An Ecological Survey of the Coastal Region of Georgia
NPS Scientific Monograph No. 3
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Annotated List of Mammals of the Coastal Islands of Georgia

Hans N. Neuhauser
University of Georgia, Athens
W. Wilson Baker
Tall Timbers Research Station Tallahassee, Florida


Relatively little information has been published on the mammals of the barrier islands of Georgia, and no attempt to compile a list of resident species has been made since Bangs (1898). The following annotated list attempts to synthesize the available information from divergent sources and present the most complete summary to date of the status of mammals on the coastal islands.

The list covers 44 species of wild mammals (native and introduced) that occur or were known to occur on the barrier islands. The mammals are treated in phylogenetic order following, for the most part, the nomenclature of Hall and Kelson (1959) unless a more recent revision is available. The islands covered are from north to south, Oyster Bed, Cockspur, Tybee, Little Tybee, Wassaw, Ossabaw, St. Catherines, Blackbeard, Sapelo, Wolf, Little St. Simons, St. Simons, Sea, Jekyll, Little Cumberland, and Cumberland. Islands where, on best available evidence, the species is presumed to be extirpated are preceded by an asterisk (*)

Sources of information include museum specimens and records, collections of individuals, field work, a literature review, and personal inquiry. In the text, distribution records are subdivided into three categories in decreasing order of reliabiilty—those based on specimens, literature citations, and sight observations.

Specimens and their accompanying data were examined by the senior author (or indications of specimens' existence were conveyed to us) in the following museums and personal collections:

AMNHAmerican Museum of Natural History, New York, N.Y.
AUMPAuburn University Museum of Paleontology, Auburn, Ala.
CarnCarnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Penna.
CBWPrivate collection of Mrs. C. B. West, Bloomfield Hills, Mich.
CMCharleston Museum, Charleston, S.C.
CUCornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.
FMNHField Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Ill.
GSUGeorgia State University, Atlanta, Ga.
HNNPrivate collection of Hans N. Neuhauser, Athens, Ga.
JPTPrivate collection of James P. Thomas, Seattle, Wash.
MCZMuseum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass.
UFUniversity of Florida State Museum, Gainesville, Fla.
UG-FRUniversity of Georgia Forest Resources collection, Athens, Ga.
UG-ZUniversity of Georgia Museum of Zoology, Athens, Ga.
USNMUnited States National Museum, Washington, D.C.
WWBPrivate collection of W. Wilson Baker, Tallahassee, Fla.

Supplemental mammal surveys were made in 1970-71 on most barrier islands, with concentrated collecting efforts on Tybee, Wassaw, Sapelo, Jekyll, and Cumberland islands. Most of the specimens collected by the authors and others assisting in these surveys will be housed at either the University of Georgia Museum of Zoology or the Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Fla. Collecting was accomplished primarily by trapping, shooting, and an examination of owl pellets. Shooting and 4243 trap nights yielded 135 specimens of 12 species; owl pellets contained a minimum of 329 specimens of 9 species.

Literature records of distribution are given when published by professional biologists; records by others are accepted only for the following easily identifiable species: opossum, raccoon, bear, mink, otter, wild boar, whitetailed deer, and moose. While some effort was made to survey the non-technical literature, there are undoubtedly records contained in it that have been overlooked.

Sight records are accepted with the same reservations as for literature records. They represent field observations by us or by people who have communicated their observations to us. Sight observations are documented only when they represent the only record for the species from any Georgia island.

The information and assistance contributed by the following people during the compilation of this survey are gratefully acknowledged: Mrs. B. Aziz, A. Barbee, R. Bauer, P. C. Berolzheimer, B. Blihovde, H. W. Coolidge, O. Dewberry, J. K. Doutt, F. B. Golley, D. H. G. Gould, A. Graves, F. A. Hayes, H. O. Hillestad, M. Hopkins, Jr., J. H. Jenkins, A. S. Johnson, Mrs. B. LaSalle, C. Marshall, Mrs. R. Newman, E. P. Odum, J. I. Richardson, J. Richardson, C. Schroder, D. J. Shure, W. Sikora, Dr. and Mrs. F. Smith, M. H. Smith, Mrs. C. B. West, C. H. Wharton, and R. Whittington. Especially, we would like to thank C. W. Dopson, Jr., who participated in much of the collecting effort and provided us with much useful data. Special thanks are due to those curators and institutions who allowed the senior author to examine specimens in their care: C. W. Dopson, Jr. (UG-Z); J. H. Jenkins (UG-FR); C. O. Handley, Jr., and C. Jones (USNM); C. Mack (MCZ); J. C. Moore (FMNH); A. E. Sanders (CM); R. G. Van Gelder (AMNH).

Financial aid for these studies was provided by a grant from the National Park Service to the Institute of Natural Resources, University of Georgia, by the Institute of Ecology, University of Georgia, and by the Tall Timbers Research Station.

Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus—opossum
Specimens—Sapelo (USNM), St. Simons (USNM), Jekyll (WWB)
Literature—Sapelo (Teal and Teal 1964; Wilson and Baker in press), *Little Cumberland (Lee et al. 1963), *Cumberland (White 1849; Ober 1880; Lee et al. 1963)
Sight observations—Cockspur, Tybee, Sapelo, Little St. Simons, St. Simons, Sea, Jekyll
Remarks: The opossum is abundant on Sapelo and rare on Jekyll and Little St. Simons. It was abundant on Cumberland (White 1849; Ober 1880) but has since been eliminated there and on Little Cumberland (Lee et al. 1963).

Blarina brevicauda (Say)—short-tailed shrew
Specimens—Ossabaw (MCZ), Sapelo (HNN), Cumberland (WWB) Literature—Ossabaw (Bangs 1898)
Remarks: The Sapelo and Cumberland specimens were collected from owl pellets.

Cryptotis parva (Say)—least shrew
Specimens—Blackbeard (HNN), Sapelo (GSU, HNN), Cumberland (WWB)
Remarks: The Cumberland specimens were taken from owl pellets, probably barn owl. Bangs (1898) records a single specimen from Skidaway Island. Reexamination of the specimen (MCZ) confirms the original identification.

Scalopus aquaticus (Linnaeus)—eastern mole
Specimens—Ossabaw (MCZ), St. Catherines (MCZ), Blackbeard (UG-Z, HNN), Sapelo (UG-Z, HNN, WWB), St. Simons (USNM), Jekyll (WWB), Cumberland (MCZ, WWB)
Literature—Ossabaw (Bangs 1898; Jackson 1915), St. Catherines (Bangs 1898; Jackson 1915), Sapelo (Golley 1962; Teal and Teal 1964), St. Simons (Jackson 1915), Cumberland (Bangs 1898; Jackson 1915; Harper 1927)
Sight observations—Ossabaw, St. Catherines, Sapelo, St. Simons, Little Cumberland

Myotis austroriparius (Rhoads)—southeastern myotis
Specimens—Sapelo (UG-Z)
Literature—Sapelo (La Val 1967)
Remarks: One specimen (HNN) was collected from Little Sapelo Island (between Sapelo and the mainland). Davis and Rippy (1968) record this species from Butler Island (between Little St. Simons Island and the mainland). Specimens have been collected in April, June, November, and December.

Pipistrellus subflavus (F. Cuvier)—eastern pipistrelle
Specimens—Cumberland (WWB)
Sight observations—Little Cumberland

Eptesicus fuscus (Palisot de Beauvois)—big brown bat
Specimens—Sapelo (UG-Z), Cumberland (WWB)
Remarks: Specimens have been collected in March, May, and August.

Lasiurus borealis (Muller)—red bat
Specimen—Ossabaw (HNN)
Sight observation—Sapelo (3 January 1971, C. W. Dopson, Jr., and J. I. Richardson pers. comm.)

Lasiurus seminolus (Rhoads)—seminole bat
Specimens—Sapelo (UG-Z), Cumberland (MCZ, WWB)
Remarks: Specimens have been collected in March and April.

Lasiurus intermedius H. Allen—yellow bat
Specimen—Cumberland (WWB)
Remarks: The Cumberland specimen is one of the first records of this species from Georgia's Coastal Plain.

Sylvilagus floridanus (J.A. Allen)—cottontail rabbit
Sight observation—St. Simons (C. Schroder, pers. comm.)

Sylvilagus palustris (Bachman)—marsh rabbit
Specimens—Oyster Bed (UG-Z), Cockspur (UG-Z), Ossabaw (MCZ), St. Catherines (MCZ), Blackbeard (UG-Z, HNN), Sapelo (UG-Z, HNN), Wolf (UG-Z), St. Simons (MCZ, USNM), Sea (UG-Z), Jekyll (WWB), Little Cumberland (HNN) Cumberland (MCZ, CM, WWB)
Literature—Oyster Bed (Tomkins 1935; Narrative Report Tybee Nat. Wildlife Refuge), Cockspur (Tomkins 1946, 1955, 1960), Ossabaw (Bangs 1898; Nelson 1909; Lowe 1958), St. Catherines (Bangs 1898; Nelson 1909; Baldwin 1966), Blackbeard (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1962), Sapelo (Lowe 1958; Teal and Teal 1964; Caldwell 1966), St. Simons (Nelson 1909; Lowe 1958), Cumberland (Bangs 1898; Nelson 1909; Harper 1927)
Sight observations—Cockspur, Tybee, Wassaw, Ossabaw, St. Catherines, Sapelo, Little St. Simons, St. Simons, Jekyll, Little Cumberland
Remarks: Tomkins (1955) reported large populations in the brackish marshes of the Savannah and Altamaha rivers, and smaller populations about the mouths of the Ogeechee, Satilla and St. Marys rivers. He stated that it is doubtful if any are found in strictly salt marsh. Marsh rabbits were introduced on Oyster Bed in 1925 (Tomkins 1935) and are now very abundant (Narrative Report, Tybee Nat. Wildlife Refuge).

Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin—gray squirrel
Specimens—Wassaw (WWB), St. Catherines (MCZ), Sapelo (UG-Z, HNN, USNM), Jekyll (WWB), Cumberland (MCZ, CM, WWB)
Literature—Tybee (Tomkins 1965), Ossabaw (Jordan and Hayes 1959), St. Catherines (Bangs 1898; Baldwin 1966), Sapelo (Tomkins 1965), Cumberland (Bangs 1898; Harper 1927)
Sight observations—Cockspur Tybee, Ossabaw, St. Catherines, Sapelo, Little St. Simons, St. Simons, Jekyll.
Remarks: Tomkins (1965) said that "the gray squirrel is not native on Tybee (recently introduced), Wassaw, Ossabaw, Blackbeard, Sapelo (introduced), or Little Cumberland." Gray squirrels have recently been introduced on Wassaw and Ossabaw. A red color phase is found on Wassaw. The Sapelo population is presumably derived from a release of 13 pairs from the mainland in the 1930s (F. Smith, pers. comm.).

Sciurus niger Linnaeus—fox squirrel
Specimens—Ossabaw (UG-Z, UG-FR), Cumberland (Carn)
Literature—Ossabaw (Jordan and Hayes 1959)
Sight observations—Ossabaw, St. Simons
Remarks: Marshall (in litt. 13 Oct. 1970) stated that he was informed that the fox squirrels were caught in Michigan and introduced on Ossabaw for hunting purposes. He also stated that the ratio of fox squirrels to gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis,, was 20:1.

Glaucomys volans (Linnaeus)—southern flying squirrel
Sight observation—St. Simons (C. Schroder, pers. comm.)

Geomys cumberlandius Bangs—Cumberland Island pocket gopher
Specimens—Cumberland (MCZ, AMNH, USNM CM, UG-Z)
Literature —Cumberland (Bangs 1898; Harper 1927; others)
Sight observations—Cumberland
Remarks: This species is known only from Cumberland Island. It differs from its mainland counterpart, Geomys pinetis, in the former's larger size, longer tall, brighter coloration, smaller auditory bullae, narrower ascending arms of the maxilla, and differently shaped zygoma (Bangs 1898).

In Bangs' description of the type specimen, he gave the catalog number as 5015, but his drawing and measurements refer to specimen number (MCZ) B5016. This latter specimen should be regarded as the holotype.

Oryzomys palustris (Harlan)—marsh rice rat
Specimens—Cockspur (USNM), Tybee (HNN), Wassaw (WWB), Ossabaw (MCZ), Blackbeard (HNN), Sapelo (UG-Z, GSU, HNN, WWB), Jekyll (WWB, GSU), Cumberland ( MCZ AMNH, WWB).
Literarure—Cockspur (Tomkins 1946), Ossabaw (Bangs 1898; Goldman 1918). Sapelo (Kale 1961; Golley 1962; Sharp 1962; Teal and Teal 1964; Kale 1965; Sharp 1967), Cumberland (Bangs 1898; Goldman 1918)
Sight observations—Blackbeard, St. Simons, Little Cumberland
Remarks: Dopson and Richardson (1968) observed a rice rat on Little Egg Island at the mouth of the Altamaha River.

Reithrodontomys humulis (Audubon and Bachman)—eastern harvest mouse
Specimen—Cumberland (WWB)
Remarks: The single specimen was taken from an owl pellet. It is possible that the owl captured the mouse on the adjacent mainland where the species is known to occur (Golley 1962).

Peromyscus polionotus (Wagner)—oldfield moose
Literature—Cumberland (Wright 1926)

Peromyscus gossy pinus (LeConte)—cotton mouse
Specimens—Ossabaw (MCZ, HNN), Blackbeard (USNM, HNN), Sapelo (HNN), Jekyll (WWB, GSU), Little Cumberland (UG-Z, HNN), Cumberland (MCZ, AMNH, CM, GSU, WWB)
Literature—Ossabaw (Bangs 1898 as Peromyscus sp.; determined to species by HNN), Blackbeard (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1962), Little Cumberland (Frankenberg et al. 1971), Cumberland (Bangs 1898; Osgood 1909; Harper 1927; Golley 1962; others)
Remarks: Bangs (1898) described a new species of mouse, Peromyscus insulanus, from the north end of Cumberland Island. Osgood (1909), revising the genus, made P. insulanus a junior synonym of P. gossypinus anastasae Bangs. This subspecies is known from Little Cumberland, Cumberland, and Anastasia (Fla.) islands. The subspecific designation for the mice found on the other islands cannot be determined from the small sample size.

Pournelle and Barrington (1953) trapped extensively for P. g. anastasae on Anastasia Island, Fla., but found none. They stated that no cotton mice had been taken on the island since Surber's collection, reported in Elliot (1901). Thus, the present known distribution of the subspecies is restricted to Cumberland and Little Cumberland islands. [P. gossy pinus has recently been trapped on Anastasia Island (M. H. Smith pers. comm.) but the specimens have not been identified to subspecies yet.]

Four Peromyscus, possibly this species, were introduced on Sapelo from the Meridian Dock, McIntosh County, in 1968.

Sigmodon hispidus Say and Ord—hispid cotton rat
Specimens—Cockspur (CM, UG-FR), Tybee (HNN), Ossabaw (MCZ), Blackbeard (UG-Z, HNN), Sapelo (UG-Z, GSU, HNN, WBB), St. Simons (CU), Jekyll (WBB), Cumberland (MCZ, AMNH, CM, WWB)
Literarure—Cockspur (Tomkins 1946), Ossabaw (Bangs 1898), Sapelo (Teal and Teal 1964), Cumberland (Bangs 1898; Harper 1927)
Sight observation—Little Cumberland

Neotoma floridana (Ord)—eastern wood rat
Literature—St. Simons (Goldman 1910)
Remarks: This species was listed among the mammals of Wassaw by Francisco et al. (1970), but the record is unsubstantiated.

Rattus rattus (Linnaeus)—black rat
Specimens—Oyster Bed (CM), Cockspur (UG-Z), Tybee (USNM, HNN), Wassaw (HNN), St. Catherines (MCZ), Sapelo (UG-Z, HNN), Jekyll (WWB), Cumberland (MCZ, CM)
Literature—Oyster Bed (Tomkins 1946, 1959), Ossabaw (Bangs 1898), St. Catherines (Bangs 1898)

Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout)—Norway rat
Specimens—Ossabaw (MCZ), St. Catherines (MCZ)
Literature—Oyster Bed (Narrative Report Tybee Nat. Wildlife Refuge), Ossabaw (Bangs 1898), St. Catherines (Bangs 1898), Blackbeard (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1962)

Mus musculus Linnaeus—house mouse
Specimens—Oyster Bed (CM), Tybee (USNM, HNN)
Literature—Oyster Bed (Tomkins 1946, 1959; Narrative Report Tybee Nat. Wildlife Refuge)

Myocastor coypus (Molina)—nutria
Literature—*Blackbeard (Jenkins 1953; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1962)
Sight observation—*Blackbeard

Remarks: Jenkins (1953) stated that the nutria were introduced on Blackbeard by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1949, and that at least some were present in the winter of 1951. Blihovde (in corresp. 10 August 1970) reports the escape of 27 nutria of unknown sex on Blackbeard in December 1951. Very little was seen of the nutria in the next few years and they, gradually disappeared. The Narrative Reports of the Blackbeard Island National Wildlife Refuge indicate that 100 nutria were present in 1957 and 1958. An eradication program was started, and none were seen in 1959 or 1960. Presumably, the species has been extirpated from Blackbeard.

Wilson (1968), quoting Hubert Handy, says that a few nutria inhabit the coastal marsh in the Brunswick area.

Ziphius cavirostris G. Cuvier—goose-beaked whale
Specimens—Wassaw (FMNH), Little Cumberland (UG-Z), Cumberland (UF)
Literature—Wassaw (Caldwell et al. 1971), St. Simons (True 1910), Little Cumberland (Caldwell et al. 1971)

Kogia breviceps (Blainville)—pygmy sperm whale
Specimens—Ossabaw (UG-Z), Sapelo (JPT, photos of specimen in UG-Z; USNM, not seen), Little Cumberland (UG-Z), Cumberland (UG-Z)
Literature—Blackbeard (Caldwell et al. 1971), Sapelo (Smalley 1959; Caldwell and Golley 1965; Caldwell et al. 1971), Sea (Caldwell and Golley 1965), Jekyll (Caldwell et al. 1971), Little Cumberland (Zam et al. 1971; Caldwell et al. 1971)

Kogia simus (Owen)—dwarf sperm whale
Specimen—Ossabaw (CBW, photos of specimen in UG-Z), Cumberland (UG-Z)
Literature—Ossabaw (Caldwell et al. 1971)

Tursiops truncatus (Montague)—Atlantic bottle-nosed dolphin
Specimens—Ossabaw (CBW, UG-Z), Blackbeard (UG-Z, USNM), Sapelo (UG-Z), Wolf (USNM), Little Cumberland (HNN), Cumberland (HNN)
Literature—Wassaw (Caldwell et al. 1971), Blackbeard (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965; Caldwell et al. 1971), Sapelo (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965; Kale 1965; Caldwell et al. 1971), Wolf (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965), Jekyll (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965)

Pseudorca crassidens (Owen)—false killer whale
Literature—Tybee (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965)

Steno bredanensis (Lesson)—rough-toothed porpoise
Specimen—Little Cumberland (UG-Z)

Globicephala macrorhyncha Gray—pilot whale
Specimens—Wassaw (UG-Z), Ossabaw (UG-Z), Little St. Simons (AUMP, HNN), Jekyll (UG-Z), Littie Cumberland (UG-Z, HNN)
Literature—Wassaw (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965), Ossabaw (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965), Littie St. Simons (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965; Caldwell et al. 1971), St. Simons (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965), Jekyll (Golley 1962; Caldwell and Golley 1965), Little Cumberland (Caldwell et al. 1971)
Sight observations—Little St. Simons, St. Simons
Remarks: The pilot whale occasionally strands in large numbers on the Georgia coast, Fifty-three stranded on Little St. Simons in 1968, and between 15 and 25 stranded on St. Simons in 1962.

Megaptera novaengliae (Borowski)—humpback whale
Specimen—Sapelo (UG-Z)

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber)—gray fox
Literature—*Cumberland (Bent 1940)
Remarks: Bent's observation of a gray fox is the only record, substantiated or otherwise, for this species from any of Georgia's islands. Since Bent's observation was made some years before 1940, the species is presumed extirpated.

Ursus americanus Pallas—black bear
Literature—*St. Simons (Moore 1840; Leigh (1883). *Cumberland (Ober 1880; Bangs 1898; Harper 1927; Sprunt 1936)
Remarks: The St. Simons records are not definite; Moore heard that black bear were on St. Simons but did not see any, and Leigh had two cubs on the island, but did not say where they came from. Sprunt said that the bear was still present on Cumberland in small numbers, and that unmistakable sign was noted. Bears have been reported from areas between Ossabaw and the mainland, and between St. Catherines and Colonels Island within the last 30 years.

Procyon lotor (Linnaeus)—raccoon
Specimens—Wassaw (WWB), Ossabaw (MCZ), St. Catherines (MCZ, HNN), Black beard (USNM, UG-Z), Sapelo (UG-Z), Wolf (UG-Z), St. Simons (USNM), Jekyll (WWB), Little Cumberland (HNN), Cumberland (MCZ, WWB)
Literature—Oyster Bed (Narrative Report Tybee Nat, Wildlife Refuge), Wassaw (Francisco et al. 1970), Ossabaw (Goldman 1950; Hall and Kelson 1959; Jordan and Hayes 1959), St. Catherines (Baldwin 1966), Blackbeard (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1962; Narrative Report Blackbeard Island Nat. Wildlife Refuge), Sapelo (Teal and Teal 1964; Kale 1965), Wolf (Narrative Report Wolf Island Nat. Wildlife Refuge), Little St. Simons (Anon. 1923), St. Simons (Moore 1840; Nelson and Goldman 1930; Goldman 1950; Bartram in Harper 1958, others), Cumberland (White 1849; Ober 1880; Sprunt 1936; Bent 1940)
Sight observations —Cockspur, Tybee, Littie Tybee, Wassaw, Ossabaw, St. Catherines Wolf, Little St. Simons, St. Simons, Sea, Jekyll, Little Cumberland
Remarks: Procyon lotor litoreus was described from Sr. Simons by Nelson and Goldman (1930). This subspecies is found along the coastal region of Georgia and South Carolina, The type specimen is #2450 (USNM).

Mustela vison Schreber—mink
Specimens—Ossabaw (MCZ), Sapelo (UG-Z, HNN), Jekyll (UG-Z), Cumberland (UG-Z)
Literature—Oyster Bed (Narrative Report Tybee Nat. Wildlife Refuge), Ossabaw (Bangs 1898; Jordan and Hayes 1959), St. Catherines (Baldwin 1966), Blackbeard (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1962; Narrative Report Blackbeard Island Nat. Wildlife Refuge), Sapelo (Teal and Teal 1964; Kale 1965), Wolf (Narrative Reports Wolf Island Nat. Wildlife Refuge)
Sight observations—Ossabaw, Sapelo, Wolf, Little St. Simons, St. Simons, Littie Cumberland

Lutra canadensis (Schreber)—river otter
Specimen—Blackbeard (UG-Z), Little Cumberland (UG-Z)
Literature—Oyster Bed (Narrative Report Tybee Nat. Wildlife (Refuge), Tybee (Jenkins 1953), Little Tybee (Jenkins 1953), Wassaw (Jenkins 1953), Ossabaw (Jenkins 1953; Jordan and Hayes 1959), St. Catherines (Jenkins 1953; Baldwin 1966), Blackbeard (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1962; Narrative Report Blackbeard Island Nat. Wildlife Refuge), Sapelo (Jenkins 1953; Teal and Teal 1964; Kale 1965), Wolf (Jenkins 1953), Little St. Simons (Jenkins 1953), St. Simons (Jenkins 1953), Sea (Jenkins 1953), Jekyll (Jenkins 1953), Little Cumberland (Jenkins 1953), Cumberland (Jenkins 1953)
Sight Observations—Ossabaw, St. Catherines, Sapelo, St. Simons, Little Cumberland, Cumberland

Lynx rufus (Schreber)—bobcat
Specimen—*Ossabaw (CBW)
Literature—*Sapelo (Teal and Teal 1964), *Cumberland (Harper 1927)
Sight observation—*Cockspur
Remarks: John Richardson, Park Ranger-Naturalist at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Cockspur Island, reported a bobcat "passing through" in the 1950's. Moore (1840) described "wildcats or tigers" on St. Simons, Presumably, this was a bobcat, although Backman (in White 1849) says that panthers, Fells concolor coryi, are found in Glynn County (St. Simons is in Glynn County).

Teal and Teal (1964) stated that wildcats inhabited Sapelo in the past, but died off or were killed off during periods of intense cultivation. Harper (1927) wrote that "Issac F. Arnow stated that the species was common on Cumberland Island up to about 1907, when some disease exterminated it there."

The Ossabaw bobcats died off about 15-20 years ago (Mrs. C. B. West, pers. comm.).

Trichechus manatus Linnaeus—manatee
Literature—Cumberland (Tomkins 1956; Caldwell and Golley 1965)
Remarks: There is a manatee specimen from the mouth of the Altamaha (UG-Z), Tomkins (1956) reported manatees from Jekyll Creek and the Little Satilla River. Tomkins (1958) found a manatee skull in Savannah Harbor.

Sus scrofa Linnaeus—European wild boar
Literature—*Wassaw (Francisco et al. 1970), *Jekyll (Diehl 1965)
Sight observations—*Ossabaw, *Little St. Simons, *St. Simons, *Jekyll, *Little Cumberland, *Cumberland
Remarks: The above distribution does not include domestic or feral pig distributions on the islands, Hanson and Karstad (1959) said that European wild boar were introduced into feral herds of swine to increase the sporting value of the resident forms. Probably no true wild boar exist on the coastal islands today.

Diehl (1965) indicated that 300 wild boar were sent to the Jekyll Island Club by King Humbert of Italy.

Francisco et al. (1970) stated that wild boar were abundant on Wassaw, but a cholera plague in 1916 eradicated the entire population.

Sight observations—Wassaw, Ossabaw, St. Catherines, Sapelo, St. Simons, Sea, Jekyll, Little Cumberland, Cumberland

Remarks: Odocoileus virginianus nigribarbis was described from Blackbeard Island by Goldman and Kellogg (1940). The subspecies is known to occur on only two islands, Blackbeard and Sapelo but, according to Miller and Kellogg (1955), the subspecies may occur on other islands along the coast of Georgia. The type specimen is #265213 (USNM).

Odocoileus virginianus virginianus (Zimmermann) also occurs on the coast, but to what extent is unknown. Barbour and Allen (1922) and Hall and Kelson ( 1959) include Cumberland in the range of the subspecies.

Deer populations on most of the larger islands have been genetically mixed with introductions from various parts of the United States.

Alces alces (Clinton)—moose
Sight observation—*Little St. Simons (Mrs. B. Aziz, pers. comm.)
Remarks: Moose were introduced for hunting but have been exterminated.

Dama dama (Linnaeus)—European fallow deer
Literature—Little St. Simons (Jenkins 1953)
Sight observations—Little St. Simons, St. Simons, Jekyll
Remarks: Berolzheimer (in corresp. July 13, 1971) states that fallow deer were introduced on Little St. Simons between 1900 and 1920.

The fallow deer on Jekyll were introduced from Little St. Simons (D. Gould, pers. comm.).

Cervus elaphus Linnaeus—red deer or European elk
Literature— *Little St. Simons (Anon. 1923?)
Sight observation— *Little St. Simons
Remarks: At least four animals were introduced for hunting (Anon 1923?). Jenkins (pers. comm.) states that the European form were present ?? to Little St. Simons and, according to the caretaker, they were eliminated when the screw-worm infestation appeared in 1930-34.

Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)—white-tailed deer
Specimens—Wassaw (WWB, MCZ), Ossabaw (UG-Z), Blackbeard (USNM, UG-Z, UG-FR), Sapelo (HNN), Cumberland (MCZ, USNM)
Literature—Tybee (Jenkins 1953), Wassaw (Folk 1939; Jenkins 1953; Francisco et al. 1970), Ossabaw (Jenkins 1953; Jordan and Hayes 1959), St. Catherines (Jenkins 1953; Baldwin 1966; Francisco et al. 1970), Blackbeard (Goldman and Kellogg 1940; Jenkins 1953; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1962; Golley 1962; Lund et al. 1962; Narrative Reports Blackbeard Island Nat. Wildlife Refuge; others), Sapelo (Jenkins 1953; Miller and Kellogg 1955; Robert et al. 1956; Hall and Kelson 1959; Golley 1962; Teal and Teal 1964), Wolf (Jenkins 1953), Little St. Simons (Anon. 1923?; Jenkins 1953), St. Simons (Dickinson 1751; Moore 1840; Leigh 1883; Jenkins 1953), Sea (Jenkins 1953), Jekyll (Lanier 1916; Jenkins 1953), Little Cumberland (Jenkins 1953), Cumberland (White 1849; Ober 1880; Barbour and Allen 1922; Harper 1927; Sprunt 1936; Bent 1940; Jenkins 1953; Bartram in Harper 1958; Hall and Kelson 1959)


ANON, 1923? Saga of the band. The adventures of Chamberiain Berolzheimer's 1922 hikers. M. B. Brown, New York. 64 p.

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