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"Posterity will bless us." Canada's Minister of Interior wrote this in 1895 when what is now Waterton Lakes National Park was established. Visiting Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park today, you can only marvel at the foresight of those who set aside these national parks when western North America still seemed boundless and wild. Yellowstone became the world's first national park in 1872. Its popularity quickly gave rise to others, including Waterton Lakes in 1895 and Glacier in 1910. Their location, adjoining one another along the International Boundary, led to further evolution of the park ideal. In 1932 the governments of Canada and the United States linked the two parks as the world's first International Peace Park.

This landscape has always been sacred to the Blackfeet, Salish, and Kootenai peoples. It remains no less sacred today for the enduring vision of peace embodied in its unique status. Two countries, two provinces, one state, and the Blackfeet people share common boundaries and stewardship. Together all of these groups protect and celebrate one of the most ecologically diverse parts of the Rocky Mountain West.

Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park represents a vision of a world in which peoples set aside their differences to work collectively in the interest of all life, for all time. This sacred place is the living embodiment of hope. Hope lives here in the recovery of animals like the wolf and trumpeter swan, eradicated in many other parts of their original North American ranges. Hope lives also in the survival here of rare and sensitive creatures like the grizzly bear, lynx, bull trout, and long-toed salamander. People travel from around the world to renew their spirits in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park. The global importance of this special place was reaffirmed in the 1970s with the designations of Glacier and Waterton Lakes as Biosphere Reserves. In 1995 the International Peace Park again gained worldwide recognition when it was designated as a World Heritage Site.

A Meeting Place

Old-growth forests, wind-swept prairies, ancient glaciers, and deep lakes may seem worlds apart. But in Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park the plants and animals of the humid Pacific Northwest meet and mingle with those of the great plains and northern forests. In the space of a few miles, you can travel from lush cedar/hemlock forest through alpine meadows to the edge of western prairies. George Bird Grinnell, co-founder of the Audubon Society and of the Boone and Crockett Club, often visited this place where the prairies give way to glacier-sculpted mountains. Grinnell tirelessly advocated both the interests of native Blackfeet people and establishment of Glacier National Park. It was Grinnell who aptly named this place the "Crown of the Continent" in 1908.

From Triple Divide Peak southeast of Logan Pass, a hand's width can determine whether a raindrop becomes part of the Columbia, Mississippi, or Saskatchewan river systems. Waters from the International Peace Park flow to the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and northeastward into Hudson Bay. Life also flows into the international peace park. A great diversity of plants, from devil's club and western red cedar to alpine poppy, fescue bunchgrass, and aspen, combine in living mosaics of habitats richer than in all but a few Rocky Mountain areas. One of the few areas in North America where grizzly bears live at peace with people, this is also a place where wolves, once persecuted close to extinction here, found peace and safety when they crossed the 49th parallel back into Glacier National Park to reclaim their wilderness birthright.

People come to this meeting place from around the world. Here they find peace among the peaks and savor scenery that was carved by glaciers from some of the world's oldest sedimentary rocks. Many nations meet in a spectacular landscape here that continues to inspire each new generation with the ideal of living peace—between nations, among people, and with all of nature.

Plants From Diverse Environments Mix

The mountain landscape holds a diverse mosaic of plants. Sunny hillsides are warm and dry; shady slopes cool and moist. Valley floors accumulate deep soils, but mountain ridges are bony and raw. Shale weathers into clay soils. Limestone breaks into coarse fragments.

Over 1,200 vascular plant species are found within the International Peace Park. Ones with similar physical needs grow near each other: wintergreen and feather mosses prefer the shade of old-growth cedar or Douglas fir forest. Many plants grow elsewhere, too, but how they form communities here with other plants normally living in very different environments is unique.

Here fescue grassland, usually found in high plains east of the Rockies, grows on mountaintops where prairie plants mix with alpine flowers. Lush but thorny devil's club, a wet-forest plant, grows here just a half-day's hike from grassy ridges crowned with limber pine.

All the Native Carnivores Survive Here

The international peace park is one of the few places in North America where all the native carnivores survive. Grizzly and black bears forage amid the greenery along streams and avalanche slopes or fatten on huckleberries or saskatoons.

In 1986 wolves denned in the North Fork of the Flathead River for the first time in 50 years and now range both parks and surrounding landscapes. They hunt elk and deer, especially as they gather in valleys for winter. Cougars are widespread too, mostly at low elevations. Large predators indicate a healthy landscape with abundant prey, intact habitats, and tolerant people.

Bear tracks and wolf howls offer us all hope and inspiration. And so do over 250 kinds of birds—bald and golden eagles, harlequin ducks and rufous hummingbirds—and 70 species of mammals that dwell in the international peace park. Native bull and cutthroat trout are among over 25 species of native fish here.

To Share and Sustain the Ecosystem

Native people have gathered plants and hunted in these mountains for thousands of years. Traditional cultural activities remain important to the Blackfeet, whose reservation lies along the east side of Glacier National Park. Waterton Lakes National Park, in Canada, nearly surrounds a wilderness portion of the Blood Indian Reserve.

Since the 1900s other groups have formed deep bonds to the land too. Many ranches here have been owned by the same families for our generations. And ranching keeps lands next to the international peace park rural and lightly settled, helping to sustain wildlife and open space. Residents of area towns work in the forest or oil and gas industries. Many people find work serving those who visit the parks year by year.

Visit this place and you become part of a human community that shares, and works to sustain, the rich ecosystem that gives it life.

Plains and Mountains Together

Seen from the east, the mountains here seem to rise right out of prairie grasslands like a startled grizzly in a berry patch. Farther north, a band of low foothills provides a gradual transition from plains to mountains. To the south, the outlying mountain ranges break up the approach. But in the blink of an eagle's eye here, nearly flat becomes nearly vertical.

Hikers on the Carthew-Alderson Lakes, Redgap Pass, and Two Medicine Pass trails climb through resin-scented mountain forests of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir. Emerging into a meadow at treeline, they look east and see prairie almost at their feet. Few mountain landscapes can offer such contrast.

This abrupt transition from prairie to sheltering mountain forests is one reason why the international peace park supports such large herds of elk, deer, bighorn sheep, and other herbivores as well as many black and grizzly bears.

Converging Ecosystems

No protected area of like size in the Rocky Mountains has as much ecological diversity as the international peace park. At this Crown of the Continent, ecosystems from north, south, east, and west converge at the narrowest point in the Rocky Mountain chain. Other ecosystems connect to this area along mountain ridges and hill systems extending north and south.

Watersheds converge here, too, encouraging migration and dispersal of plants and animals. Cutbank Creek and the Two Medicine River drain east into the Missouri River, connecting the parks to plants and animals of the Mississippi drainage and Gulf of Mexico. Farther north the Saint Mary, Belly, and Waterton rivers flow into the Saskatchewan River system across Canada's plains to the northern forests of the Hudson Bay drainage.

West of the Continental Divide, headwaters of the Flathead River eventually join the mighty Columbia.

Where Even the Landscapes Have Met

Movement on the Lewis Overthrust Fault has accounted for both the sudden mountain-to-plains transition and the Rocky Mountains' narrow width here—barely 35 miles (60 km).

Massive Earth forces built the Rocky Mountains by uplifting, folding, and faulting beds of rock that formerly lay in flat, parallel layers. About 75 million years ago a vast expanse of rock some 60 miles (100 km) west of here cracked, lifted, and began to slide east. By the time this thrust block stopped traveling it had become the mountains of today's international peace park.

The red and green argillites and pale limestones of the Lewis Overthrust are ancient rock. They began as mud and sediments 1.5 billion years ago in Precambrian oceans. Normally, older rock will lie beneath younger rock. However, here, the Lewis Overthrust forced ancient Precambrian rock over top of Cretaceous rocks that are just 75 million years old.

Powerful forces in the Earth shoved the colorful rock of the Lewis Overthrust into the sky 75 million years ago. The young mountains intercepted clouds. Rain and snowmelt fed streams draining into three major river systems, and living things found their way into these mountains from all directions. Over time the Crown of the Continent trapped so much moisture that snowfields became glaciers.

Growing and spreading, glaciers carved today's landscape. About 12,000 years ago the last of the great glaciers melted back. Today's younger glacier ice survives only in the highest, coldest places. Now, for thousands of years fire and water have been dominant forces at play on this landscape. Streams flood and ebb yearly. Avalanches thunder down steep slopes. Lightning sets forest fires, and not so long ago, aboriginal hunters lit grass fires. Here are dynamic ecosystems, diverse and wild.

In 1995 Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park was named a World Heritage Site, one of the world's great treasures. Ancient rocks scratch passing clouds, grizzly bears dig roots on windswept slopes, mighty bull trout swim up clear-running spawning streams, and people return each year to refill themselves with awe, inspiration, and the peace that lives in this place.

Uses of the Land Through Time

park map

topo map

shaded relief map
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Native peoples have lived here for millennia. Today's roads and hiking trails trace their routes over the Rockies. Our campgrounds and other facilities stand where they camped to gather plants and hunt animals.

European colonization of western North America replaced traditional ways with successive waves of change. Trappers exploited furs in the early 1800s. Gold and silver brought prospectors to the Rockies in the last half of the 1800s. Some found promise of oil in what is now the international peace park, but the brief oil boom died quickly. Between 1857 and 1874, boundary surveys clearly defined the 49th parallel to head off future conflict between Canada and the United States. Surveyors put their names on many peaks and mountain lakes. As ranchers and farmers laid claim to surrounding lands, a growing number of people discovered the high Rockies' beauty. The Great Northern Railway, built in 1892 through Marias Pass, opened the region's beauty to discovery by tourists.

A few frontier visionaries like Canadian rancher Fredrick Godsal and like George Bird Grinnell saw the need to protect the wildlife from exploitation and the natural scenic beauty from piecemeal development. Their work led to creation of national parks in Canada (1895) and the United States (1910). The great experiment embodied in the national park ideal is still evolving. In early days rangers and wardens killed predators. New roads and lodges were seen as essential to make parks relevant in a West largely inaccessible then. Flooding and wildfire were deemed disasters, not natural events.

Today millions of people come as visitors to this landscape that wears few lasting signs of those changes in the 1900s. As wilderness shrinks in most of the world, park managers now strive to protect wild habitats, control impacts of development, and restore the natural processes, like fire, to the landscape. Through all the many changes in how people have used the land, however, one thing has not changed: this remains one of the world's great places, worthy of special care and lasting respect.

Features of Glaciation

Glaciers that lie against mountains erode ever-steeper cliffs by repeatedly freezing and thawing, plucking rock loose. The moving ice carries the broken rock down-valley. Where glaciers surround a mountain peak they may eventually erode it to a tooth-like horn.

The same back-cutting erosion may carve a mountain ridge as a sharp-edged arête. Many subalpine lakes in the international peace park rest in the bottoms of cirques, steep-sided valleys once holding glaciers. Cirques look like giant ice cream scoops formed them.

Unlike rivers, glaciers erode wide-bottomed, steep-sided, U-shaped valleys. Deep glacial lakes—Waterton, Saint Mary, and McDonald—fill the bottoms of some larger glacial valleys. Where a small mountain glacier once joined a larger valley glacier, hanging valleys remain today.

Eskers are ridges of gravel that were stream beds inside or on the surface of valley glaciers. Like conveyor belts, glaciers carried rock and gravel trapped inside the ice and loose on their surfaces. Hummocky landscapes of glacial moraine also stayed behind when glaciers melted back 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.

Going-to-the-Sun Road

Going-to-the-Sun Road is one of the world's most spectacular highways. Bisecting the heart of Glacier, the 50-mile-long road follows the shores of the park's two largest lakes and hugs the cliffs below the Continental Divide as it traverses Logan Pass. Many scenic turnouts and wayside exhibits let you stop to enjoy the park at your own pace.

Vehicles over 21 feet long (including bumpers) or over 8 feet wide (including mirrors) are prohibited between Avalanche Creek and Sun Point. Rock overhangs may pose difficulties for vehicles over 10 feet tall in traveling west from Logan Pass to The Loop. Guided tours are available; check at a visitor center.

Winter Road Closings
Snow closes most roads into the park for winter except from Saint Mary near the east boundary to the St. Mary Campground, and from West Glacier to the Apgar Visitor Center and Lake McDonald Lodge.

Source: NPS Brochure (2014)


Establishment

World Heritage Site — 1995
Biosphere Reserve — 1976
Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park — 1932
Glacier National Park — May 11, 1910


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Documents

A Climatic Handbook for Glacier National Park — with Data for Waterton Lakes National Park US Forest Service General Technical Report INT-GTR-204 (Arnold I. Finklin, 1986)

Annual Report of Glacier Measurements, Glacier National Park: 1944194519461947194819491950195119521953195419551956

Aquatic Invasive Species Threatening the Crown of the Continent (Jennifer McBride, Date Unknown)

Architectural Preservation Guide: Many Glacier Hotel, Glacier National Park (James R. McDonald, August 1984, revised May 1986)

Architectural Preservation Guide: Two Medicine Camp Store, Glacier National Park (James R. McDonald, October 1985)

At the Foot of the Belton Hills: A Cultural Landscape History of the Headquarters Area, Glacier National Park (Ted Catton, January 2012)

Behavior of Mountain Goats, Elk and Other Wildlife in Relation to U.S. Highway 2, Glacier National Park (Francis J. Singer, 1975)

Blackfeet Tales of Glacier National Park (James Willard Schultz, 1916)

Boy Scouts in Glacier Park (Walter Prichard Eaton, 1918)

Buffalo in the Mountains: Mapping Evidence of Historical Bison Presence and Bison Hunting in Glacier National Park (©Kyle Stuart Langley, University of Montana Thesis, April 2021)

Climate Change Fact Sheet, Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center (undated)

Climate Change in Mountain Ecosystems (CCME): Publications (USGS)

Climate Monitoring in Glacier National Park: Annual Report for 2009 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/ROMN/NRTR—2010/388 (Isabel W. Ashton, Laura O'Gan and Kirk Sherrill, October 2010)

Comprehensive Interpretive Plan, Glacier National Park (May 2006)

Congestion Management in Glacier National Park (Claire Emerson Barrameda, Thomas Robert Vose and Trevor Alexander Rizzo, 2018)

Connectivity in the Crown: U.S. Highway 2 Wildlife Crossings — 2019 Report (John Waller, Tabitha Graves, Brad Anderson, Brandon Kittson and Sarah Gaulke, 2020)

Construction of Wilderness in the Formation of Glacier National Park, Montana (Celeste Josephine Urion, University of Alberta, Spring 1999)

Cultural Landscape Report: Lake McDonald Lodge Historic District, Glacier National Park, Montana (Mark Hufstetler, Renewable Technologies, Inc., February 2006)

Cultural Landscape Report: Many Glacier Hotel Area, Glacier National Park (Part 1) (Architectural Research Consultants, Inc., Cherry/See Architects and Van Citters Historic Preservation, Summer 2002)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Going-to-the-Sun Road Historic District, Glacier National Park (2002)

Cultural Resource Plan: Going-to-the-Sun Road (October 1988)

Determination of Eligibility of Building #978 (Greenwalt Cabin #3) in Apgar, Glacier National Park, MT (1993)

Determination of Eligibility, Headquarters/Maintenance Area, Glacier National Park (Edwin C. Bearss, June 1982)

Determination of Eligibility of Red Eagle Lookout Tower (Marcella Sherfy, November 1984)

Development Concept Plan: Apgar/Headquarters Area, Glacier National Park, Montana (May 1982)

Development Concept Plan: Lake McDonald, Sun Point/Rising Sun/St. Mary, Many Glacier/Swiftcurrent, Glacier National Park, Montana (December 1986)

Development Concept Plan Revision, Environmental Assessment: Lake McDonald, Glacier National Park, Montana (April 1990)

Early history of Glacier National Park, Montana (Madison Grant, 1919)

Ecology of the Rocky Mountain Goat in Glacier National Park and the Swan Mountains, Montana (Douglas H. Chadwick, 1977)

Final General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Glacier National Park: Volume I (April 1999)

Final General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Glacier National Park: Volume II (April 1999)

Final Master Plan, Glacier National Park, Montana (May 1977)

Fire Ecology Investigations in Glacier National Park: Historical Considerations and Current Observations (James R. Habeck, 1970)

Fire Management Plan, Glacier National Park (June 2010)

Fisheries Inventory and Monitoring Program

Glacier National Park Fisheries Inventory and Monitoring Bi-Annual Report 2009-2010 (Christopher C. Downs, Craig Stafford, Heiko Langner and Clint C. Muhlfeld, March 2011)

Glacier National Park Fisheries Inventory and Monitoring Program Report 2010-2012 (Christopher C. Downs, Melvin Woody and Brian McKeon, April 2013)

Glacier National Park Fisheries Inventory and Monitoring Program Report 2013 (Christopher C. Downs, Nathan Muhn and Brian McKeon, April 2013)

Glacier National Park Fisheries Monitoring and Management Program Report 2014 (Christopher C. Downs, Carter Fredenberg, V. D'Angelo, C. Muhfeld and Brian McKeon, January 2015)

Glacier National Park Fisheries Monitoring and Management Program Report 2015 (Christopher C. Downs and Carter Fredenberg, June 2016)

Glacier National Park Native Fish Population and Lake Fisheries Monitoring Program Report 2016 (Christopher C. Downs and Jonathan L. McCubbins, May 2018)

Glacier National Park Fisheries Monitoring and Management Program Report 2017 (Christopher C. Downs and Jonathan L. McCubbins, August 2018)

Glacier National Park Fisheries and Aquatic Invasive Species Programs 2018-2019 Annual Report (Christopher C. Downs, Jonathan L. McCubbins and Edward R. Eberhardy, May 2020)

Fishes of Glacier National Park Montana Conservation Bulletin No. 22 (Leonard P. Schultz, 1941)

Flood Hazard Evaluation for Divide and Wild Creeks, Glacier National Park NPS Technical Report NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-91/02 (Gary M. Smillie and David Ellerbroek, August 1991)

Flood Study for North Fork Flathead River, Big Prairie Area, Glacier National Park NPS Technical Report NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-2000/262 (Gary M. Smillie, April 2000)

Forest Health of High-Elevation, Five-Needle Pines at Glacier National Park, Rocky Mountain National Park, and Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve: 2013 Data Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/ROMN/NRDS-2017/1112 (Erin Borgman, August 2017)

Foundation Document, Glacier National Park, Montana (October 2016)

Foundation Document Overview, Glacier National Park, Montana (October 2016)

Furnishing Guide: Lake McDonald Lodge, Glacier National Park (Bruce Fladmark, 1989)

General Management Plan Overview, Glacier National Park (1998)

General Management Plan: Summary, Glacier National Park (April 1999)

Geologic maps, cross section, and photographs of the central part of Glacier National Park, Montana USGS IMAP 1508-B (R.L. Earhart, O.B. Raup, J.W. Whipple, A.L. Isom and G.A. Davis 1989)

Geologic Resource Evaluation Report, Glacier National Park (alternate edition) (Trista Thornberry-Ehrlich, August 2004)

Geology of Glacier National Park And the Flathead Region, Northwestern Montana USGS Professional Paper 296 (Clyde P. Ross, 1959)

Glacier National Park (United States Railroad Administration, 1919)

Glacier National Park 2019 Ambient Sound Study (Alec Austraw, Carson Brooks, Niall Lynch and Aidan Sevinsky, October 11, 2019)

Glacier National Park: A Bibliography (1940)

Glacier National Park in Peril: The Treats of Climate Disruption (Stephen Saunders and Tom Easley, ©The Rocky Mountain Climate Organization and Natural Resources Defense Council, April 2010, all rights reserved)

Glacier National Park: Its Trails And Treasures (Mathilde Edith Holtz and Katharine Isabel Bemis, 1917)

Glacier National Park: Final Master Plan (May 1977)

Glacier Natural History Association Special Bulletins

1. Motorist's Guide to the Going-to-the-Sun Highway (M.E. Beatty, 1947, rev. 1950, Glacier Natural History Association)

2. Glaciers and Glaciation in Glacier National Park (James L. Dyson, 1948, rev. 1952, Glacier Natural History Association)

2. Glaciers and Glaciation in Glacier National Park (James L. Dyson, 1948, reprint 1962, Glacier Natural History Association)

3. The Geologic Story of Glacier National Park (James L. Dyson, 1957, Glacier Natural History Association)

3. The Geologic Story of Glacier National Park (James L. Dyson, 1960, reprint 1971, Glacier Natural History Association)

4. Trees and Forests of Glacier National Park (Donald H. Robinson, rev. 1956, Glacier Natural History Association)

4. Trees and Forests of Glacier National Park (Donald H. Robinson, rev. 1961, Glacier Natural History Association)

5. 101 Wildflowers of Glacier National Park (Grant W. Sharpe, c1951, Glacier Natural History Association)

5. 101 Wildflowers of Glacier National Park (Grant W. Sharpe, reprint May 1967, Glacier Natural History Association)

6. Mammals of Glacier National Park (R.R. Lechleitner, 1955, Glacier Natural History Association)

6. Mammals of Glacier National Park (R.R. Lechleitner, reprint 1967, Glacier Natural History Association)

7. Climate of Glacier National Park (R.A. Dightman, March 1961, Glacier Natural History Association)

8. Through the Years in Glacier National Park (Donald H. Robinson, May 1960, ©Glacier Natural History Association)

Glacier Observations, Glacier National Park, Montana, 1965 USGS Open-File Report 66-68 (Arthur Johnson, 1966)

Glaciers and Glaciation in Glacier National Park Glacier Natural History Association Special Bulletin No. 2 (James L. Dyson, 1948)

Glaciers and glaciation in Glacier National Park, Montana USGS Open-File Report 93-510 (P.E. Carrara, 1993)

Glacier's Past, Glacier National Park (undated)

Grinnell and Sperry Glaciers, Glacier National Park, Montana: A Record of Vanishing Ice (HTML edition) USGS Professional Paper 1180 (Arthur Johnson, 1980)

Grizzly Bear Mortality and Management Programs in Montana During 1972 (Kenneth R. Greer, January 30, 1974)

Habitat Relationships of Grizzly Bears in Glacier National Park, Montana (HTML edition) (C.J. Martinka, March 1, 1972)

Historic Furnishings Inventory in Glacier Park Incorporated Structures and Granite Park and Sperry Chalets, Glacier National Park (David Fritz and Berle Clemensen, February 1990)

Historic Structure Report: Old St. Mary Ranger District (Holly Geoghegan, Summer 1978)

Historic Structures Report: Camps on Lake McDonald, Moberly Main House and Guest Cabin, Glacier National Park (Anderson Hallas Architects and National Park Service, March 4, 2020)

Historical Photographs, Glacier National Park (Montana Memory Project)

History Basic Data Study: Glacier National Park, Montana (James W. Sheire, May 8, 1970)

History of Apgar (Roger Anderson, 1950)

History of Glacier National Park: with Particular Emphasis on the Northern Development (Ralph L. Beals, 1935)

Homing Behavior of Transplanted Black Bears, Glacier National Park (Katherine L. McArthur, May 30, 1978)

Information Regarding Hotels, Chalets and Camps, Automobile, Launch and Saddle Horse Trips, All-Expense Tours ad Pay As You Go Plan, Glacier National Park-Waterton Lakes National Park, Season June 15th to September 15th, 1929 Circular No. 25-29 (Great Northern Railway, 1929)

Interpretive Prospectus, Glacier National Park, Montana (1992)

Invasive Plants of the Crown of the Continent (Jami Belt and Dawn LaFleur, 2011)

Junior Park Ranger, Glacier National Park (Date Unknown)

Junior Park Ranger (Answers), Glacier National Park (Date Unknown)

Keeping it Wild in a Crown Jewel: Wilderness Building Blocks for Glacier National Park (Mark Douglas, 2012)

Lake McDonald and Vicinity (John M. Holzinger, extract from Bulletin of the American Bureau of Geography, Vol. 1 No. 3, September 1900)

Landmark in the Sky: The History and Preservation of Glacier's Going-to-the-Sun Road (Jack L. Gordon, 2004)

Landscape History and Significant Statement: Glacier National Park Headquarters Historic District (Theodore Catton, June 2011)

Large-Scale Removal of Lake Trout in Quartz Lake Environmental Assessment, Glacier National Park, Montana (May 2009)

Late quaternary glacial and vegetative history of the Glacier National Park region, Montana USGS Bulletin 1902 (Paul E. Carrara, 1989)

Latest Pleistocene and Holocene Paleo-Environments, Rose Basin, Glacier National Park, Montana (David Matthew MacLeod, University of Calgary, May 2003)

Logan Pass Wooden Walkway Study: Glacier National Park, NPS Progress Report, 1974 (Roberta V. Seibel, 1974)

Man in Glacier (C.W. Buchholtz, ©Glacier Natural History Association, 1976)

Management of Backcountry Chalets Environmental Assessment, Glacier National Park (November 1993)

Many Glacier Hotel: Historic Structures Report (July 2002)

Many Glacier Wildlife Viewing Plan Environmental Assessment, Glacier National Park, Montana (September 2010)

Many-storied Mountains: The Life of Glacier National Park (HTML edition) Natural History Series (Greg Beaumont, 1978)

Map showing distribution of moraines and extent of glaciers from the mid-19th century to 1979 in the Mount Jackson area, Glacier National Park, Montana USGS IMAP 1508-C (P.E. Carrara and R.G. McGimsey, 1988)

Middle Proterozoic paleontology of the Belt Supergroup, Glacier National Park (ReBecca K. Hunt, New Mexico Museum of Natural History & Science Bulletin 34, 2006, ©New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, all rights reserved)

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms

Anton Schoenberger Homestead (Patricia L. Bick, October 1986)

Apgar Fire Lookout (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Apgar Horse Concession Cabin (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Apgar's Glacier Park Cottage Sites Historic District (Jessie A. Ravage, February 10, 2006)

Belly River Ranger Station Historic District (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Bowman Lake Patrol Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Bowman Lake Road (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Bull Head Lodge and Studio (Conrad Lundgren, October 1, 1979)

Burton and Lulu Wheeler Cabin (Gordon Brittan and Jason Nye, June 1998)

Cattle Queen Snowshoe Cabin (Bruce Fladmark, September 5, 1998)

Charles Schoenberger Homestead (Patricia L. Bick, October 1, 1986)

Coal Creek Patrol Cabin (Bruce Fladmark, August 17, 1998)

Cut Bank Ranger Station Historic District (Ann Huber and Mark Hufstetler, 1986 and June 1995)

East Glacier Ranger Station Historic District Residence/Office (Historic Research Associates, June 1984)

Fielding Snowshoe Patrol Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Fish Creek Bay Boathouse (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Ford Creek Patrol Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Glacier National Park Historic Telephone System (Bruce Fladmark, November 22, 1988)

Glacier National Park Multiple Property Listing (Ann Huber, July 1995)

Glacier National Park Pit Toilets (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Glacier National Park Tourist Trails (Inside Trail, South Circle, North Circle) (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Glacier Park Villas Sites Historic District (Jessie A. Ravage, February 10, 2006)

Goathaunt Bunkhouse (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Going-to-the-Sun Road (Christine Amos, Alan S. Newell and Mary Shivers Culpin, June 1983)

Going-to-the-Sun Road (Susan Begley and Ethan Carr, September 5, 1996)

Granite Park Chalet and Dormitory (Edwin L. Rothfuss and Mary Shivers Culpin, September 2, 1975, revised April 6, 1982)

Great Northern Railway Buildings (Laura Soullière Harrison, undated)

Greve's Tourist Cabins (Jessie A. Ravage, February 10, 2006)

Grinnell Number 1 Gaging Station (Lon Johnson, May 3, 2005)

Gunsight Pass Shelter (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Harrison Lake Patrol Cabin (Bruce Fladmark, August 17, 1998)

Heaven's Peak Fire Lookout (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Headquarters Historic District (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Headquarters Historic District (Boundary Increase No. 1) (Rodd L. Wheaton, October 2006)

Howe Ridge Patrol Cabin (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Huckleberry Fire Lookout (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Inwood Cabins (Ann Huber, June 1995)

J.K. Miller Homestead (Patricia L. Bick, October 1, 1986)

Johnnie Walsh Guest House (Patricia L. Bick, October 1, 1986)

Johnnie Walsh Homestead (Patricia L. Bick, October 1986)

Kelly's Camp Historic District (Jessie A. Ravage, February 10, 2006)

Kintla Lake Ranger Station (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Kishenehn Ranger Station Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Kootenai Creek Snowshoe Cabin (Bruce Fladmark, August 17, 1998)

Lake McDonald Lodge Coffee Shop (Rodd L. Wheaton, July 2007)

Lake McDonald Lodge Historic District Addendum No. 2 (Rodd L. Wheaton, July 2007)

Lake McDonald Lodge (Lewis Glacier Hotel) (Laura Soullière Harrison, 1985)

Lee Creek Snowshoe Cabin (Bruce Fladmark, March 10, 2000)

Lincoln Creek Snowshoe Cabin (Bruce Fladmark, August 17, 1998)

Logan Creek Patrol Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Logan Pass Visitor Center (Rodd L. Wheaton, June 1, 2006)

Logging Creek Ranger Station Historic District (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Loneman Fire Lookout (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Lower Logging Lake Snowshoe Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Lower Nyack Snowshoe Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Lower Park Creek Patrol Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Many Glacier Barn and Bunkhouse (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Many Glacier Campground Camptender's Cabin (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Many Glacier Hotel Historic District (Edwin L. Rothfuss, September 15, 1975)

Margaret McCarthy Homestead (Patricia L. Bick, October 1, 1986)

McCarthy Homestead Cabin (undated)

Mount Brown Fire Lookout (Historical Research Associates, May 1984)

North Fork Community (Ann Huber, June 1995)

North Fork Road (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Numa Ridge Fire Lookout (Historical Research Associates, May 1984)

Nyack Ranger Station (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Pass Creek Snowshoe Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Polebridge to Numa Ridge Phoneline (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Polebridge Ranger Station Historic District (addendum) (Ann Huber, 1995)

Polebridge Ranger Station Residence (Historical Research Associates, May 1984)

Porcupine Ridge Lookout (Mark Hufstetler, July 15, 1988)

Ptarmigan Tunnel (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Quartz Lake Patrol Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Red Bench Fire Area (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Rising Sun Auto Camp Historic District (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Roes Creek Campground Camptender's Cabin (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Saint Mary Visitor Center, Entrance Station and Checking Stations (Rodd L. Wheaton, June 1, 2006)

Scalplock Mountain Fire Lookout (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Sherburne Ranger Station Historic District (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Skyland Camp/Bowman Lake Ranger Station (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Slide Lake (Otatso Creek) Patrol Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Sperry Chalet (Edwin L. Rothfuss, September 2, 1975)

St. Mary Ranger Station (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

St. Mary Utility Area Historic District (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Sun Camp Fireguard Cabin (Bruce Fladmark, June 10, 1998)

Swanson Boathouse (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Swiftcurrent Auto Camp Historic District (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Swiftcurrent Fire Lookout (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Swiftcurrent Ranger Station Historic District (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Thomas J. Walsh Lodge (Dave Walter and Lon Johnson, July 1998)

Two Medicine Campground Camptender's Cabin (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Two Medicine Concession Area (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Two Medicine General Store (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Upper Kintla Lake Patrol Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Upper Lake McDonald Ranger Station Historic District/Residence (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Upper Logging Lake Snowshoe Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Upper Nyack Snowshoe Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

Upper Park Creek Patrol Cabin (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

West Entrance Station (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Walton Ranger Station/Residence (Historical Research Associates, June 1984)

West Entrance Station (Ann Huber, June 1995)

Wheeler Camp (Boundary Increase and Addendum) (Jessie Ravage, February 10, s2006)

William Raftery Homestead (Patricia L. Bick, October 1, 1986)

Natural resources management plan and environmental assessment Glacier (1983)

Nature Notes from Glacier / Glacial Drift: Notes from Glacier National Park (Montana Memory Project, 1927-1938)

Origin of the Scenic Features of the Glacier National Park(HTML edition) (Marius R. Campbell, 1921)

"Our Mountains Are Our Pillows": An Ethnographic Overview of Glacier National Park (Brian Reeves and Sandy Peacock, 2001)

Over the trails of Glacier National Park (Tom Dillon, 1911)

Park Facts, Glacier National Park (undated)

Park Newspaper (Glacier Safety Guide): Summer 2020

Park Newspaper (Glacier Times): May-June 1980Winter c1980

Park Newspaper (Waterton-Glacier Guide): (4) 1983, (2) 1986, (3) 1986, (1) 1987, (2) 1987, (3) 1987, (4) 1987, (1) 1988, (2) 1988, (3) 1988, (4) 1988, (1) 1989, (2) 1989, (3) 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, Winter 2004-2005, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, Winter 2012-2013, 2013, 2014, Winter 2014-2015, 2015, Winter 2015-2016, 2016, Winter 2016-2017, 2017, 2018, 2019

Plants and Animals, Glacier National Park (undated)

Preliminary geologic map and cross sections of the northwest part of Glacier National Park, Montana USGS Miscellaneous Field Studies Map 1604-A (R.L. Earhart, O.B. Raup, J.C. Connor, P.E. Carrara, D.H. McGimsey, K.N. Constenius and R.E. Van Loenen, 1983)

Protecting the Crown: A Century of Resource Management in Glacier National Park Rocky Mountains Cooperative Ecosystems Studies Unit (Theodore Catton, Diane Krahe and Deirdre K. Shaw, June 2011)

Reanalysis of the US Geological Survey Benchmark Glaciers: Long-term insight into climate forcing of glacier mass balance (Shad O'Neel, Christopher McNeil, Louis C. Sass, Caitlyn Florentine, Emily H. Baker, Erich Peitzch, Daniel McGrath, Andrew G. Fountain and Daniel Fagre, extract from Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 65 Issue 253, October 2019)

Reconnaissance Report on Blackfeet Highway, Glacier National Park (Harry Langley, October 2, 1936)

Rehabilitation of Concession Facilities: Glacier National Park (March 1990)

Report of Survey for Reconstruction on Blackfeet Highway, Glacier National Park Approach Road in Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Glacier County, Montana (M.L. Harshberger, February 1938)

Report on Avalanche Tragedy, Going-to-the-Sun Highway, Glacier National Park (Willard P. Lindauer, 1953)

Report on Well Construction Program, Glacier National Park, Montana, August 21, 1979-October 5, 1979 (HKM Associates, December 12, 1979)

Report to the Regional Director, Region Two on Review of Design for Proposed Major Road Projects in Glacier National Park (Thos. E. Carpenter, October 31, 1944)

Report to the Secretary of the Interior by the Supervisor of the Glacier National Park: 1915 (HTML edition) (S.F. Ralston, 1915)

Resource Briefs

Acoustic Environment and Soundscape (undated)

Alpine Monitoring: Protocol Summary (December 2009)

Alpine Vegetation Composition, Structure, and Soils (November 18, 2008)

Monitoring Alpine Wetland Ecological Integrity in Glacier National Park (October 2014)

Aquatic Invasive Species (April 2010)

Bats (October 2013)

Climate Change and Biotic Patterns, Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center (June 2006)

Global Climate Change and Melting Glaciers, Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center (June 2006)

Climate Change and the Pika, Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center (October 2009)

Climate Change and the Water Cycle, Crown of the Continent Research Learning Center (June 2006)

Monitoring Climate Change in the Rocky Mountain Network (Spring 2009)

Glacier National Park: How might future warming alter visitation? (June 20, 2015)

Recent Climate Change Exposure of Glacier National Park (July 30, 2014)

Common Loons (Gavia immer) (January 2013)

Didymosphenia geminata in Glacier National Park (November 2010)

Fire and Birds (June 2006)

Fire Ecology (June 2006)

Fire and Invasive Weeds (June 2006)

Fire and Invasive Weeds (September 2015)

Monitoring the Health of Five-needle Pines (October 2014)

Five-Needle Pine Monitoring Database for the Rocky Mountains (September 16, 2016)

Glacier Loss Affects Alpine Stream Vegetation (2018)

Mountain Goats (Oreamnos americanus) (September 2013)

Night Skies and Photic Environment (undated)

North Fork Homesteads (May 2014)

Pikas (Ochotona princeps) (February 2014)

Stream Ecological Integrity Protocol Highlights: Monitoring Diatoms Leads to 21 New Species in Glacier NP (November 2010)

Stream Ecological Integrity, Glacier National Park (October 2014)

Long-term Monitoring of Stream Ecological Integrity in Glacier National Park (October 2014)

Checking Glacier's Vital Signs (May 10, 2017)

Whitebark Pine (June 2006)

Whitebark Pine (Pinus albicaulis) (April 2014)

Restoration Monitoring Reports

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2009 (Jennifer Asebrook, Jennifer Hintz and Kendra Hinxman, December 2009)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2010 (Jennifer Asebrook, Jennifer Hintz and Peter Del Zotto, December 2010)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2011 (Jennifer Asebrook, Jennifer Hintz and Peter Del Zotto, December 2011)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2012 (Jennifer Asebrook and Jennifer Hintz, December 2012)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2014 (Jennifer Asebrook and Jennifer Hintz, December 2014)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2015 (Jennifer Asebrook and Jennifer Hintz, December 2015)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2017 (Jennifer Asebrook and Jennifer Hintz, November 2017)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2018 (Jennifer Asebrook and Jennifer Hintz, October 2018)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2019 (Jennifer Asebrook and Jennifer Hintz, October 2019)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2020 (Jennifer Hintz, Allison Dubenezic and Nicolas Matallana-Mejia, October 2020)

Glacier National Park: Restoration Monitoring Report — 2021 (Jennifer Hintz Guse and Allison Dubenezic, October 2021)

Retreat of Glaciers in Glacier National Park: 1996-2005 (USGS, 2013)

Retreat of Glaciers in Glacier National Park: 1996-2015 (USGS, 2017)

Roberts Cabin Removal Environmental Assessment/Assessment of Effect, Glacier National Park, Montana (July/August 2007)

Rocks and Glaciers, Glacier National Park (undated)

Rocks, Ice & Water: The Geology of Waterton-Glacier Park (David D. Alt and Donald W. Hyndman, ©Mountain Press Publishing, 1978, all rights reserved)

Science in Glacier National Park: 1990 (Kathy Dimont, ed., 1990)

Seeking snow and breathing hard — Behavioral tactics in high elevation mammals to combat warming temperatures (Wesley Sarmento, Mark Biel and Joel Berger, extract from PLoS ONE, Vol. 14 No. 12, December 11, 2019)

Shaded Relief Map: Glacier National Park, MT Scale: 1:100,000 (USGS, 2001)

Shaded relief, oblique view map, vicinity of Going-to-the-Sun Road, Glacier National Park, Montana USGS IMAP 1508-A (A.L. Isom, O.B. Raup, D.A. Brumley and S.G. Binder, 1983)

Social Science in Glacier National Park: An Assessment (Steven R. Martin, September 1988)

Some Lakes of Glacier National Park (Morton J. Elrod, 1912)

Specialized meltwater biodiversity persists despite widespread deglaciation (Clint C. Muhlfeld, Timothy J. Cline, J. Joseph Giersch, Erich Peitzch, Caitlyn Florentine, Dean Jacobsen and Scott Hotaling, PNAS, Vol. 117 No. 22, June 2, 2020)

Sperry Chalet

Alternate Concepts, Rebuild Sperry Chalet for the Next 100 Years (2018)

Biological Assessment for Threatened and Endangered Species, Rebuild Sperry Chalet for the Next 100 Years (April 2018)

Environmental Assessment, Rebuild Sperry Chalet for the Next 100 Years (April 2018)

Scoping Newsletter #1, Sperry Chalet, the Next 100 Years Environmental Assessment (EA) (2018)

State of the Parks: A Resource Assessment, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park (National Parks Conservation Association, November 2002)

State of the Wilderness and Backcountry, Glacier National Park: 2012 (Kyle Johnson, May 22, 2013)

Statement for Management — Glacier National Park: November 1985July 1988December 1990

Stratigraphy and lithocorrelation of the Snowslip Formation (Middle Proterozoic Belt Supergroup), Glacier National Park, Montana USGS Bulletin 1833 (James W. Whipple and Sue N. Johnson, 1988)

Stromatolites of the Belt Series in Glacier National Park and Vicinity, Montana USGS Professional Paper 294-D (Richard Rezak, 1957)

Superintendent’s Annual Report, Glacier National Park (1911-1982, not a complete annual record)

Surficial geologic map of Glacier National Park, Montana USGS IMAP 1508-D (P.E. Carrara, 1990)

Temporal Trends in the receding glaciers in Glacier National Park, Montana, 1904 to 2020 (Emily Keenan, December 2020)

The Blackfoot (Julian H. Steward, 1934)

The Geologic Story of Glacier National Park Glacier Natural History Association Special Bulletin No. 3 (James L. Dyson, 1957)

The Glacier National Park: A Popular Guide to its Geology and Scenery (HTML edition) USGS Bulletin 600 (Marius R. Campbell, 1914)

The Melting “Crown of the Continent”: Visual History of Glacier National Park (Dori Gorczyca, Salma Monani and Sarah Principato, extract from Arcadia, Summer 2018, No. 20)

The Purcell Lava, Glacier National Park, Montana USGS Open-File Report 85-543 (R.G. McGimsey, 1985)

The Rocks and Fossils of Glacier National Park: The Story of Their Origin and History USGS Professional Paper 294-K (Clyde P. Ross and Richard Rezak, 1959)

The Story of Marias Pass (Grace Flandrau, c1971, Great Northern Railway)

Topographic Map: Glacier National Park, MT Scale: 1:100,000 (USGS, 2000)

Topographic Map: Grinnell Glacier, Glacier National Park, MT Scale: 1:6,000 (USGS, 1975)

Towards the Biosphere Reserve: Exploring Relationships Between Parks and Adjacent Lands — Proceedings of an International Symposium, Kalispell, Montana, June 22-24, 1982 (Robert C. Scace and Clifford J. Martinka eds., August 1, 1983)

Transportation Plan: Glacier National Park, Montana (August 1989)

Use of Bear Observations to Quantify and Protect Bear Hazards, Glacier National Park (Katherine L. McArthur, February 28, 1978)

Vacation Planner: c20122016

Which Place, What Story? Cultural Discourse at the Border of the Blackfeet Reservation and Glacier National Park (Donal Carbaugh and Lisa Rudnick, Great Plains Quarterly, 26:3, Summer 2006, ©Center for Great Plains Studies, University of Nebraska-Lincoln)

Wild Animals of Glacier National Park. The Mammals — The Birds (Vernon Bailey and Florence Bailey, 1918)

Wildfire and Ungulates in the Glacier National Park Area, Northwestern Montana (Francis J. Singer, February 1975)



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Last Updated: 15-Jun-2022