1. Richard L Powell, "Caves of Indiana," Indiana Geological Survey, Circular 8 (Bloomington, Indiana, 1961); Allan F. Schneider, "Physiography," in Natural Features of Indiana, edited by Alton A. Lindsey (Indianapolis, 1966), 40-56; Patrick J. Munson and Cheryl Ann Munson, "The Prehistoric and Early Historic Archaeology of Wyandotte Cave and Other Caves in Southern Indiana," Indiana Historical Society Prehistoric Research Series 7, 1 (Indianapolis, 1990).
2. Powell, "Caves of Indiana;" Henry H. Gray and Richard L Powell, "Geomorphology and Groundwater Hydrology of the Mitchell Plain and Crawford Upland in Southern Indiana," Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey, Field Conference Guidebook II (Bloomington, Indiana, 1965); J. A. Jakle, "Salt and the Initial Settlement of the Ohio Valley," (Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Geography, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 1967); Weston A. Goodspeed, "History of Monroe County," in Counties of Morgan, Monroe and Brown, Indiana: Historical and Biographical, edited by Charles Blanchard (Chicago, 1884), 536; Claude McNeal, The Making of a Grand Hotel, illustrated by Marilyn Longmire (Paoli, Indiana, 1985).
4. R. O. Petty and M. T. Jackson, "Plant Communities," in Natural Features of Indiana, 264-296; A. A. Lindsey, W. B. Crankshaw, and S. A. Quadir, "Soil Relations and Distribution Map of the Vegetation of Presettlement Indiana," Botanical Gazette 126 (1965), 155-163; J. A. Bacone and L A. Casebere, "Glades and Barrens of Crawford and Perry Counties, Indiana," Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 92 (1983), 367-373; Kathleen L. Freudenrich, "A Reconstruction of the Presettlement Forest Composition for the Upper Patoka Drainage Basin," in "Archaeological Salvage Excavations at Patoka Lake, Indiana," edited by Cheryl Ann Munson, Indiana University, Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology, Research Report 6 (Bloomington, Indiana, 1980), 44-71
9. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, "Fish and Wildlife Restoration in Indiana, A History of Federal Aid Programs, 1939-1986," Pittman-Robertson, Bulletin 17 (1986); Russell E. Mumford and John O. Whitaker, The Mammals of Indiana (Bloomington, Indiana, 1982). Marcus W. Lyon, Jr., Mammals of Indiana (South Bend, Indiana, 1936) lists the following dates for the extinction of species within Indiana: bison, by 1810; elk, by about 1830; cougar, by about 1836; bear, by about 1840; wolf, by about 1907. Another species, beaver, had probably vanished from the state in the early 1830s, but this species had returned to our region by the mid-1900s.
11. The Blue Island or Huber Phase; see Cheryl Ann Munson and Patrick J. Munson, "The Palos Site: An Early Historic Indian Village Near Chicago," Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin 40, 3, (1969), 5-6; Cheryl Ann Munson and Patrick J. Munson, "Preliminary Report on an Early Historic Site, Cook County, Illinois," The Wisconsin Archeologist 50, 3(1969), 184-188; Charles H. Faulkner, "The Late Prehistoric Occupation of Northwestern Indiana: A Study of the Upper Mississippian Cultures of the Kankakee Valley," Indiana Historical Society, Prehistory Research Series 5, 1 (1972).
12. James B. Griffin, The Fort Ancient Aspect: Its Cultural and Chronological Position in Mississippi Valley Archaeology (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1943); David Pollack and A. Gwynn Henderson, "A Mid-18th Century Historic Indian Occupation in Greenup County, Kentucky," in Late Prehistoric Research in Kentucky (Frankfort, Kentucky, 1984), edited by David Pollack, Charles D. Hockensmith, and Thomas N. Sanders, 1-24; A. Gwynn Henderson, Cynthia E. Jobe, and Christopher A. Turnbow, "Indian Occupation and Use in Northern and Eastern Kentucky during the Contact Period (1540-1795): An Initial Investigation," prepared for the Kentucky Heritage Council (Frankfort, Kentucky, 1986).
13. According to radiocarbon dates, the most recent Mississippian culture in southwestern Indiana is the "Caborn-Welborn Phase" of Mississippian society, which followed the "Angel Phase" centered at Angel Mounds State Historic Site, Evansville; see Thomas J. Green and Cheryl Ann Munson, "Mississippian Settlement Patterns in Southwestern Indiana," in Mississippian Settlement Patterns, edited by Bruce D. Smith (New York, 1978), 292-330.
14. Voegelin, "Indians of Indiana"; Goodspeed, "History of Monroe County"; William A. Hunter, "History of the Ohio Valley," in Northeast, edited by Bruce G. Trigger (Vol. 15, Handbook of North American Indians, series edited by William C. Sturtevant, Washington, 1978), 588-593; Tanner, ed., Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History; R. David Edmunds, The Potawatomis: Keepers of the Fire (Norman, Oklahoma, 1978).
15. Brant and Fuller, publishers and compilers, History of Jackson County, Indiana (Chicago, 1886); B. F. Bowen and Company, History of Lawrence and Monroe Counties (Indianapolis, 1914); Goodspeed, "History of Monroe County"; James Noblett, History of Lawrence, Orange and Washington Counties (Chicago, 1884); Goodspeed Brothers, publishers and compilers, History of Warrick, Spencer and Perry Counties, Indiana (Chicago, 1885); John H. Weathers, "History of Crawford County," in Biographical and Historical Souvenir for the Counties of Clark, Crawford, Harrison, Floyd, Jefferson, Jennings, Scott and Washington, compiled by John M. Gresham and Company (Chicago, 1889); Forest M. ("Pop") Hall, Historic Treasures: True Tales of Deeds with Interesting Data in the Life of Bloomington, Indiana University, and Monroe County (Bloomington, Indiana, 1922).
16. The following accounts are based on Charles Callender, "Shawnee"; Charles Callendar, "Miami"; and Ives Goddard, "Delaware"; in Trigger, Northeast. Other sources for information on Indian groups in our area are: Vernon Kinietz, Delaware Culture Chronology (Indianapolis, 1946); Bert Anson, The Miami Indians (Norman, Oklahoma, 1970); Nancy Niblack Baxter, The Miami (Indianapolis, 1988); James A. Clifton, The Prairie People: Continuity and Change in Potawatomi Indian Culture, 1665-1965 (Lawrence, Kansas, 1977), and The Potawatomie (New York, 1987); Jerry E. Clark, The Shawnee (Lexington, Kentucky, 1977).
18. Carl F. Voegelin, "Shawnee Stems and the Jacob P. Dunn Miami Dictionary, Part IV," Indiana Historical Society, Prehistoric Research Series 1 (9) (1940); George R. Wilson, Early Indiana Trails and Surveys (Indianapolis, 1919).
19. See James H. Madison, The Indiana Way: A State History (Bloomington, Indiana, 1986) for a discussion of the periods of French (1679-1763) and British (1763-1776) domination; much of the following account of the Revolutionary War period and the conflict over land in our region is based on information from this work, and from John D. Barnhart and Dorothy L Riker, Indiana to 1816: The Colonial Period (Indianapolis, 1971).
20. Goodspeed Brothers and Company, History of Pike and Dubois Counties, Indiana (Chicago, 1885), 477; H. H. Pleasant, "Crawford County (Continued)," Indiana Magazine of History 18, (September, 1922), 245-254; Madison, The Indiana Way.
21. The quotation is from the reminiscences of James Parks, Sr., in Hall, Historic Treasurers; John C. Lazenby, "Jackson County Prior to 1850," Indiana Magazine of History 10 (September, 1914), 256-278; John H. Weathers, "History of Crawford County," 35-62; Madison, The Indiana Way; Tanner, Atlas of Great Lakes Indian History.
22. Gregory S. Rose, "Hoosier Origins: The Nativity of Indiana's United States-Born Population in 1850," Indiana Magazine of History 81 (September, 1985), 201-232; Rose, "Upland Southerners: The County Origins of Southern Migrants to Indiana by 1850," Indiana Magazine of History 82 (September, 1986), 242-262; Frank L. Owsley, Plain Folk of the Old South (Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1949); Henry Glassie, Patterns in the Material Folk Culture of the Eastern United States (Philadelphia, 1968); Wilbur Zelinsky, The Cultural Geography of the United States (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1973); John C. Campbell, The Southern Highlander and his Homeland (Lexington, Kentucky, 1921); Richard L. Power, Planting Corn Belt Culture: The Impress of the Upland Southerner and the Yankee in the Old Northwest (Indianapolis, 1953).
23. Forrest McDonald and Ellen Shapiro McDonald, "The Ethnic Origins of the American People," William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 37 (1980), 179-199; Rose, "Upland Southerners"; Zelinsky, Cultural Geography; Glassie, Patterns in the Material Folk Culture; Virginia Savage McAlester and Lee McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses (New York, 1984). The works of Fred Kniffen and Henry Glassie in particular have helped to define the Upland South tradition.
25. See the accounts in the county histories. Though the European American settlers brought their corn-growing tradition with them, corn had been important to the economies of Native American groups for centuries.
27. See the county histories for clues to choice of land by early settlers; Rose, "Upland Southerners" discusses the rationale which may have directed such choices. In Lawrence County, it was the bottomlands which were settled first; see B. F. Bowen and Company, History of Lawrence and Monroe Counties. Much of this county lies in the gently rolling Mitchell Plain, between the Crawford and Norman Uplands; the less dissected terrain meant that a plentiful alternative to steep ridge country was available for settlement. There needs to be clearer evidence about which landscapes were preferred by which settlers, before the reasons for such preferences can be explored.
31. Milton Newton, Jr., "The Annual Round in the Upland South: The Synchronization of Man and Nature through Culture," Pioneer America 3 (1971), 63-73 (this study demonstrates that the subsistence activities of eastern Louisiana farmers are closely tied to seasonal changes, and, conversely, that the landscape of the region is shaped by cultural patterns to a high degree); Madison, The Indiana Way. We are also indebted to Warren Roberts for his comments on cooperative work.
34. Edith Stipp, "Unique Sharpening Stone Industry Founded in Pioneer Days," in Arthur L. Dillard, compiler, Orange County Heritage (Paoli, Indiana, 1971), 53-62; Carlos T. McCarty, "Hindostan--A Pioneer Town of Martin County," Indiana Magazine of History 10 (June, 1914), 54-62; Goodspeed, "History of Monroe County"; Monroe County Historical Museum. Generally, the county histories produced in the late 1800s provide glimpses into the economic lives of the early settlers.
35. Madison, The Indiana Way, provides an overview of social, religious and educational circumstances in this period, and the various county histories provide a wealth of specific details for the region.
44. Goodspeed Brothers, History of Warrick, Spencer and Perry Counties; for the early Tell City town records, see Tell City Historical Society, Inc., Swiss Colonization Records, in German, 1858-1860: A Translation Project (Doris Leistner, project director; Marga Meier, translator), Indiana Heritage Research Grant (Tell City, Indiana, 1990).
45. Gregory S. Rose, "The Distribution of Indiana's Ethnic and Racial Minorities in 1850," Indiana Magazine of History 87 (September, 1991), 224-260; Elfrieda Lang, "The Germans of Dubois County, Their Newspapers, Their Politics, and Their Part in the Civil War," Indiana Magazine of History 42 (September, 1946), 229-248; Warren E. Roberts, "German-American Log Buildings of Dubois County, Indiana," in Viewpoints on Folklife: Looking at the Overlooked (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1988), 289-310.
48. The work of Coy D. Robbins has been vital, and Forest Service personnel have also been active in research. Robbins' works on the subject include "Lick Creek Settlement: an Early Black Community in Orange County," Black History News and Notes 8 and 9 (Feb. and May, 1982), 8-12, 8-12; "Negro Register, Orange County, Indiana (1853-1861)," Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society 7, 2 (Summer, 1986), 88-94; "Freedom Papers Found in Orange County, Indiana," Journal of the Afro-American Historical and Genealogical Society 7, 3 (Fall, 1986), 125-134.
52. This description of the Midland log house is from McAlester and McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses. We follow the example of these scholars in using the phrase "log house" in describing the homes of the early European-American settlers. "Log cabin" usually refers to structures built from un-hewn (round) logs, which in our area were usually temporary structures. Warren E. Roberts, Log Buildings of Southern Indiana (Bloomington, Indiana, 1984) reports on the use of this distinction in our area in the 1830s, and also states that no known regional examples of very early, round-log "cabins" remain standing.
54. Fred Kniffen and Henry Glassie, "Building in Wood in the Eastern United States: A Time-Place Perspective" The Geographical Review 56 (1966), 40-66; John M. Vlach, "The 'Canada Homestead': A Saddlebag Log House in Monroe County, Indiana," Pioneer America 4 (1972), 8-17.
55. Henry Glassie, "The Old Barns of Appalachia," Mountain Life and Work 40 (1965), 21-30; Glassie, Patterns in the Material Folk Culture; William Lynwood Montell and Michael Lynn Morse, Kentucky Folk Architecture (Lexington, Kentucky, 1976); Howard Wight Marshall, "The 'Thousand Acres' Log House, Monroe County, Indiana," Pioneer America 3 (1971), 48-56.
58. Wilma Davis and Everett Davis, editors, John Carnes, River Trader: The Edited Flatboat Journals of Hoosier, John Carnes, 1826-1911 (Leavenworth, Indiana, 1990), Indiana Heritage Research Grant to the Crawford County Historical Society.
61. One example of a cemetery survey is Helen H. Reeve and Kenneth J. Reeve, Brown County, Indiana, Cemeteries (Nashville, Indiana, 1977). To know the status of cemetery surveys in a particular locale, contact the local historical or genealogical society.
73. Monroe County Historical Society, The A. J. Knight Diary, 1893 through 1898: The Record of a Farmer of Salt Creek Township, Monroe County, Indiana (Bloomington, Indiana, no date given). The publication contains the original spelling; though Knight (born 1850) ended schooling at the fourth grade, his spelling--while phonetic--is remarkable.
76. See for example John M. Gresham and Company, compilers, Biographical and Historical Souvenir for the Counties of Clark, Crawford, Harrison, Floyd, Jefferson, Jennings, Scott and Washington, Indiana (Chicago, 1889), for listing of fraternal organization membership in the biographies of prominent citizens; George R. Wilson, History of Dubois County from its Primitive Days to 1910 (no place, no date given), 385.
81. Statistics of the United States (including Mortality, Property, etc.) in 1860 (Washington, D.C., 1866), 381-388. The numbers of organizations for each denomination are Methodist (82), Baptist (45), Christian (44), Presbyterian (23), Lutheran (10), Roman Catholic (10), Society of Friends (4), Union (2), and Universalist (2), for a total of 222 churches in our nine-county area. Coy Robbins provided us information on African American churches.
88. 196,649 men served (accounting for re-enlistments); 10,822 served after being drafted and 5,197 were hired as substitutes by draftees (Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Indiana, Vol. 1: Adjutant General's Report, Indiana, Statistics and Documents [Indianapolis, 1869], 5; Charles E. Canup, "Conscription and Draft in Indiana During the Civil," Indiana Magazine of History 10 (June, 1914), 70-76). An outline of reaction to the draft in Indiana is contained in Barnhart, "The Impact of the Civil War."
89. Enlistment totals for the Hoosier National Forest counties were taken from Blanchard, Counties of Morgan, Monroe and Brown, Indiana; Noblett, History of Lawrence, Orange and Washington Counties; Goodspeed Brothers, History of Warrick, Spencer and Perry County, Indiana; Bowen and Company, History of Lawrence and Monroe Counties; Brant and Fuller, History of Jackson County, Indiana. The county figures do not account for re-enlistments; our estimates allow for this, based on the Indiana re-enlistment totals of 5.6% (based on Report of the Adjutant General, 5). County population figures are taken from the 1860 national census (Statistics of the United States, 342; Joseph C.G. Kennedy, compiler, Population of the United States in 1860 [Washington, D.C., 1864], 106).
An interesting topic is the number of African Americans who served in the Union Army: Crawford (1), Dubois (10), Jackson (15), Lawrence (2), Martin (2), Orange (28), and Perry (7), but none from Monroe and Brown Counties; see Coy D. Robbins, African American Soldiers from Indiana with the Union Army in the Civil War, 1863-1865 (Bloomington, Indiana, 1989).
91. Arville L Funk, The Morgan Raid in Indiana and Ohio (1863) (Mentone, Indiana, 1971); William E. Wilson, "Thunderbolt of the Confederacy, or King of Horse Thieves," Indiana Magazine of History 54 (June, 1958), 119-130; Margrette Boyer, "Morgan's Raid in Indiana," Indiana Magazine of History 8 (December, 1912), 149-165.
93. Noblett, History of Lawrence, Orange and Washington Counties; Barnhart, "The Impact of the Civil War"; H.H. Pleasant, A History of Crawford County, Indiana (Greenfield, Indiana, 1926). Opposition to the war in Brown County led to the deaths of two men, when deserters were rounded up; see Dorothy Birney Bailey, History and Families, Brown County, Indiana, 1836-1990 (Paducah, Kentucky, 1991).
96. Report of the Adjutant General, 5; Barnhart, "The Impact of the Civil War"; Loren W. Noblitt and the Jackson County Historical Society, The Composite History of Jackson County, Indiana, 1816-1988 (Paducah, Kentucky, 1988); Paul Lucas, Indiana University, provided information on "Crook" Mershon.
101. The following discussion of house forms is based on these works: McAlester and McAlester, A Field Guide to American Houses; Kniffen and Glassie, "Building in Wood"; Robert W. Bastian, "Indiana Folk Architecture: A Lower Midwestern Index," Pioneer America 9 (1977), 115-136; Roberts, Log Buildings of Southern Indiana; Douglas K Meyer, "Diffusion of Upland South Folk Housing to the Shawnee Hills of Southern Indiana," Pioneer America 7 (1975), 56-66; David F. Barton and J. Marshall Davis, "Cultural Resource Evaluation of the Rickenbaugh House on the Tell City District, Hoosier National Forest at Celina, Indiana" (Prepared for U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Resource Analysts, Bloomington, Indiana, 1983); Donald J. Berg, Country Patterns: A Sampler of American Country Home and Landscape Designs from Original 19th Century Sources (Pittstown, New Jersey, 1986); Marshall, "The 'Thousand Acres' Log House, Monroe County, Indiana."
106. Lloyd Grubb in Allison Morrison Mordoh, Portrait of a Lost Community: A Folklife Study of the Salt Creek Valley of South Central Indiana and the Effects of Community Displacement Following Formation of the Monroe Reservoir, (Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Folklore, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 1986), 143.
120. Harry Q. Holt, History of Martin County, Volume II, With Partial Autobiography of the Author (Oxford, Indiana, 1966); Robert L Reid and Thomas E. Rodgers, A Good Neighbor: The First Fifty Years of Crane (Evansville, Indiana, 1991), Historic Southern Indiana Project, University of Southern Indiana.
It is difficult to explain local membership variation, for it does not seem to correlate strongly with any of the factors we examined in our nine-county area: numbers of blacks, of Catholics, or of foreign-born people, or with population density or degree of urbanization. We constructed the following table based on data from these sources: H. R. Greenapple, compiler and editor, D. C. Stephenson: Irvington 0492: The Demise of the Grand Dragon of the Indiana Ku Klux Klan (Plainfield, Indiana, 1989), 102-119 [membership figures]; Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Fourteenth Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1920, Vol. III: Population 1920 (Washington, D.C., 1922).
* Negro is the term used in the Census Data.
132. James H. Madison, Indiana Through Tradition and Change: A History of the Hoosier State and Its People, 1920-1945 (Indianapolis, 1982); the story of the still in the Monroe County cave was contributed by Ruth Brinker.
134. Barbara J. Steinson, "Memories of Hoosier Homemakers: A Review Essay," Indiana Magazine of History 86 (June, 1990), 197-222; Eleanor Arnold, editor, Going to Club (Memories of Hoosier Homemakers Series; [Indianapolis, 1987]), 55. Arnold's Going to Club chronicles the extension clubs; each of the six volumes in this series offers glimpses of many aspects of 20th century life in our region and throughout the state.
136. The Center on History-Making in America, Information Brochure, Indiana University-Bloomington; see also "An Essay by David Thelen: History Making in America," The Historian 53, 4 (1991). (The Center is a research institute and clearing-house exploring the many ways in which people understand and use the past; to receive their newsletter, MOSAIC, write to: 1503 E. 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405);
137. In addition to those works already cited in our end notes and in the illustration credits, recent area histories include: H.O. Jones, A Twentieth Century History of Crawford County, Indiana (Chelsea, Maryland, 1984); Lawrence County Historical and Genealogical Society, Inc., History of Lawrence County, 1818-1990 (Paducah, Kentucky, 1990).