Independence
National Historical Park
Pennsylvania
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The Liberty Bell cracked long ago, but as an icon of freedom its voice has never been stilled. To Americans who demanded independence on this site, and to those who even now seek self-determination, it still declares "Proclaim Liberty throughout All the land unto All the Inhabitants Thereof." Its crack is a reminder that liberty is imperfect, hopefully evolving to include those who have been denied full participation in a democratic society.

The bell was first heard in 1753 atop the Pennsylvania State House in Philadelphia. Its inscription was prophetic, for it was in this city that colonial representatives took some of the earliest steps toward independence from Great Britain. In response to Parliament's punitive Intolerable Acts, the First Continental Congress gathered in September 1774 in Carpenters' Hall, where it drew up a Declaration of Rights and Grievances and an appeal to King George III. No concessions were forthcoming, so the Second Continental Congress convened in the State House in May 1775. By this time the first shots had been fired at Lexington and Concord. Delegates who had been managing an economic battle over trade and taxes now had to direct a war. Independence, however, was not yet the goal. Many colonists remained loyal to Britain, and some, though anxious to throw off Parliament's yoke, still wished to keep the stability and security that came with being citizens of the British empire. George III, unmoved by Congress' Olive Branch Petition affirming the colonies' loyalty to the crown, declared them to be in a state of rebellion. In June 1776 Virginia delegate Richard Henry Lee moved that the colonies be proclaimed "Free and Independent States." Thomas Jefferson drafted the formal declaration, appealing to natural principles of justice and equality. The delegates adopted the Declaration in Independence Hall on July 4; what had been colonies were now sovereign states on the road to becoming one nation.

"A More Perfect Union"

With the bold phrases of the Declaration of Independence still echoing through the land, the Continental Congress had to translate an assertion of freedom into a working reality. In November 1777 it produced the Articles of Confederation, which, rather than providing for real union, were in James Madison's words "a treaty of alliance between independent and Sovereign States." Individual states were jealous of their sovereignty, allowing the central government few real powers other than to direct the war. Yet it was the first halting step toward a stable federalism, in which power was shared by a central government and local states.

The Articles served the new nation during the war, but their obvious inadequacies, and popular movements demanding debt relief, spurred widespread sentiment for reform. Fifty-five delegates were sent to Philadelphia in 1787 to revise the Articles for "the preservation of the Union." Soon after convening, however, the delegates agreed to create an entirely new constitutional government.

The Great Compromise, calling for a House of Representatives with proportional representation and a Senate with each state represented equally, ensured that small states and varied sectional interests would all have a voice. The states retained some attributes of sovereignty, but the central government had stronger powers, now with executive and judicial branches. Though the Constitution was not perfect—it failed to adequately address slavery—it provided a firm yet flexible structure around which to build a nation.

The Road To Nationhood

1774
Parliament punishes Massachusetts for the Boston Tea Party by passing the Intolerable Acts; Boston Harbor is closed to commerce. Other colonies rally to Massachusetts' cause. In May 1774 the Virginia Assembly calls for a meeting in Philadelphia of representatives from all the colonies to plan a response—the First Continental Congress.

1775
Armed conflict begins in Massachusetts at Lexington and Concord in April; the Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia in May, appointing George Washington as commander in chief of the Continental forces. As Congress debates its course of action, the first pitched battle of the American Revolution takes place in June at Bunker Hill.

1776
Thomas Paine publishes Common Sense in January, galvanizing the colonists. Delegates to Congress sever ties to Great Britain and sign the Declaration of Independence creating 13 sovereign states. Benjamin Franklin is dispatched to France as one of America's first ambassadors.

1777
British Gen. William Howe occupies Philadelphia in September and remains until June 1778. The British troops take food from citizens and strip furnishings from the city's structures. Hundreds of American prisoners of war, succumbing to wounds and disease, are buried in Washington Square. After almost a year of debate, Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation in November.

1778
France and America form an alliance, negotiated by Benjamin Franklin, obligating France to fight for American independence. Within four months, France and Great Britain are at war.

1781
Congress appoints Robert Morris, Philadelphia merchant and banker, as Superintendent of Finance to address the government's rising debt and the nation's rapidly growing inflation. Morris is the force behind the creation of the Bank of North America. His brilliant financial strategies help finance the victory at Yorktown. The Articles of Confederation go into effect as the last state ratifies them in March.

1783
Britain and the United States sign the Treaty of Paris, ending the war. Articles include cessation of hostilities, recognition of U.S. independence, and the withdrawal of British land and naval forces.

1786
The spectacle of a central government helpless to help Massachusetts during Shay's Rebellion (debt-ridden farmers seeking state relief) is a major reason for the convention in Philadelphia in 1787.

1787
A convention is called to reform the Confederation, which has no executive or judicial branches and no control over taxation. Delegates begin framing a new constitution in May and sign it in September. During the state ratification process, pro-constitutional essays published in the New York press, called the "Federalist Papers," have a marked influence on the debates. The last state required ratifies the Constitution in June 1788.

1789
The first Federal Congress convenes in New York. Ten amendments to the Constitution—the Bill of Rights—are ratified by the states in 1791.

1790
Philadelphia becomes the nation's temporary capital while the permanent site is prepared on the Potomac River.

l800
U.S. government moves to Washington, D.C.

Plan Your Visit

Welcome to Philadelphia and Independence National Historical Park, where so much of our Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal-period heritage is preserved. Here, along these old streets, amid these venerable houses and public buildings, Americans began their quest for freedom and independence. Here, too, the United States was born and its ideals enacted in the Constitution. We invite you to make the most of your tour of this great historic place, and we wish you a rewarding visit. Begin at the Independence Visitor Center.

A Cosmopolitan City

To painter Gilbert Stuart, early Philadelphia was the "Athens of America." With amazing speed it had grown from William Penn's "green countrie towne" of the 1600s to a thriving river port and the largest city of British North America. It was the most sophisticated of the colonial cities—the acknowledged cultural, financial, and political capital. Quakers and other English settlers, Scotch-Irish, Germans, immigrants from other American colonies, those fleeing slavery, and free people of African descent formed a diverse community known for its tolerance and for the opportunities awaiting industrious artisans and young apprentices. The tight economic network of merchants, artisans, and shopkeepers formed the core of Philadelphia's revolutionary generation.

Liberty Bell Center
The Liberty Bell is an international symbol of freedom. Hung in the State House in 1753, it summoned the Pennsylvania Assembly to work. In the 1830s anti-slavery groups named it the Liberty Bell. The bell cracked about 1846, but its message still rings out.

President's House Site
George Washington and John Adams created the office of president while living and working at this site. Washington's large staff included at least nine enslaved Africans. Adams never owned slaves.

Declaration House
In 1776 Thomas Jefferson, a delegate to the Continental Congress, rented two rooms on the second floor. He drafted the Declaration of Independence here. The house was rebuilt in 1975.

Independence Square
Delegates meeting in the Assembly Room of the Pennsylvania State House, now called Independence Hall, created the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. Old City Hall housed the US Supreme Court from 1791 to 1800. The US Congress met in Congress Hall from 1790 to 1800.

Portrait Gallery in the Second Bank of the United States
Portraits of George and Martha Washington, Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant, Dolley Madison, John Paul Jones, and others bring the revolutionary period to life.

Franklin Court and Market Street Houses
Benjamin Franklin owned a large house in the courtyard behind five houses on Market Street. Today the courtyard holds a "ghost house" and museum. Townhouse exhibits include a 1700s print shop, a post office, and an archeological exhibit.

New Hall Military Museum
Henry Knox, the first Secretary of War, had offices in a building built here by the Carpenters' Company in 1791. This reconstruction has a museum devoted to the early history of the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps.

Carpenters' Hall
This Georgian-style building was erected between 1770 and 1774 by the Carpenters' Company of Philadelphia, a guild dedicated to the improvement of its members' skills. The First Continental Congress met here in 1774.

City Tavern
This social, cultural, and political center—the "most genteel" tavern in America—was the site of business transactions, patriot gatherings, and musical performances. Today's restaurant is a faithful reconstruction.

Todd House
Lawyer John Todd and Dolley Payne Todd lived here from 1791 to 1793, when John died of yellow fever. Dolley later married future president James Madison. The house shows middle-class life in Philadelphia's 1700s.

Bishop White House
William White was a bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church formed after the American Revolution. His home, decorated in Federal style, typifies Philadelphia's elite. Guests included President George Washington.

First Bank of the United States
Alexander Hamilton was the force behind the creation of the First Bank of the United States in 1791 to regulate a national monetary system. The building, completed in 1797, is an example of neoclassical architecture.

Merchants' Exchange
William Strickland's 1834 Greek Revival style shows bold form. It was the hub of commercial and financial activities. It is the oldest stock exchange building in the U.S. Lobby open to the public.

Using Your Time at the Park

park map
(click for larger map)

Hours and Admission To see Independence Hall, you need a timed ticket (free), available at Independence Visitor Center the morning of your visit. You may reserve tickets in advance at www.recreation.gov for a small fee. Before visiting the Liberty Bell or Independence Hall you must go through a security check. You may visit most other buildings without tickets or reservations. For more information please visit www.nps.gov/inde.

Where to Start Begin at the Independence Visitor Center for information, exhibits, and tour tickets. Be sure to see the film Independence. Staff can answer questions and help you plan your visit. Ask about seasonal programs, special activities for children, and services for non-English-speaking visitors.

Accessibility We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. For information go to the visitor center, ask a ranger, or visit www.nps.gov/inde.

Only a Short Time? Visit Independence Hall (a World Heritage site) and Liberty Bell Center.

Have More Time? Here are some ideas on what to visit:

One-Day Visit
Independence Visitor Center
Liberty Bell Center
President's House Site
Independence Hall
Great Essentials exhibit
Congress Hall
Franklin Court
Carpenters' Hall
National Constitution Center

Two- or Three-Day Visit
Independence Visitor Center
Liberty Bell Center
President's House Site
Independence Hall
Great Essentials exhibit
Congress Hall
Old City Hall
Declaration House
Portrait Gallery in the Second Bank of the United States
Franklin Court
Carpenters' Hall
New Hall Military Museum
National Constitution Center
Free Quaker Meeting House
APS Museum
Bishop White House
Todd House
City Tavern
Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial
Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site
Germantown White House

Getting Here

Independence Visitor Center, 525 Market Street, has an underground parking garage; enter on 6th Street between Arch and Market streets.
Eastbound via I-76 and I-676; exit from I-76 to I-676 (left exit); continue to 6th Street exit (Independence Hall); turn right on 6th Street. Entrance to garage is on the left beyond Arch Street.
Westbound via Benjamin Franklin Bridge (US 30); follow signs for 6th Street, "Historic Area"; go to garage as above.
Southbound via I-95; take exit 22 to Callowhill Street; turn right on Callowhill Street to 6th Street; turn left on 6th Street; proceed to garage as above.
Northbound via I-95; take exit 22, I-676/Independence Hall (left exit); keep right for I-676 east/Independence Hall to Callowhill Street; go straight on Callowhill Street to 6th Street. Turn left on 6th Street; go to garage as above.

Safety First Be careful crossing busy streets. Watch your step on uneven surfaces. Guard your valuables, and lock your car.

Emergencies call 911

Source: NPS Brochure (2018)


Establishment

World Heritage Site — 1979
Independence National Historical Park — June 28, 1948
Independence Hall National Historic Site — 1943 (designated)
Philadelphia Custom House National Historic Site — May 26, 1939


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Brochures ◆ Site Bulletins ◆ Trading Cards expand section

Documents

1974 Franklin Court Report (Volume I) (B. Cosans, 1975)

1974 Franklin Court Report (Volume II: 314 Market Street) (B. Cosans, 1975)

1974 Franklin Court Report (Volume III: 316 & 318 Market Street) (B. Cosans, 1975)

1974 Franklin Court Report (Volume IV: 320 ∓ 322 Market Street) (B. Cosans, 1975)

1974 Franklin Court Report (Volume VI: Catalog and Remarks) (B. Cosans, 1975)

A Feasibility Study for the Tercentenary Commemoration of William Penn and the City of Philadelphia 1682-1982 (Venturi and Rauch and John Milner Associates, November 1979)

A Geophysical Survey in Two Basements (Paul Y. Inashima, August 25, 1997)

A Guide To Independence National Park — NPS Handbook 115 (1982)

A Master Plan for Independence National Historical Park (May 1968)

A Master Plan for Independence National Historical Park (December 1969)

A Master Plan for Independence National Historical Park (July 1970)

"A Multitude of Amendments, Alterations and Additions": The Writing and Publicizing of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the Constitution of the United States (Ann Marie Dubé, May 1996)

A Pennsylvania Shrine: The Independence Mall A Report of the Joint State Government Commission to the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Session of 1951)

A Preliminary Study for Bringhurst House, Germantown, Pennsylvania (Roger Rector, Steven Bone, Charles Dorman, Martin Yoelson and Douglas Warnock, undated)

A primary resource for the restoration, reconstruction and/or replication of 18th and early 19th century architectural elements: the architectural study collection of Independence National Historical Park) (Carl Edward Nittinger, 1991)

A Report on the Grounds Surrounding the Second Bank of the United States with Emphasis on Conditions During the Period from 1819 to 1836 (James G. Kiryakakis, August 19, 1955)

A Study of Philadelphia Watchboxes (Robert J. Colborn, July 1964)

A Summary Report on the historical basis for the partial refurnishing of the Assembly Room, Independence Hall, scheduled for completion by May 1955 (January 1955)

A Summary Report on the historical basis for the refurnishing of the Supreme Court chamber, Independence Hall (March 1956)

A Survey Report on New Hall in Carpenters' Court, Independence National Historical Park (November 1956)

An Architectural Summary of Franklin Court and Benjamin Franklin's House (Penelope Hartshorne Batcheler, September 18, 1969)

An Historiographical Overview of Early: U.S. Finance (1784 -1836): Institutions, Markets, Players, and Politics (Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen, October 11, 1999)

An Institutional Study: The United States House of Representatives 1790-1800, Congress Hall, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (John D.R. Platt, December 1972)

Archaeological Investigation of the Carriage House, Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Jackson W. Moore, Jr., December 1959)

Archaeological Investigations at the Tower Stairhall, Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Paul Y. Inashima, 1998)

Archaeological Monitoring of A Structural Engineering Study of the Retaining Walls at Independence Square (Paul Y. Inashima, 1997)

Architectural Report for the Rehabilitation of the Customhouse, Philadelphia Customhouse National Historic Site, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Thos. C. Vint and Alston G. Guttersen, undated)

Archaeological Report on the Investigation of a Brick Vault Catchment "Cistern Number 2," Beneath the Cement Floor Basement of Old City Hall (John L. Cotter, 1964)

Archaeological Survey Report, Area F, Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Doris Weiland, coord., March 17, 1977)

Atmospheric Control for Independence Group of Buildings in Independence National Historical Park Philadelphia (Charles S. Leopold, November 22, 1960)

Benches of the State House Yard (Robert J. Colborn, February 1962)

Benjamin Franklin's 'Good House': A Story Of Franklin Court — NPS Handbook 114 (1981)

Bernard McMahon's The American Gardener's Calendar and the Eighteenth Century Garden (William M. Campbell, April 1966)

Carpenters' Court (James C. Massey, rev. ed. 1954)

Carpenters' Hall (Charles E. Peterson, reprint from Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 43, Part I, 1953)

Cellars, Garrets, and Related Places in Philadelphia Houses: 1750-1850 (John M. Bacon, September 1991)

Congress Hall: Capitol Of The United States — NPS Handbook 147 (1990)

Conservation of Historic Philadelphia (Charles E. Peterson, December 1954)

Creation of Independence National Historical Park and Independence Mall (Kathleen Kurtz Cook, 1989)

Cultural Landscape Inventory, Phase 1 Final Draft (June 1, 1994)

Cultural Landscape Report for Washington Square (DHM Design, Pressley Associations and RK&K Engineering, September 2010 rev. February 2011)

Cultural Landscape Report Independence Mall (Deirdre Gibson, Mary Whelchel Konieczny, Kathy Schlegel and Anna Coxe Toogood, June 1994)

Cultural Landscape Report Independence Square: Volume Two (March 1998)

Development of the Executive Branch 1790-1800 (Seema Anita Misra, Summer 1991)

Dock Creek Archaeology Archaeological Project 13 Recommendations (B.B. Powell, March 18, 1958)

Domestic Servants in Philadelphia 1780-1830 (Karie Diethorn, August 1986)

"Executive Department" Activities Occurring at 190 High Street, Independence National Historic Park (James Mueller, May 12, 2003)

Foundation Document, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (September 2017)

Foundation Document Overview, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (January 2017)

Framing of the Federal Constitution — NPS Handbook 103 (1979)

Franklin's House (John Platt, September 5, 1969)

Franklin's House Historic Structures Report, Independence National Historical Park (John Platt, November 29, 1969)

Furnishing Plan for the Assembly Room, Independence Hall (February 1970)

Furnishing Plan for the Bishop White House (December 1961)

Furnishing Plan for the Bishop White House, Appendixes (December 1961)

Furnishing Plan for the First Floor of Congress Hall (August 1959)

Furnishing Plan for the First Floor of Congress Hall, Independence National Historical Park (Supplement 1) (Karie Diethorn, September 1992)

Furnishing Plan for the First Floor of Congress Hall, Independence National Historical Park (Supplement 2: Architectural Analysis of the Historic Philip Van Corlandt Seating Plan) (Thomas Clinton McGimsey, March 31, 1995)

Furnishing Plan for the First Floor of Independence Hall (August 1959)

Furnishing Plan for the Second Floor of Congress Hall (October 1963)

Furnishing Plan for the Second Floor of Congress Hall (October 1965)

Furnishing Plan for the Todd House (undated)

Furnishing Plan (Parts D. through F.) for the Second Floor of Independence Hall (Charles G. Dorman, September 1971)

Furnishing Study of the Second Floor — Independence Hall, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (Lenard E. Brown, October 1970)

Furnishings Design Studies: Benches, Lighting, Bollards, Trash Receptacles (March 1999)

Furnishings Plan Deshler Morris House, 5442 Germantown Avenue, Philadelphia, PA (Doris Devine Fanelli, Jane B. Kolter and John C. Milley, December 1976)

Furnishings Plan for Benjamin Franklin Bache's Aurora Subscription Office, 322 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA (Doris Devine Fanelli, Jane B. Kolter and John C. Milley, May 1977)

Furnishings Plan for the Graff House, Philadelphia, PA (Doris Devine Fanelli, August 1988)

Furnishings Plan for the Mayor's Court Chamber in Old City Hall, Philadelphia, PA (Anne A. Verplanck, November 1988)

Furnishings Plan for the Third Floor of the Bishop William White House, Philadelphia, PA (Anne A. Verplanck, May 1989)

General Management Plan, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (June 1997)

Grounds Report on Landscape and Architecture of 18th Century Philadelphia (Charles S. Grossman and Mary Ann Hagan, August 1958)

Guide to the Archives of Independence National Historical Park (Lee Dickinson, Daniel Law and Anna Coxe Toogood, September 1983)

Here was the Revolution (Harlan D. Unrau, 1977)

Historic Building Report on 408 Locust Street, Independence National Historical Park (February 1959)

Historic Building Report on 413 Locust Street, Independence National Historical Park (February 1959)

Historic Building Report on 415 Locust Street, Independence National Historical Park (February 1959)

Historic Building Report on 423 Locust Street in Independence National Historical Park (February 1959)

Historic Building Report on Bishop White House in Independence National Historical Park (April 1958)

Historic Building Report on Kidd House 325 Walnut Street, Independence National Historical Park (May 1958)

Historic Building Report on McIlvaine House in Independence National Historical Park (April 1958)

Historic Building Report on Philadelphia (Merchants') Exchange, Third and Walnut Streets, Independence National Historical Park (May 1958)

Historic Building Survey on Dilworth-Todd-Moylan House in Independence National Historical Park (April 1958)

Historic Furnishings Plan: City Tavern, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (Constance V. Hershey, November 1974)

Historic Grounds Report for Philadelphia Merchants' Exchange in Independence National Historical Park (February 1959)

Historic Grounds Survey Report for Carpenters' Hall and Carpenters' Court in Independence National Historical Park (August 1958)

Historic Resource Study, Independence Mall, The 18th Century Development, Block One, Chestnut to Market, Fifth to Sixth Streets (Anna Coxe Toogood, August 2001)

Historic Resource Study, Independence Mall, The 18th Century Development, Block Two, Market to Arch, Fifth to Sixth Streets (Anna Coxe Toogood, November 2000)

Historic Resource Study, Independence Mall, The 18th Century Development, Block Three, Arch to Race, Fifth to Sixth Streets (Anna Coxe Toogood, January 2004)

Historic Site Survey, Third and Scots Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia, Pa. (William C. Everhart, October 30, 1956)

Historic Structure Report: Deshler-Morris House, Independence National Historical Park: Architectural Data Section (Michael Adlerstein, March 1982)

Historic Structure Report: Historical and Architectural Data: First Bank of the United States, Independence National Historic Park, Pennsylvania (John D.R. Platt, Penelope Hartshorne Batcheler and Sarah M. Sweetser, 1977)

Historic Structure Report: Historical Data Section: Graff House, Independence National Historic Park, Pennsylvania (John D.R. Platt, September 1972)

Historic Structure Report/Architectural Data Section: City Tavern, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (Penelope H. Batcheler, October 1973)

Historic Structures Report/Architectural Data Section: Congress Hall — House of Representatives Gallery Rail (Part II-Chapter III) (Penelope Hartshorne, March 1962)

Historic Structures Report/Architectural Data Section Part II (Portion) on Old City Hall (Structural Rehabilitation) (Lee H. Nelson, May 1963)

Historic Structures Report Area F Architecture Data Section, Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Penelope Hartshorne Batcheler, September 1978)

Historic Structures Report, Bringhurst House, Architectural Data Section Part II (Thomas Clinton McGimsey, July 1995)

Historic Structures Report, Independence Hall, The Central Hall & Tower Stair Hall Architectural Data Section (Penelope Hartshorne Batcheler, March 1989)

Historic Structures Report on 421 Locust Street, Independence National Historical Park (July 1960)

Historic Structures Report on Bishop White House in Independence National Historical Park, Part II (March 1959)

Historic Structures Report on Fling House 319-321 Walnut Street, Independence National Historical Park (June 1960)

Historic Structures Report on Hibbard-Griffitts House, 341 Walnut Street, Independence National Historical Park (November 1959)

Historic Structures Report on Independence Hall, Independence National Historical Park, Architectural Data Section Part I, Supplement I (Lee H. Nelson, September 1961)

Historic Structures Report on the First Bank of the United States, Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Administrative Data Section: Hobart G. Cawood; Historical Data Section: John D.R. Platt; Architectural Data Section: P.H. Batcheler and S.M. Sweetser, December 1974)

Historic Structures Report on the Stable or Carriage House (November 1958)

Historic Structures Report Part I Christian Street Houses (#2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12), Independence National Historical Park (Martin I. Yoelson, April 25, 1962)

Historic Structures Report Part I, Supplement I, Independence Hall, Independence National Historical Park: Architectural Data Section (Lee H. Nelson, September 1961)

Historic Structures Report Part I, Supplement I, Yard Wall, Bishop White House Restoration (Normann M. Souder, October 1962)

Historic Structures Report Part II Architectural Data Section on Dilworth-Todd-Moylan House, Independence National Historical Park (William M. Campbell, December 1960)

Historic Structures Report Part I on 316 Market Street, Independence National Historical Park (March 1961)

Historic Structures Report Part I on 318 Market Street, Independence National Historical Park (March 1961)

Historic Structures Report Part 1 on 322 Market Street, Independence National Historical Park (June 1964)

Historic Structures Report Part I on City Tavern, Independence National Historical Park (September 1962)

Historic Structures Report Part I on The Benjamin Franklin Tenant House 322 Market Street, Independence National Historical Park, Architectural Data Section (Penelope Hartshorne, Helmuth Reich and Robert Harris, March 1963)

Historic Structures Report Part I on The Benjamin Franklin Tenant Houses 316-318 Market Street (Formerly 106 - 108 High Street) - Chapter III, Architectural Data Section, Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia (John F. O'Gorman, December 1960)

Historic Structures Report Part II on The Pemberton House (June 1966)

Historic Structures Report Part I on Congress Hall, Independence National Historical Park (May 1959)

Historic Structures Report Part II on Congress Hall, Independence National Historical Park (February 1960)

Historic Structures Report Part II on Congress Hall Chapter III Architectural Data Section (Penelope Hartshorne, April 1960)

Historic Structures Report Part II on Congress Hall Chapter III Architectural Data Section, Supplement No. 2, The Portico Door (Penelope Hartshorne, January 1962)

Historic Structures Report Part I on First Bank of the United States, Independence National Historical Park (November 1959)

Historic Structures Report Part II, Portion, Roof First Bank of the United States, Independence National Historical Park (August 1964)

Historic Structures Report Part I, Supplement 1 on Rehabilitation of Exterior Woodwork Independence Hall Steeple (August 1960)

Historic Structures Report Part II on Independence Hall, Independence National Historical Park (April 1962)

Historic Structures Report Part II on Independence Hall Restoration of Roof, Independence National Historical Park Architectural Data Section (Gary Dysert, March 1963)

Historic Structures Report Part II (Portion) Architectural Data Section on Independence Hall - Restoration of Roof Balustrade (Lee H. Nelson, January 1964)

Historic Structures Report Part II, Portion, Rainwater Conductors Independence Hall (Pearl Millman, July 1964)

Historic Structures Report Part II (Portion) Architectural Data Section on Independence Hall (Assembly Room Bar), Independence National Historical Park (Lee H. Nelson, May 1965)

Historic Structures Report Part II (Portion) Architectural Data Section on Independence Hall (Rehabilitation of Tower Stairway, Tower Exterior and Steeple) (Lee H. Nelson and Joseph Petrak, 1965)

Historic Structures Report Part II (Portion) Architectural Data Section on Independence Hall - Supreme Court Room Ceiling, Entablature & Wall Paneling for the North, South and East Walls (Lee H. Nelson, August 1966)

Historic Structures Report Part I on Old City Hall, Independence National Historical Park (July 1959)

Historic Structures Report Part II on Old City Hall, Independence National Historical Park (February 1961)

Historic Structures Report Part II on Philadelphia (Merchants') Exchange, Independence National Historical Park (July 1960)

Historic Structures Report Part II, Supplement 1 Architectural Data Section on Restoration and Reconstruction on Merchants' Exchange, Independence National Historical Park (Joseph Peterak, November 1963)

Historic Structures Report Part II, Supplement I on Independence Hall Lighting (September 1966)

Historic Structures Report Part II on the Second Bank of the United States, Independence National Historical Park (June 1962)

Historic Structures Report Part II (Portion) on Second Bank of the United States (Restoration of Roof and Iron Work), Independence National Historical Park (Joseph Petrak, May 1964)

Historic Structures Report Part I Architectural Data Section on Second Bank of the United States, Independence National Historical Park (Joseph Petrak, June 1964)

Historical Report: Mother Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (March 1963)

Historical Research Report - Houses at 14, 18, 20, and 22 Christian Street - Historical Data (Pearl Millman, Martin I. Yoelson and John D.R. Platt, October 1963)

Historical Research Report on Cobbestone Paving, Independence National Historical Park (David A. Kimball, July 1960)

History of The Independence Hall Group (Edward M. Riley, March 1953)

Household Textiles in Philadelphia 1720-1840 (Aimee E. Newell land Karie Diethorn, August 1995)

Independence Hall Furnishing Study of the Second Floor, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (Lenard E. Brown, October 1970)

Independence Hall Philadelphia Historic Structures Report, Architectural (Part 1) (c1958)

Independence Hall Project: The Restoration and Refurnishing of the First Floor of Independence Hall Made possible by General Federation of Women's Clubs (April 1954)

Independence: The Creation of a National Park (Constance M. Greiff, 1985)

Independence: The Park in Pictures (©Eastern National Park & Monument Association, 1976)

Independence National Historical Park: Historic Handbook #17 (Edward M. Riley, 1954 rev. 1956)

Interim Archaeological Report - Deshler-Morris House (Daniel G. Crozier, 1975)

Interim Historic Structures Report, Part I on Cleaning Exterior of First Bank of the United States, Independence National Historical Park (July 1959)

Interim Historic Structures Report, Part I on Franklin's House, Independence National Historical Park (November 1960)

Interim Historic Structures Report on Eagle Tympanum, Portico, First Bank of the United States Part II (July 1960)

Interim Historic Structures Report on Philadelphia Exchange (Merchants' Exchange) Part II (October 1959)

Interpretive Prospectus, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (1970)

Inventory of Furnishings in the Assembly Room (June 3, 1955)

Inventory of Furniture and Household Accessories in home of Col. Isaac Franks, Germantown, Pennsylvania - November, 1793 (J. Paul Hudson, February 10, 1949)

Junior Ranger Activity Book, Independence National Historical Park Germantown White House / Deshler-Morris House (Date Unknown)

Junior Ranger, Independence National Historical Park (Date Unknown)

Lamps in Eighteenth Century Philadelphia (Robert J. Colborn, April 1961)

Landscape Management Report for Independence National Historical Park Research/Resources Management Report (Ann F. Rhoads, A. William Graham and Gregory Waters, June 1983)

Liberty Bell Complex Independence Mall Sixth Street between Market and Chestnut Streets City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Mc Clymont & Rak Geotechnical Engineers, September 20, 2000)

Long-Range Interpretive Plan, Independence National Historical Park (December 2007)

Master Plan, Independence National Historical Park, Pennsylvania (1971)

Master Plan for the Preservation and Use of Independence National Historical Park: Mission 66 Edition (February 1962)

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms

American Philosophical Society Hall (Richard E. Greenwood, November 13, 1974)

Carpenters' Hall (Patricia Heintzelman and Charles Snell, 1967, August 30, 1974)

Christ Church (Patricia Heintzelman and Charles Snell, 1967, August 30, 1974)

First Bank of the United States (Harry A. Butowsky, December 1986)

Independence National Historical Park (Anna Coxe Toogood, November 1984)

Second Bank of the United States (Harry A. Butowsky, December 1986)

Society Hill Historic District (Mary C. Means, c1970)

St. George's Methodist Church (Mary C. Means, July 15, 1970)

Notes on The Free Quaker Meeting House - Fifth and Arch Streets, Philadelphia Built 1783-4 (Charles E. Peterson, September 1966)

Occupation and Use of the 500 block of Market Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1680-1850: An Historic Resource Study conducted for Independence National Historical Park (Sharon Ann Holt, August 1997)

Payne and Todd Family History: A Collection of Primary Resource Material, 1720 to 1987 (Jeffry William Hartman, June 7, 1989)

Philadelphia Kitchens: A Special Report with Recommendations for the Bishop White & Todd Houses (Jane Busch, August 1983)

Philadelphia Shrines National Park Project: June 23 - July 18, 1947 (Roy E. Appleman, September 30, 1947)

Report on Research Carried Out in England 1 February - 22 June, 1956 (S. Sydney Bradford, 1956)

Report on Structural Rehabilitation of Congress Hall, Independence National Historical Park (Sheldon A. Keast, July 20, 1959)

Report on the 1951 Rehabilitation work on the Buildings at Independence Square (John B. Lukens, July 13, 1951)

Report on the Perot-Morris House, Germantown, Penna. (Roy E. Appleman, August 6, 1948)

Report on the Preservation of the exterior masonry of the Buildings forming a part of the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia with particular references to the First Bank, the Second Bank and the Merchants' Exchange (Grant M. Simon, undated)

Restoration of the Bishop White House, Independence National Historical Park, Architectural Data Section, Part II, Supplement I, Illustrations (Norman M. Souder and George L. Wrenn, March 1961)

Restoration of the Dilworth-Todd-Moylan House: Historic Structure Report, Architectural Data Section, Part II, Supplement I (George L. Wrenn, September 1961)

Resource Management Plan, Independence National Historical Park, Gloria Dei (Old Swede's) Church National Historic Site, Edgar Allan Poe National Historic Site, Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (September 29, 1994)

Scenic Stream to City Sewer: Dock Creek from 1682 to 1849 (Bill Double, February 2013)

Starting America: The Story of Independence Hall (Edward M. Riley, 1990)

Statement for Management, Independence National Historical Park (1993)

Supplement I to Historic Grounds Report, Part I on State House Yard (Paul G. Sifton, January 1965)

Supplement I to the Todd House Grounds and Neighboring Properties: Fourth and Walnut Streets, Independence National Historical Park (Paul G. Sifton, June 1964)

Supplemental Furnishing Plan for the Dilworth-Todd-Moylan House, Independence National Historical Park, Philadelphia, PA (Isabel Jenkins, March 2008)

Supreme Court Chamber of Independence Hall Furnishings Plan Parts C, D & E (Daniel Joseph Sharp, August 1979)

Survey of Washington Square Plaques & Waysides (John Nelson, January 2006)

The 1758 Forbes Campaign and its Influence on the Politics of the Province of Pennsylvania (Troy Youhas, January-May 2007)

The Amending Process 1789-1800 (Christopher G. Eckard, 1989)

The Bishop William White Collection, Independence National Historical Park: A Summary Description (Sarah Albright, May 1993)

The Branded Windsor Furniture of Independence National Historical Park (Jane B. Kolter and Lynne A. Leopold-Sharp, eds., 1981)

The Conservation of Historic Philadelphia (Charles E. Peterson, December 1954)

The Deshler-Morris House, Germantown, Independence National Historical Park Historical Data: Historic Structures, Furnishings, and Grounds Reports and The Bringhurst House, Germantown, Independence National Historical Park Historical Data: Historic Structures Report (Anna Coxe Toogood, September 1974)

The First Bank of the United States (R.G. Stewart, 1952)

The Framing of the Federal Constitution — NPS Handbook 103 (1986)

The Furnishings of Franklin Court 1765-1790: A Preliminary Study (Charles G. Dorman, July 1969)

The Home and Office of Benjamin Franklin Bache, Independence National Historical Park (America's First Modern Newsman), 322 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA. (John D.R. Platt, December 31, 1970)

The Liberty Bell of Independence National Historical Park: A Special History Study (John C. Paige, undated)

The Most Splendid Carpet (Susan H. Anderson, 1978)

The Role of the General Federation of Women's Club in the Restoration and Refurnishing of Independence Hall 1963-1963 (Ronald F. Lee, 1965)

The Story of Independence Hall (Edward M. Riley, 1990)

The Todd House Grounds and Neighboring Properties: Fourth and Walnut Streets, Independence National Historical Park (Paul G. Sifton and M.O. Anderson, January 1963)

The Well in the Entrance Hall of Independence Hall (Charles I. Wilson, Jr., December 1967)

Traditional Use Study: Independence Square, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (John Milner Associates, Inc., December 2004)

Washington Square: A Site Plan Chronology 1683-1984 (Denise R. Rabzak, May 1987)

Woody Plant Inventory and Condition Assessment Report for Independence Square — Volume 2: Existing Conditions (Katherine Bennett and Charles Pepper, December 1996)



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Last Updated: 09-Aug-2021