USGS Logo Geological Survey Professional Paper 387-A
Botanical Evidence of the Modern History of Nisqually Glacier Washington





Area of study

Methods of study

Topographic and botanical evidence of surface age
Growth increments of trees
Age sampling and mapping plan
    Appearance of the forest
        Old forest
        Young forest
Selection of trees
Geographic distribution of key trees and age groups

Modern history of Nisqually Glacier

Maximum advance in last thousand years
    Botanical evidence
    Pyroclastics and humus sequence
Recession between 1840 and 1900
    Location and description of moraine
    Time interval between cessation of advance and establishment of seedlings
    Maximum age of young forest
    Dates and early rates of recession

Reconnaissance study of moraines of Emmons and Tahoma Glaciers

Moraines of Emmons Glacier
Moraines of Tahoma Glacier

Summary and conclusions

References cited



1. Index map of Mount Rainier National Park

2. Moraine at the approximate position of Emmons Glacier terminus in 1910-13

3. Forest of living trees, 300 years old, beyond the 1840 moraine of Nisqually Glacier

4. Forest of young trees on the 1840 moraine of Nisqually Glacier

5. Diagrams showing possible relations between successive advances of a glacier

6. Map of Nisqually Glacier terminal moraine and vicinity

7. Nisqually River valley in the vicinity of 1840 moraine of Nisqually Glacier

8. Right wall of the Nisqually River valley downstream from Tato Falls

9. Moraines of Emmons Glacier in the valley of White River and Inter Fork

10. Sketch map of terminal moraines and of areas studied in the vicinity of Emmons Glacier

11. Diagram showing ages of trees in 1959 and positions of the terminus of Emmons Glacier

12. Map of Nisqually Glacier showing the 1840 moraine and vicinity

13. Two Douglas-fir trees downvalley from the 1745 moraine of Emmons Glacier

14. Generalized profile across the moraines of Emmons Glacier

15. Old forest and two moraines downvalley from Tahoma Glacier

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Last Updated: 01-Mar-2005