase in the beef supply they will be employed intensively to increase and sustain herds of cattle. There will be more range for cattle and more cattle for the range.

Arizona Daily Star.

July 10, 1917.

Headline: New Forestry Flag.

The Forestry Service has officially adopted a flag of its own to fly hereafter upon all Forestry machines. It has a blue ground with 13 stars set in a circle. In the circle is a hollow shield containing a pine tree.

Figure 2. One of the original Forest Service flags, on display in the old Forest Service Museum at Continental Divide, September 25, 1965. Chief Cliff is trying out a chair in the "Reconstructed Supervisor's Office" display.

Arizona Gazette, Phoenix, Arizona.

June 22, 1917.

Headline: Big Forest Fire is Extinguished.

Dateline: Albuquerque, June 22.

A telegram received here by the District Forester from Supervisor Pitchlynn at Tucson states that the large forest fire which spread across the International Boundary line several days ago and has been burning since on the Coronado Forest has been extinguished.

The fire is said to have burned over 400 square miles in old Mexico. It crossed the boundary line at two places which afterwards joined, and burned over 4600 acres of national forest lands when put under control. Crews have been working over a front of 8 miles in day and night shifts for several days, but the situation is now said to be so well under control that the crews will be dismissed.

Forest officers state that the total cost of extinguishment will amount to $800. Amount of damage done has not yet been estimated.

Arizona Daily Star.

July 19, 1917.

Headline: Fire Fighters Almost Lose Pants but Not in Fire. Orders is Orders.

Subhead: Why Don P. Johnston will get Credentials when he Revisits Douglas.

District Forester Don P. Johnston, Rangers Hendrix, Sullivan, Shorty, and Supervisor Pitchlynn of the local office came within a small margin of having to fight the Chiricahua forest fire in barrels, according to a well verified story brought back from the late blaze.

Johnston, Hendrix, Sullivan, Shorty, and Pitchlynn had come out of the worst of the blaze and returned to Douglas to catch a train for Rodeo, New Mexico, when they were halted on the streets of Douglas by a sergeant of the Military Police. "STOP!", he ordered. Johnston, who was in the lead of the forestry men, turned and looked back at the man over his glasses. "Where did you get them pants?", asked the sergeant, of Johnston. "And where did you get that shirt?", he said, pointing at Sullivan. "Where did you get them pants?", he asked sternly of Hendrix. Johnston turned amazed at the man. "Why, we're in the Government service, Man," blurted Sullivan. "Hold on, Sullivan," said Johnston soothingly. "Just hold your temper a minute; something is wrong."

Just about that time, Supervisor Pitchlynn caught up and heard the questions. "Why, we belong to the Forestry Department," he said. "Our uniform is similar to that of the regular Army, or course, but if you will ask Capt. Mayer of the 11th Field Artillery, or Lt. Harrington, about us, he will tell you we're all right." — "I'll get the Provost Marshall," said the sergeant, suspiciously. "But my orders are to take them clothes." "We'll be down at the restaurant," said Pitchlynn. "We want to take the next train for Rodeo, and we want to eat first. If you don't get the Provost Marshall, find Capt. Mayer and he'll tell you it's all right."

The foresters proceeded to the restaurant in doubt whether they would finish in clothes. Afterwards, on the way to the station, they met the sergeant and he only glanced and looked the other way.

Pitchlynn stopped and asked him if he had assured himself, and told him he was sorry that they had disturbed him. "It's all right," said the sergeant. As the party started for the station again, he pulled an order from his pocket and showed it to Pitchlynn.

The order required him to politely accost anyone seen wearing Government clothing, or what appeared to be Government clothing, or other articles, and to take the articles from them. Should they refuse to give said articles up they were to be held prisoner for 90 days and the goods taken from them.

Had he insisted upon obeying orders, the district forester and his party would have stopped fighting flames until they got barrels that would fit.

Arizona Daily Star.

July 11, 1917.

Headline: Forests Will Be Opened to Full Capacity.

Subhead: Use of areas for grazing of cattle replaces the policy of conservation in order to increase the beef supply.

More cattle for the range and more range for the cattle is the latest order of the Forestry Department in connection with the National Defense Council's plan to increase the beef supply.

The grazing areas of the forests will be extended to the narrowest margin of conservation and, if possible, room made for more than double the head of cattle now feeding in the forest reserves.

Hitherto the Forestry Department, following the Government's forestry policy of conservation, have held back a certain margin of the grazing areas from permits in order to conserve them for the future. No cattle have been entered on these reservations while the open areas have been more than ample for the heads entered. Under the new plan nearly every bit of the grazing area will be opened in the national forests after a careful investigation and preparation is made to see that none of the areas are overcrowded and none will be permanently damaged by the cattle. A margin of conservation will be maintained but it will be much narrower than heretofore.

From the District Forester's office in Albuquerque four experts will leave for the Northern Arizona and New Mexico forests and work over all the grazing land in the forests to lay out a plan for the intensive use of the areas. They will make a rapid but thorough investigation and report upon the possibility of placing more cattle on those areas. The experts are Hill, Roberts, Talbert, and Bryan. Hugh Bryan of the Quartette has just completed a special grazing study of the Santa Ritas and the Huachucas covering the entire range itself, tracing out the relations of every rancher to the Forest Service and every detail of grazing areas which he put into a comprehensive plan for grazing in these mountains for the next 5 years. Mr. Bryan will start this work for the Santa Fe National Forest to develop a similar plan, and to carry on the new work under the National Defense Program.

Arizona Citizen.

August 1, 1917.

Headline: Forest Service Helps Preserve Wild Fruits.

The local branch of the Forest Service has received these instructions from the District Forest Office in Albuquerque, to cooperate as far as possible with those who reside on or near the forests for the purpose of assisting in the preservation of wild fruits. This is along the line of food conservation being urged by Defense Council. The Catalina Mountains, for example, are full of wild grapes, wild cherries and many other fruits which can be made into jellies and jams and the Forest Service will undertake to supply the receipts for preserving them.

Arizona Daily Star.

November 13, 1917.

Headline: Arivaca Cattlemen Form an Association.

The stockmen of the Arivaca District organized a local association to cooperate with the forest department yesterday. Walter Baily was chosen President, Arthur Noon, Vice President, Henry Saxon of Nogales, Secretary-treasurer, and an advisory board consisting of John Bernard, Jack McVey, Bill Clark, Harry Saxon and Si Marshdeller were named.

The meeting was attended by John Kerr, chief of grazing of the forest department, Don P. Johnston, assistant district forester, and Supervisor Pitchlynn.

Mr. Kerr reported that the ranges of the district were in good shape. He will leave today for the Prescott Forest and the Albuquerque office after spending a few days at the Phoenix Fair.

The Arizona Citizen.

January 12, 1917.

Note: The cattlemen of the Patagonia Mountain region who have been paying good rent to Uncle Sam for the privilege of running stock on the range there are indignant because our indulgent uncle has consented to the shipping in of several trainloads of cattle from adjoining states for pasturing in that vicinity. Nearly every winter feed is so scarce on the range that stockmen are compelled to feed hay to the poorer cattle, and they contend that an additional number of stock will decrease the precarious grass supply and compel them to feed more and more cattle as winter progresses, thus working an undeserved hardship.

The Arizona Citizen.

July 2, 1917.

Headline: Grazing Charge in National Forest Will Not Be Raised. (Secretary Houston says no increase is planned despite fact that fees are too low.)

Washington, Nov. 20.

Secretary Houston announced today that despite his conviction that the government fees charged this year for grazing privileges on the national forests are below the real value of the forage there will be no further advance in them for the present. This assurance and the statement that there will be no substantial change in the existing regulations governing issuance of grazing permits for more than a year were made in a letter to the secretaries of the American National Livestock Association and the National Wool Growers Association.

On account of war conditions, Secretary Houston said in his letter, stockmen have been called upon to overcome many difficulties in order to keep up the supply of beef, mutton, hides and wool for this country and the allies and for that reason he had decided that grazing fees now in force will be continued with the exception of such minor changes as may seem to be desirable to adjust and correlate the charges between certain forests.

The Secretary says he feels the matter of issuing five or ten-year permits should also be deferred. The demand for increased meat production tends to make the issuance of such permits inadvisable.

* * * * * * * * * *

From the Gila Monster, a publication issued from time to time by the officers of the Gila National Forest — this is from the issue of December 1919:

Forest Officers and Game Protection: Forest officers protect and conserve more game unconsciously and accidently in New Mexico each year than do all the other game wardens on purpose. The mere fact that the inhabitants know that each and every Forest officer is a game warden in the field, and they do not know where or when or how they are going to meet said forest officer in the field, unquestionably saves a large amount of our big game from illegal slaughter annually, but — game protection should receive decidedly more attention from each individual Forest Officer than it gets in most cases. As a rule the recruit ranger on entering the Service, immediately becomes antagonized to the game warden job because he doesn't feel that he is getting a square deal. It is not because he does not want to give up the 25 or 50¢ notary fee that the Government won't pay back to him (and it's actual expense, too), nor that he does not want the extra work that it involves. It is this: He feels that the game belongs to the State and that he is forced to pay (or give up his job) a State's officer for the privilege of working for and cooperating with the State's laws. As he gains experience and time in the Service, he broadens his views to the point of seeing that our game, and more especially that our big game, must make its last stand in our western forests, and that it is our privilege, duty, and pleasure to see that it is protected and increased. But by this time he has become more interested in some other branch of his work and feels that in his spare time he may have from regular routine he would rather spend on his pet lines, whether it be grazing, silviculture, or what-not. Oh yes, he will make an arrest or report a flagrant case, but when he is just a little bit suspicious and to settle that suspicion it would involve a 30-mile ride, he would rather ride 5 miles and make love to his pet silvicultural or grazing problem.

By that great ghost of David Crockett, man, wake up! We have just a little less than 2% (and 2% is nearly as bad as no beer at all) of the game left that was originally in this country. For all of that we are not short on hunters, just 6 million in the United States at present.

You have influence in your community; in fact, you don't realize how much you do have until you stir up sentiment in favor of game and fish protection and production. Talk it to the more influential people of your District. Preach it. Make a nuisance of yourself on this subject, if necessary to get results; but get results.

Ye Gods and Little Fishes, if we don't soon get busy we will soon be hunting Wifey's pet rooster in the barnyard with the high-powered arsenal that can't find anything better to expand its big-game efficiency upon. And using that expensive trout-fly tackle in the parlor aquarium on her goldfish, for want of finny gameness elsewhere.

Ranger C. L. Warnock

From the Gila Monster of March 1920:

Twelve or fifteen years ago the members of the Forest Service were facing a united opposition to the entire Forest Service policy. Forest officers knew at the time that the policy was sound; that they were engaged in a great public service which would benefit not only the present generation but future generations as well. With this knowledge back of them, the incentive to see it through in the face of all the opposition and abuse was installed into every member of the Service. This brings to mind the remark of an old-time cowman trailing a bunch of 4- or 500 head of cattle through a recently established forest reserve. On being asked for his crossing permit, he significantly tapped the six-shooter on his hip and said, "Here is my crossing permit." And again, that of an old-time sawmill operator whose timber depredations had been stopped, "These were United States ain't free no more." Nowadays we have no such opposition to face. The Service policy is a recognized fact and has the support of practically all of the Western people. The old-time spirit is still there, but is dormant because of the lack of opposition.

The following poem is the work of the Gila poet-laureate, Germaine H. Gage.

Ranger Troubles

The ranger leads a lonesome life;
It's full of hardship, toil, and strife.

The knockers are many and the friends are few;
They pry up Hell the whole day through.

Imagine any Sunday morn.
The ranger rises, tired and worn.

From a long hard trip he made last week
'Way over on Blue Water Creek.

He says, "Today I'll take a rest
Then start in Monday at my best."

But Fate decrees it shall not be.
If you're in doubt, just wait and see.

Bill Johnson mosies down the road,
Upon his mind he has a load.

He asks the ranger for advice
On the best way of preserving ice.

Next Old Man Simms, he comes along.
He says his neighbor treats him wrong.

His cow broke in his field last night
And stayed right there til broad daylight.

He wants to know if Uncle Sam
Will sue for him this neighbor man?

An' git a jedgment 'gainst the cow —
And will he kindly do it now?

Then Hiram Hoskins comes in sight.
He says he's out to have a fight.

With Henry Green who shot his pig.
And he don't care if Hen IS big.

He says, "I licked him once before,
And I'll do it just once more.

That pig of mine was such a pet.
I'll fix him so he won't forget."

Then Mike McDooley want to know
If he can get ten cords or so

Of Cedar wood, green if you please;
Just then his purse he starts to squeeze.

The ranger fixes his permit,
But Mike talks on and never quits

About his brindle yearling steer
Who learned to work the first durned year.

The ranger coughs and starts to rise,
Then Mike discourses on the flies

That "blowed" his workhorse til he died,
Or else committed suicide.

Next Major Long knocks on the door
And says his stock are getting poor

From grazin' on that-there reserve
And thinks the ranger has his nerve

To charge a dollar a year for feed,
When the stock don't get half they need.

And can he get his money back -
Or will he have to hold the sack?

The ranger faints: it is too much,
The horses, cows, the wood and such.

When he comes to, he's all alone,
Then he writes this sign, "Nobody Home."

And nails it outside on the wall
Where people passing, one and all.

Can see the sign and go away,
While he goes in and hits the hay.

This is still from the Gila Monster, December 1919:

It takes twelve long years and maybe a day
For anything like an increase in pay
Why it takes so long I cannot see
to change a ranger into a Deputy.

Now in order to be a Supervisor
You have to be so very much wiser,
It will take twelve more to assemble the dope
That's twenty-four years to work and hope —

Twenty-four years of storm and strife —
Now ain't this a Helluva life!

And a final Gila Monster note:

The following ranger note was attached to a property transfer slip and received by a certain property custodian: "I have not received the pen mentioned on this transfer. I have not ordered the pen mentioned on this transfer. I do not want the pen mentioned on this transfer. I have no use for the pen mentioned on this transfer. If you cannot use the pen mentioned on this transfer, do not sent it to me, but have the damned thing condemned." The pen in question was a contour-pen and the ranger did not know what it was.

Moral: Do not be too hasty.

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