Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway
Time and the River: A History of the Saint Croix
A Historic Resource Study of the Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway
NPS Logo




Introduction — The St. Croix: River of Paradox

Chapter 1 — Valley of Plenty, River of Conflict

The Dakota and Their Neighbors
French Fur Traders on the St. Croix
The Origins of the Dakota-Chippewa War
English Fur Traders on the St. Croix
A Social History of the Fur Trader in the St. Croix Valley
The Ecological Impact of the Fur Trader
The American Fur Company Era
Dakota-Chippewa Relations During the American Era6
The Treaties of 1837
Strangers on the Land: The St. Croix Indians in the Settlement Era

Chapter 2 — River of Pine

From Fur Trade to Fir Trade
Frontier Logging: Life in the Forest
Frontier Logging: The Importance of Waterpower
The St. Croix Valley
Industrial River
The Log Drives
A River Jammed with Logs
Industrial Logging
Corporate Control of the St. Croix
The Failure of Government Regulation of the St. Croix Pinery
Fire in the Forest
The Last Days of the Lumber Frontier
The Impact of Logging on the St. Croix Valley

Chapter 3 — "The New Land": Settlement and the Development of Agriculture in the St. Croix Valley

Dividing the Valley
Farmers and the Repopulation of the Valley
The Swedish Frontier
Land Speculation and Growing Pains
The Civil War Years in the St. Croix Valley
The Farming Frontier Moves Up the Valley
Railroads: Regional Rivalry and Growth
From Wheat to Dairy
Mining Illusions
Settlement Spreads to the Upper St. Croix Valley
Farms or Forest? The Cutover Debate

Chapter 4 — Up North: The Development of Recreation in the St. Croix Valley

Tourism in the Ante-Bellum Years
Railroads Promote Tourism and the Resort Industry
Hunting and Fishing for Sport
Steamboat Excursions
The Nineteenth Century Conservation Movement and Recreation
Establishing the Interstate Parks
Steamboat Excursions to the Interstate Parks
Logging vs. Recreation: Rive Use Conflict Comes to a Head
Logging's Demise, Recreation's Rise
The First Efforts to "Save the St. Croix"
Recreation Along the Upper St. Croix and Namekagon Rivers
A New Deal for the St. Croix
The Lost Tribe of the Chippewa
Preserving the St. Croix River



Index (ommited from the on-line edition)


Frontpiece. The St. Croix River watershed.

Figure 1. A Chippewa family.

Figure 2. Schoolcraft's map of the Dakota-Chippewa war zone.

Figure 3. Chippewa craftsmanship.

Figure 4. Little Crows village, 1848.

Figure 5. Carver's map of the Upper Midwest, 1778.

Figure 6. Michel Curot's journal, 1804.

Figure 7. Map of Upper St. Croix Fur Trade Sites.

Figure 8. Chippewa women gathering wild rice, 1857.

Figure 9. William Warren.

Figure 10. Lawrence Talliaferro.

Figure 11. Dakota village.

Figure 12. Map of Snake River valley Indian sites.

Figure 13. Oxen hauling log, 1860.

Figure 14. Lumber raft, 1860.

Figure 15. Water powered sawmill.

Figure 16. Wanigan, 1860.

Figure 17. Clearing a tote road.

Figure 18. Rafter dam, 1914.

Figure 19. Lumber drive on the St. Croix, c.1880s.

Figure 20. Dangers of a log drive, 1907.

Figure 21. Map of lower St. Croix lumber sites.

Figure 22. Map of upper St. Croix logging sites.

Figure 23. Log jam at the Dalles, 1890.

Figure 24. Bear-trap sluice gate, 1914.

Figure 25. Map of St. Croix agricultural and timber lands.

Figure 26. St. Croix Falls, 1848.

Figure 27. Mouth of the St. Croix, 1848.

Figure 28. Map of railroad construction in Wisconsin, 1850-1890.

Figure 29. Gorge of the St. Croix, 1848.

Figure 30. Steamboat, c.1850.

Figure 31. Devil's Chair, 1890.

Figure 32. Canoeists at Angle Rock, 1890.

Figure 33. Logs on the St. Croix, c.1890.

Figure 34. Pioneer Resorts of the Upper St. Croix-Namekagon.

Figure 35. Kilkare Lodge promotional literature, c.1920.

Figure 36. Soderbeck Ferry, c.1930.

Figure 37. Bayport CCC camp, c.1935.

<<< Previous <<< Contents>>> Next >>>

Last Updated: 17-Oct-2002