Gettysburg Seminar Papers

The Army of the Potomac in the Gettysburg Campaign

The 5th Army Corps During the Gettysburg Campaign
Karlton Smith

On February 8, 1880, one chapter in the history of the Fifth Corps, Army of the Potomac, came to a close. Colonel George Sykes, former Major General of Volunteers and commander of the Fifth Corps at Gettysburg, died at his post at Fort Brown, Texas, of cancer. He was 57. The U. S. Congress appropriated $1,000 for the removal of his remains to West Point. Among the subscribers to a memorial fund were Abner Doubleday, Henry Hunt, George Gordon Meade and Henry Slocum. On a monument of New England granite was engraved a Maltese Cross, the symbol of the Fifth Corps, and the words "Honor-Duty-Courage"; a fitting tribute to not only George Sykes but to the troops he had the honor to lead at Gettysburg. [1]

George Sykes was born on October 9, 1822, at Dover, Delaware. He graduated from West Point in 1842 and was able to count among his classmates such future generals as William S. Rosecrans, James Longstreet, Lafayette McLaws, and his roommate, D. H. Hill. He was assigned to the Third U. S. Infantry and saw service in the Florida War (1842) and in the Mexican War. He fought at the battles of Monterey, Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras and Charubusco. Sykes was brevetted a captain for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Cerro Gordo. [2]

George Sykes

Known as "Tardy George" to his West Point classmates, it has been noted that this was more of a mental tardiness than a physical one. D. H. Hill, a future Confederate general and Sykes' roommate, stated that Sykes was "a man admired by all for his honor, courage, and frankness, and peculiarly endeared to me by his social qualities." [3]

On May 14, 1861, Sykes was promoted to major of the Fourteenth U. S. Infantry and led the battalion of Regulars (eight companies from three regiments) at the battle of First Bull Run. As more regular army units reported to Washington, Sykes' command grew into two brigades of ten regiments and became known as the Regular Division. On September 28, 1861, Sykes was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers. [4]

On March 8, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln ordered the units of the Army of the Potomac, under Major General George B. McClellan, to be organized into four army corps. A fifth corps was to be commanded by Major General Nathaniel P. Banks, but this corps never operated with the Army of the Potomac and was disbanded on April 4, 1862, and merged with the Department of the Shenandoah. Sykes' command, known as the Infantry Reserve, was not initially assigned to a corps. [5]

On May 18, 1862, General McClellan authorized the creation of the Fifth Provisional Corps. This order was confirmed by the War Department when the term "Provisional" was dropped. The Fifth Corps, under Major General Fitz-John Porter, consisted of two divisions of three brigades each. The First Division consisted of Porter's old division taken from the Third Corps. The Second Division, under George Sykes, contained two brigades of regular infantry and one brigade of volunteer troops commanded by Colonel Gouverneur K. Warren. The Second Division artillery, consisting of two batteries, was commanded by Captain Stephen H. Weed. [6]

At this time, there were several officers already serving with the Corps, besides George Sykes, who later played key roles in the history of the Fifth Corps at Gettysburg.

Charles Griffin

The Second Brigade of the First Division was commanded by Charles Griffin. Griffin, born in Granville, Ohio, on December 18, 1825, was an 1847 graduate of West Point. He was assigned to the Fourth U. S. Artillery and took part in the march to Pueblo, Mexico, but missed seeing action due to illness. He served on garrison and frontier duty with the Second Artillery until assigned as an Assistant Instructor of Artillery at West Point in September, 1860. He was directed to organize a light battery company from the enlisted personnel assigned to the Academy. At first known as the West Point Battery, it was redesignated as Battery D, Fifth U. S. Artillery and was led by Griffin at the First Battle of Bull Run. Griffin was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers on June 9, 1862. Griffin was described as being "arrogant, self-confident, often perilously near to insubordinate" and "more considerate of his subordinates than of his superiors," but "stern in his sense of duty." [8]

The 18th Massachusetts of Griffin's brigade was commanded by 61-year old Colonel James Barnes. Barnes, an 1829 graduate of West Point (along with Robert B. Lee) stayed at the Academy as an Assistant Teacher of French until August of 1830. He was stationed at Charleston, South Carolina, with the Fourth U. S. Artillery, during the Nullification Crises of 1832. He returned to West Point as an Assistant Instructor of Infantry Tactics. He resigned in 1836 to begin a successful career as an engineer and built several railroads between 1852 and 1857. [9]

The command of the Third Brigade, First Division went to Brigadier General Daniel Butterfield. Born in Utica, New York, in 1831, he graduated from Union College in 1849. He served as superintendent of the eastern division of the American Express Company. He joined the 71st New York Militia as a captain and later became colonel of the 12th New York. On September 7, 1861, he was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers and assigned to the command of the Third Brigade. [10]

Colonel Gouverneur K. Warren, Fifth New York, commanded the Third Brigade in the Second Division. Warren, born at Cold Spring, New York, across the river from the academy, graduated from West Point in 1850 and was assigned to the Topographical Engineers. His major work, with Captain Andrew A. Humphreys, was in compiling the general map and reports of the Pacific Railroad Explorations in 1854. He was also involved in preparing maps and reports on both the Dakota and Nebraska Territories. He served as an assistant of mathematics at West Point from 1859 to 1861. On May 14, 1861 he was named lieutenant colonel of the 5th New York, and on August 31 was named colonel of the regiment. He was placed in command of the Third Brigade on May 24, 1862. [11]

Stephen H. Weed, born in 1831 at Potsdam, New York, was an 1854 graduate of West Point. Other, soon to be well-known graduates, included Oliver O. Howard and J.E.B. Stuart. Weed, assigned to the Fourth U. S. Artillery, fought against the Seminole Indians in Florida (1858) and took part in the Utah Expedition (1858-1861). He was promoted to captain in the Fifth U. S. Artillery on May 14, 1861. [12]

Frederick Locke

No history of the Fifth Corps, no matter how brief, would be complete without Frederick T. Locke. At the age of 34, Locke had enrolled on April 19, 1861 in the 12th New York Militia for three months. He was mustered in as Adjutant, May 2, 1861, and detached as brigade major and assistant adjutant-general of the 8th Brigade at Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia), on July 14. He was mustered out with his regiment on August 5. Locke was reappointed as an assistant adjutant-general with the rank of captain and assigned to duty as the assistant adjutant-general, Fifth Corps, with the temporary rank of lieutenant colonel on August 20, 1862. Colonel Locke held this position with the Fifth Corps until he was relieved on August 1, 1865, and mustered out as a captain on September 19, 1865. He was awarded the brevet of colonel of volunteers (August 1, 1864) for brave, constant, and efficient service in the battles and marches of the campaign and brevetted a brigadier general of volunteers (to date from April 1, 1865) Frederick Locke for gallant and meritorious service at the battle of Five Forks, Virginia. [13]

On June 12 and 13, 1862, George McCall's division of Pennsylvania Reserves (9500 strong) was temporarily detached from the First Corps, Department of the Rappahannock, and on June 18 was assigned as the Third Division of the Fifth Corps. Two of McCall's brigade commanders were John F. Reynolds and George Gordon Meade. On May 31, prior to McCall's joining, the Fifth Corps reported 17,546 present for duty. [14]

During the Seven Days' battles, June 26 to July 1, the Fifth Corps suffered 7,601 casualties, accounting for half the total casualties in the Army of the Potomac. The Pennsylvania Reserves were detached and returned to the First Corps about August 20. At Second Bull Run, Griffin's brigade was stationed at Centerville and was not present on the battlefield. The Fifth Corps, which numbered about 6500 on the field, lost an additional 2000. [15]

On September 26, 1892, Daniel Butterfield received a Medal of Honor for action at Gaines' Mill on June 27, 1862, for distinguished gallantry where he "seized the colors of the 83d Pennsylvania Infantry Volunteers at a critical moment, and, under a galling fire of the enemy encouraged the depleted ranks to renewed exertion." Also at Gaines' Mills, Colonel Warren was wounded and Colonel J. W. McLane, of the 83rd Pennsylvania, was killed in action. McLane was succeeded in command by Lieutenant Colonel Strong Vincent who had been stricken with malaria before the battle and did not rejoin the regiment until Fredericksburg. [16]

At Antietam on September 17, 1862, the Fifth Corps was in reserve and only lightly engaged until late in the day. The total loss to the Corps during the Maryland Campaign was 472 casualties. On September 18, a new Third Division was added to the Corps. This division, made up mostly of nine-month units, was commanded by Brigadier General Andrew A. Humphreys. [17]

Humphreys, born in 1810 in Philadelphia, graduated from West Point in 1831. Although initially assigned to the Second U. S. Artillery, Humphreys spent most of his career with the engineers. He resigned in 1836 and served as a civil engineer for the U. S. Army. In 1838 he was reappointed to the Topographical Engineers. In 1854 he was directed by the Secretary of War to take charge of the surveys, ordered by Congress, "to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railway from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean." He served as Chief Topographical Engineer, Army of the Potomac, March to August 1862, and was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers on April 28, 1862. [18]

By Presidential Order (September 5, 1862), Major General Fitz-John Porter was relieved of command of the Fifth Corps on November 5 and Charles Griffin was relieved of command of the Second Brigade, First Division "until the charges against them can be investigated by a court of inquiry." The charges stemmed from their reported actions, or inactions, at the battle of Second Bull Run and were preferred by Major General John Pope. Porter was court-martialed, found guilty and cashiered from the U. S. Army. Although not "tried and acquitted," Griffin was restored to duty. Butterfield, Griffin, Locke, and Sykes were all called to give testimony during Porter's court-martial. [19]

On November 12, Major General Joseph Hooker assumed command of the Fifth Corps. Four days later Hooker was placed in command of the new Center Grand Division and Daniel Butterfield assumed command of the Corps. The Fifth Corps crossed the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg at about 3:00 p.m. on December 13, preparatory to attacking the enemy's works. However, "the attack was made against positions so advantageous and strong to the enemy that it failed." The troops held some advance positions until December 15 and 16, sustaining over 2000 casualties. Warren had been given the duty "of arranging a line of earthwork defenses,...battery epaulements and rifle-pits, connecting with brick houses and walls, intended to be loop-holed, and barracading all the streets..." [20]

On November 17, Butterfield recommended Stephen H. Weed and Strong Vincent for promotion to brigadier general of volunteers "for gallantry and good services in the attack of December 13." Butterfield added that Weed "seeks the post of honor and danger on the field" and by his "judgement, energy, and bravery,...had proven his capacity for the promotion." Vincent had long served under Butterfield and "has by gallantry and devotion to duty richly merited promotion." [21]

In the weeks following Fredericksburg several changes took place in the command structure of the Fifth Corps. On December 24, Butterfield was relieved of corps command by Major General George Gordon Meade and on January 29, 1863, Butterfield assumed the duties of Chief of Staff, Army of the Potomac, under Major General Joseph Hooker. Meade also commanded the Center Grand Division until February 5, when the grand divisions were abolished. During this time, George Sykes had assumed temporary command of the Corps. On February 5, General Warren was named Chief Topographical Engineer for the Army of the Potomac and Colonel Patrick O'Rorke, 140th New York, assumed command of the Third Brigade, Second Division. On April 19, Brigadier General Romeyn B. Ayres was relieved from command of the Artillery Reserve (which he had commanded for six days) and assumed command of the First Brigade, Second Division. [22]

Romeyn B. Ayres

Romeyn B. Ayres, born in Montgomery County, New York, in 1825, graduated from West Point in 1847 (in the same class as Charles Griffin). He served with the Fifth U. S. Artillery at Pueblo and the City of Mexico. During the pre-war period he performed routine garrison duties at various posts including the Artillery School of Practice at Fort Monroe, Virginia. He was promoted to captain in the Fifth U. S. Artillery on May 14, 1861, and served as Chief of Artillery of Smith's Division (October 1861 to November 1862) and as Chief of Artillery of the Sixth Corps. Ayres was "a tall man of distinguished presence, erect and soldierly," "somewhat vain of his appearance and meticulous as to dress," but nonetheless, an "energitic, determined, hard-fighting commander." Since the War Department had decided that the army had enough high ranking artillery officers, the only way for an artillerist, to gain high rank was to transfer to another branch. As a result, the artillery lost many fine officers to Romeyn B. Ayres the infantry. [23]

On March 21, 1863, a circular by General Hooker announced the creation of corps badges. This was for "the purpose of ready recognition of corps and divisions in this army and to prevent injustice by reports of straggling and misconduct through mistake as to its organization." Each division of a corps was to be designated by a different color: red for the First, white for the Second, and blue for the Third. The Fifth Corps was to be represented by a Maltese Cross. [24]

On May 1, 1863, Sykes' Division was the first to meet Confederate resistance during the Chancellorsville Campaign. When Sykes found the enemy in force and threatening to outflank him, he reported this "to the major-general commanding the army, and by him was ordered to withdraw." The rest of the Fifth Corps was also ordered to assume the defensive. In his official report, Meade noted that Sykes' advance on May 1 "was a brilliant operation, adding to the already well-earned reputation of that gallant body of soldiers." He also reported that Griffin's Division "proved by their steadiness and coolness that this division only wanted a fair opportunity to show that the laurels acquired on so many previous fields were still fresh and undimmed." Because they were lightly engaged, the Fifth Corps only suffered about 700 casualties. [25]

By the end of May, the Corps lost, by muster-out, eleven regiments. Six of these regiments came from Humphreys Third Division. The remaining two regiments of the division (91st and 155th Pennsylvania) were transferred to the Third Brigade, Second Division (to replace the two regiments this brigade lost by muster-out), and the Third Division was discontinued. General Humphreys was transferred to the command of the Second Division, Third Corps. Charles Griffin went on sick leave beginning May 15, and James Barnes assumed temporary command of the First Division. On June 6, Captain Stephen H. Weed, commanding the Second Division Artillery Brigade, was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers and on June 13 relieved Colonel O'Rorke as commander of the Third Brigade, Second Division. [26]

At the start of the Gettysburg Campaign, the Fifth Corps would be composed of battle-tested leaders and veteran soldiers. Many of these men had been associated with the Corps from the beginning. It was time to see if the honor, duty and courage of the Maltese Cross could stop General Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia.

By May 25, the Fifth Corps was encamped along the Rappahannock River, near Fredericksburg, from Potomac Creek, near High Bridge, to the head of Clairburn Run, near the Telegraph Road where the encampments of the First Division were also located. At 10:45 a.m. Meade was ordered to send a division to relieve the cavalry pickets holding Banks', Richards', Kelly's, and United States Fords and to "throw up such defenses as will repel any attempt of the enemy to effect a crossing" at the fords. [27]

James Barnes

Meade entrusted this task to the First Division, under James Barnes. Barnes was to move without delay and take a position covering the fords on the Rappahannock River and to make "such dispositions as will enable you to check, and, if practicable, prevent the crossing of that river by any body of the enemy's troops." Meade gave Barnes very specific instructions on where and how to post his division. He also instructed Barnes to take entrenching tools from the supply wagons and direct his subordinate officers "immediately prepare defenses, such as rifle-pits and epaulements for batteries, and to every disposition to check, retard, and prevent the crossing of the river." [28]

After completing an inspection of his lines on May 31, Meade reported that the river was very low and could be crossed at numerous places by small bodies of troops. Barnes had to weaken his forces at the main crossing points in order to try to cover all the possible crossings. Meade also felt that Lee could not be stopped if he was determined to force a passage. In a second message to headquarters, Meade requested authority to move Sykes' division, plus three batteries of 12-pound Napoleons, to help guard the fords. It is not clear why Meade needed permission to move his Second Division, but headquarters deemed it not advisible to move Sykes at this time. The difficulty of supplying the artillery also made it "inexpedient" to send it to the fords. Headquarters further "presumed that the forces now on duty will be vigilant in the performance of their duties. It will be active in obtaining and sending on information, so that any movements of the enemy may be promptly reported to headquarters." [29]

While Meade and company were busy on the Rappahannock River, events were transpiring on the Potomac River at Alexandria, Virginia, that would eventually have an impact on the Fifth Corps during the campaign. On June 1, Brigadier General Samuel W. Crawford assumed command of the First and Third Brigades of the Pennsylvania Reserves which were posted at Fairfax Station and Upton's Hill. [30]

Samuel Crawford

Samuel W. Crawford, born in 1829, was the only Civil War general born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, only about 25 miles west of Gettysburg. After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania in 1846, he attended the university's medical school and received his degree in 1850. On March 10, 1851, Crawford accepted an appointment as an assistant surgeon in the army and served at various frontier posts until 1860 when he was stationed at Fort Moultre in Charleston, South Carolina. After Fort Sumter, Crawford was appointed a major in the 14th U. S. Infantry (May 14, 1861). Promoted to brigadier general of volunteers on April 25, 1862, he saw action in the Shenandoah Valley and commanded the First Brigade, First Division, Twelfth Corps at Antietam. Crawford's commander, Alpheus S. Williams, reported that Crawford had been wounded "but not so severely as to oblige him to leave the field." However, shorty after dark Crawford, "exhausted from the loss of blood and state of my wound," reported his condition and left the field. His wound kept him from the field until assigned to the Pennsylvania Reserves. [31]

On June 4, Sykes was ordered to move, without delay, to positions on the Rappahannock. He was to post one brigade at Banks' Ford and one brigade at United States Ford. Sykes, with his subordinates, was directed to arrange "a plan of operations in case the enemy should force a passage at any point" and to have his troops "prepared for immediate movement." [32]

The pace of activity along the Rappahannock began to increase as the month of June advanced. On June 6, Colonel Strong Vincent reported strong enemy pickets at Kemper's Ford, and at Ellis' Ford the enemy had made no attempt to conceal his movements. Meade was asked if he could "feel the enemy, and cause him to develop his strength and position at various points along" his front. Sykes objected to this move on the grounds that Banks' Ford was exceedingly difficult and the nature of the ground was such that once a Union force was across the river it "could not get back if the enemy chose to prevent it." While at United States Ford the enemy camps were so far back that it would be difficult to determine their strength. Nonetheless, the next day Meade was directed to feel the enemy strength at Banks' Ford without bringing on a fight. [33]

At 1:00 a.m. on June 9, Meade expressed satisfaction at the arrangements for cooperation between Barnes and the Cavalry Corps. Barnes was also told that instead of having to send in reports every three or four hours he could do so about every six hours. But that "Very important information will of course be sent in as soon as received." At 7:00 p.m. Meade started to direct Barnes to send 1000 men to the cavalry's support at Brandy Station when a message from headquarters suspended the movement. Meade did regret having to call Barnes' attention "to the necessity of keeping me promptly and frequently advised of what is transpiring in your front." Meade noted that the last dispatch from Barnes at Kelly's Ford had been sent at 7:00 a.m. and that a fast horse could cover the distance in two hours. Meade was also concerned about late reports from Colonel Jacob Sweitzer. Sweitzer, who had returned from helping the cavalry at 5:00 p.m. on June 9, did not report his presence to Meade until 1:00 p.m., June 10. [34]

On June 13, the race to find Lee and bring him to battle began. Sykes and Barnes were ordered in be in readiness "to move tonight or early to-morrow morning." Sykes was told to concentrate his division, including the trains and batteries, at Hartwood Church and as soon as his pickets were relieved, he was to "proceed as rapidly as possible to Warrenton Junction." The Fifth Corps was to rendezvous at Manassas Junction with the First, Third, and Eleventh Corps. By the next day, June 14, the Third and Fifth Corps were at Catlett's Station. [35]

On June 21, Barnes' Division was again sent to cooperate with the Cavalry Corps. The Second Division was stationed at Aldie, while the First Division moved to Middleburg where the Third Brigade, under Colonel Strong Vincent, was sent to support Brigadier General David M. Gregg's Cavalry Division. Vincent's Brigade aided the cavalry in the engagements at Upperville and Goose Greek and was relieved by Colonel William S. Tilton's First Brigade. [36]

Twice during this time, the Fifth Corps had an opportunity to capture the Confederate cavalry leader John S. Mosby. The first attempt, on June 22, under Captain W. H. Brown, 14th U. S. Infantry, failed partly because of "defective ammunition" due to rain in the morning. Ayres, the brigade commander, expressed disappointment with the results, while Sykes, somewhat more critical, believed that Brown "should have had the foresight to see that his infantry were efficient and their arms in firing condition before leaving camp,..." A second attempt on June 24 also misfired when Mosby failed to show up as expected. [37]

The services of Crawford's Pennsylvania Reserves were being requested by both Meade and Major General John F. Reynolds. Both of these officers had held commands with the Reserves during the early part of the war and knew their value as soldiers from first-hand experience. However, Major General Samuel P. Heintzelman, commanding the defenses of Washington, considered that the Reserves properly belonged to him. Nonetheless, on June 23, Crawford was ordered to place his command "in readiness to move at very short notice." Two days later he was ordered to march with his command to Edwards Ferry and, if possible, to cross the Potomac River. Major General Henry Halleck, the army's Chief of Staff, however, had to verify that the Second Brigade of Reserves formed no part of Crawford's command. [38]

At 4:00 a.m. on June 25 the Fifth Corps, with the Artillery Reserve, crossed Goose Creek at Carter's Mill on its way to Leesburg, Virginia. It crossed the Potomac River at the upper pontoon bridge, located between Edwards Ferry and the mouth of the Monocacy River, and followed the river road towards Frederick, Maryland. These orders, issued on June 25, had been sent by General John F. Reynolds via his cavalry escort. They were to have been sent by signal but the signal camps had already been broken up. [39]

At 9:25 a.m., June 27, Crawford notified Meade that his troops were crossing the Potomac at Edwards Ferry and would join Meade that night. Crawford was having some difficulty on the road because it was "encumbered by trains of Third Corps." This would not be the last time that the Fifth Corps had trouble with the Third Corps during the campaign. [40]

This march of the Fifth Corps, from the Rappahannock River to Frederick, had not been an easy one. Lieutenant James P. Pratt, 11th U. S. Infantry, wrote to his parents on June 15, telling them that his feet "are one complete blister. It was with the greatest difficulty I kept along, but I was determined to do it. I don't think I could march another hour though." On June 27, Pratt wrote that both his shoes and stockings had worn out; his blistering feet unprotected. He did predict that "we shall probably came upon the Rebels by to-morrow evening or next day." [41]

A typical soldier of the Fifth Corps: Pvt. John L. Smith, Co. K, 118th Pennsylvania

Major changes in the command structure of the Fifth Corps took place on June 28 at Frederick. Major General Hooker was relieved of command of the Army of the Potomac and replaced by Major General George G. Meade. Sykes, as the senior division commander, assumed command of the Corps. Ayres assumed command of the Second Division and Colonel Hannibal Day, sent from Washington, assumed command of the First Brigade, Second Division.

On June 29, the march north resumed with the Fifth Corps marching 15 miles from Frederick to Liberty. The next day Sykes advised Ayres that a "long march is before us, and every effort must be made to keep the command together and well closed up, and the enemy is not far from us." "Strong exertions," Sykes stated, "must be made to prevent straggling and to make the men keep in ranks." The march that day covered 23 miles to Union Mills. [42]

At 6:30 p.m., June 30, Sykes reported that the First and Second Divisions were at Union Mills and that the artillery was soon expected. The Third Division had been directed to march until dark and encamp between Frizellburg and Union Mills. Sykes stated that Crawford "must have marched to-day in the neighborhood of 25 miles. I have not had the corps concentrated since leaving Fredericksburg. My troops are foot-sore and tired." Crawford's command, having spent several months in the Washington defenses, were still trying to get their "campaign legs" back in shape. [43]

On July 1, the Fifth Corps marched 11 miles to Hanover, Pennsylvania. At 7:00 p.m. orders were received to march towards Gettysburg. Colonel Jacob Sweitzer's Brigade, after being ordered out, had an "exciting little run" with Colonel Strong Vincent's Brigade, to see who would get back into the road first and lead the division. Vincent won the race. Sweitzer not only reported having heard a rumor that Major General George B. McClellan was in Gettysburg to take command of the army but had met a citizen who had "seen the Genl. there." The head of the Corps would reach Bonaughtown, on the Hanover Road, by midnight after a march that day of 20 miles. Sykes reported that he would "resume my march at 4 a.m. Crawford's division had not reached Hanover at the hour I left there." The Pennsylvania Reserves were still having a hard time keeping up. [44]

The Fifth Corps resumed its march on the Hanover Road at about 3:00 a.m. After marching about 2 miles they turned left (probably at the E. Deardorff farm on Brinkerhoff Ridge) toward the Baltimore Pike and arrived in the area of Wolf's Hill by 8:00 a.m. (the Third Division arrived about noon). At first stationed on the north side of the Baltimore Pike, to support a proposed counterattack, the Corps was moved to the south side in support of the Twelfth Corps on Culp's Hill. The Corps took position between Rock Creek and the Granite Schoolhouse Lane, near Power's Hill. In this position Sykes was directed "to support the Third Corps,...,with a brigade, should it be required." Sykes sent Colonel Locke, his assistant adjutant-general, and Captain John W. Williams, aide-de-camp, to Major General Daniel Sickles, commanding Third Corps, "to see where the left of the 3d corps would rest" as Weed's Brigade was to be sent to the support of the First Division (Brigadier General David B. Birney), Third Corps. According to Captain Alexander Moore, of Sickles' staff, he was sent at 2:10 p.m. "to request Sykes to send a brigade to support Birney." Sykes, according to Moore, replied that he "would rather not send a brigade at once, but would do so if any necessity arose"; or if he were notified by either General Birney or Brigadier General J. H. Hobart Ward, of Birney's Second Brigade. [45]

General Meade ordered a meeting of all his corps commanders for 3:00 p.m. at his headquarters. The exact timing of events at this meeting varies with the participants, but they did take place in a short space of time. General Warren, now serving as Chief Engineer of the Army of the Potomac, received a report that General Sickles and his Third Corps were "not in the proper position." When cannonading was heard in the direction of the Third Corps, Sickles had not yet reached headquarters. Meade, not wasting any time, ordered Warren to the left to survey the situation and ordered Sykes to march the Fifth Corps to the left as quickly as possible and to "hold it at all hazards." Meade, reportedly, also told Sykes that he would join him and see to the corps' posting. Sykes believed this order "relieved my troops from any call from the commander of the Third Corps." It does not appear, however, that this impression was passed on to General Weed, as events will soon show. [46]

Sykes, who had apparently left most of his staff and the Corps flag near Power's Hill, directed Lieutenant George T. Ingham, aide-de-camp, to instruct Captain William Jay, aide de-camp, to lead the Corps toward the left. The rest of the staff was to wait on Power's Hill for Sykes' return. Sykes, with one orderly, rode to the left to select positions for his troops. He did not go directly to Little Round Top but went, instead, to the area of Rose's Woods, near what became known as the Stony Hill, to confer with General Birney. As a professional soldier, Sykes could not have liked what he saw. The Third Corps, instead of being on Cemetery Ridge with its left on Little Round Top, had been advanced three-quarters of a mile west to the Emmitsburg Road and the Peach Orchard. A one-half mile gap existed in the Third Corps line from the south edge of the Peach Orchard to the Stony Hill with the left flank of the Corps in and near Devil's Den. Sykes found a battery (probably Captain James Smith's 4th New York Light) on the outer edge of Birney's line without adequate support. Sykes, who now realized he would not be able to fight his corps as a unit, suggested that if Birney closed his division on the battery, Sykes would fill the gap with troops from his corps. [47]

Meanwhile, Warren had arrived on Little Round Top and found the hill bare of troops except for a detachment from the Signal Corps. Warren sent a message to Meade requesting a division be sent to the hill and also sent Lieutenant Ranald S. Mackenzie to request troops from Sickles. Sickles refused the request stating "that his whole command was necessary to defend his front, or words to that effect." Approaching the field at about this time (4:30) was the First Division, Fifth Corps. [48]

July 2, 1863 - 5:30-5:45 P.M. Ward's Line collapses, Barnes in position, Kershaw goes in (click on image for a PDF version)

The First Division (3417 men) had started its move from the Power's Hill area at about 3:30 with Vincent's Brigade in the lead, followed by Sweitzer and Tilton and three batteries: Battery D, 5th U. S., under Lieutenant Charles Hazlett; Third Battery (C), Massachusetts Light, under Lieutenant Aaron Walcott; and Battery I, 5th U. S., under Lieutenant Malborne Watson. (The two other batteries, Battery L, 1st Ohio, Captain Frank Gibbs and Battery C, 1st New York, Captain Almont Barnes, followed the Second Division.) The division had about a two mile march via the Granite Schoolhouse Lane to the Taneytown Road to the Wheatfield Road. As the head of the column entered the Wheatfield, Warren found Sykes and Barnes on the Stony Hill and requested assistance in holding Little Round Top. Sykes, also realizing the importance of the hill, directed Barnes to supply a brigade. Barnes "immediately directed Colonel Vincent,...,to proceed to that point with his brigade." Sykes personally posted Sweitzer and Tilton (with 077 men) on the Stony Hill and then rode back to the Taneytown Road to bring up more troops. [49]

Augustus Martin

Captain Augustus P. Martin, commanding the Corps Artillery Brigade, also arrived near the Stony Hill. Martin had originally enlisted on April 20, 1861, in the 1st Massachusetts Artillery Militia for three months. He was mustered out as a sergeant on August 2, 1861. He was mustered back into service as a First Lieutenant on September 5, 1861, with Battery C, 3rd Massachusetts, for three years, and was promoted to captain on November 28. In October 1862, General Porter recommended Martin for promotion to field grade officer. Porter felt Martin had "earned the promotion suggested by gallant action and by his general efficiency in all duties heretofore intrusted to his charge." [50]

Martin ordered Lieutenant Charles Hazlett to post his battery, formerly Griffin's Battery, on Little Round Top. Martin ordered Lieutenant Aaron F. Walcott and Lieutenant Malborne Watson to post their batteries in the rear of Barnes' division and await further orders. Martin then accompanied Hazlett to Little Round Top to reconnoiter for the best position to locate the battery. By the time Martin returned to the Stony Hill, both Walcott and Watson had been ordered away by staff officers from the Third Corps, who claimed to have "orders to take away any batteries..., no matter where they belonged." [51]

Charles Hazlett

Hazlett's Battery appears to have followed the same route as Vincent's Brigade (see next paragraph) as one report states that they went up at a trot. At some point, the guns had to be taken onto the summit by hand, maybe with the help of some stragglers. On the shelf, near the monument to the 140th New York, Hazlett was able to place four guns. He may have succeeded in getting all six guns up but there was room for only four guns so two were taken back down. Once in position, Hazlett started "sending shells down the mountainside towards Devil's Den." [52]

Vincent's brigade (1336 strong) marched from the Wheatfield to the north slope of Little Round Top following the Wheatfield Road and, probably utilizing an old logging road, moved along the east side of the hill to the south slope. Vincent preceeded his column to conduct a personal reconnaissance. He placed his brigade with the 44th New York on the right, followed by the 83rd Pennsylvania, the 20th Maine, and the 16th Michigan on the left flank. The 16th Michigan had just sent out skirmishers when it was ordered to the right of the 44th New York, probably because Vincent believed that would be the point of greatest danger and not the left flank. Colonel N. E. Welch reported that before the move was completed "we were under a heavy fire of the enemy's infantry. We succeded, however, in securing our places after some loss." The brigade was no sooner in position, then the 44th New York and 83rd Pennsylvania were hit by Confederate attacks. The two regiments returned fire at a range of forty yards. Colone James C. Rice, 44th New York, reported that the Confederates "tried for an hour to break the lines of the 44th New York and 83rd Pennsylvania, charging again and again within a few yards of those unflinching troops." While the center of the brigade line held firm, Confederate troops were beginning to threaten Vincent's flanks at the 20th Maine and the 16th Michigan. [53]

The fighting done by Colonel Joshua Chamberlain and the men of the 20th Maine, on Vincent's left flank, has been well documented. After being struck several times by the 15th Alabama, and after the left flank of the Maine line had been thrown back, the regiment mounted a make-shift counterattack. This attack came as the Alabama troops were falling back and just before the arrival of fresh troops from the Pennsylvania Reserves (see below). [54]

Colonel Welch reported that he was under heavy fire (probably from the 4th and 5th Texas and 48th Alabama) for about a half an hour "when some one", he thought either Sykes or Weed, although this is doubtful, ordered him to fall back to a more defensible position. He stated that these "orders" were not obeyed except by individuals and a Lieutenant Kydd who took the regimental colors back to the summit. However, the right two companies started to fall back while the rest of the regiment "was thrown into confusion." Confederates started to lap around the right flank of the 16th Michigan when Colonel Patrick O'Rorke and the 140th New York appeared at the crest and launched a savage counterattack. The attack succeeded in reestablishing the right flank of the 16th Michigan and repulsing the Confederate attack but at the price of O'Rorke's life. The 44th New York may have also fired obliquely at the same time. It was while trying to rally the 16th Michigan that Colonel Vincent was mortally wounded. [55]

During the initial attack against Vincent's line, Warren was trying to get more troops to the hill. He spotted Weed's Third Brigade, Second Division, part of Warren's old brigade, moving west on the Wheatfield Road to join Sickles, Weed's Brigade (1484 strong) had, reportedly, been led to this arena by Captain Moore of Sickles' staff, the same Captain Moore who at 2:10 p.m. had requested a brigade from Sykes. Weed, and Captain Moore, had ridden ahead to confer with Sickles at the Trostle Farm. It was "at this point the leading regiment", the 140th New York under Colonel Patrick O'Rorke, was redirected to Little Round Top by Warren. The rest of the brigade formed line "in a narow valley", Plum Run, to support a portion of the Third Corps and Watson's Battery. [56]

By this time Sykes was on the north slope of Little Round Top after leading up "the remaining troops of the corps." He sent a staff officer to find out why Weed had moved "away from the height where it had been stationed, and where its presence was vital." Weed was directed to retrace his steps, which he did at the double-quick. Sykes gave instructions to Captain Jay for the posting of the Second and First Brigades of the Second Division. Sykes also spoke briefly with Warren before Warren left the hill with a slight wound. Sykes then proceeded up the back side of the hill to Hazlett's position. [57]

Sykes' criticism of Weed may have been overly harsh. Earlier in the day Meade had requested Sykes to have a brigade standing by to help Sickles, and Sykes had designated Weed's Brigade for the assignment, an order which most likely went through Romeyn B. Ayres, Weed's division commander. As stated previously, when Meade ordered the Fifth Corps to the left, Sykes believed that this relieved his troops from any call by the Third Corps. But this change of orders does not appear to have been transmitted to either Ayres or Weed. Both of these regular army officers were too good to have deliberately disobeyed a direct order from Sykes not to aid Sickles.

Jacob Sweitzer

While fighting was occurring on Little Round Top it was also breaking out on other parts of the Fifth Corps line. When Vincent moved to Little Round Top, Barnes' other two brigades, under Colonel Jacob B. Sweitzer and Colonel William Tilton, advanced through the Wheatfield into Rose's Woods and onto the Stony Hill. They were placed to the right and rear of the Third Brigade of Birney's division. Sweitzer reported that his brigade was placed in a woods that fronted an open field. The brigade fronted to the west towards the Peach Orchard. As this threw the left regiment, 32nd Massachusetts, beyond the woods into low, cleared ground, Sweitzer ordered it to change front to the rear, placing it on more elevated ground, facing towards the south. This placed the 32nd Massachusetts at a right angle to the Jacob Sweitzer 62nd Pennsylvania on its right. Sweitzer later stated that both Sykes and Barnes were present "when this position was assigned me and the point at which my right was to rest was designated." [58]

Tilton's Brigade was posted just to the right of Sweitzer's (the 32nd Massachusetts next to the 22nd Massachusetts). The 18th Massachusetts, not having enough room in the front line, was stationed in the rear of the 1st Michigan. As there was no infantry on Tilton's right, he refused the right wing of the 118th Pennsylvania to form a crotchet. [59]

Barnes was most concerned about his right. The only unit to his immediate right was the 9th Massachusetts Artillery (Bigelow's Battery) along the Wheatfield Road. The closest infantry support on his right was the First Brigade, First Division, Third Corps at the Peach Orchard about one-quarter mile away. The Third Brigade, First Division, Third Corps was stationed on Barnes' left along with Battery D, First New York Light. When Barnes stated his concerns to Sykes, he remarked that some Third Corps troops, whom Barnes had passed and were lying in his rear, were to be removed. What exactly Sykes meant by this is unclear. Sykes then left Barnes to attend to affairs on Little Round Top. [60]

Almost as soon as Sykes left, fighting erupted along Barnes' line. The Confederate attack, the brigade of G. T. Anderson, struck Tilton's line and the Third Corps troops on his left. Colonel Ira C. Abbott, commanding the 1st Michigan, stated that he had his men lying down while the rest of the line began to respond to Confederate fire. When the Confederates were within forty rods Abbott ordered his men to their feet and to fire by file "which made a dreadful confusion" in the enemy ranks. Sweitzer ordered his other two regiments, the 62nd Pennsylvania and the 4th Michigan, to change front to the left and form lines behind the 32nd Massachusetts. There were now no Fifth Corps troops facing west towards the Peach Orchard except for the right flank of the 118th Pennsylvania. [61]

The Confederate attack (the brigades of G. T. Anderson and Joseph B. Kershaw) was renewed against the Stony Hill and commenced against the Peach Orchard. Three Confederate regiments started to turn towards Barnes' right flank and towards the Union batteries stationed along the Wheatfield Road. Colonel Tilton, anxious about his right flank, reconnoitered personally and decided that the enemy was trying to outflank him. The historian of the 118th Pennsylvania reported that the batteries along the Wheatfield Road, except for two sections of Bigelow's Battery, had retired. The enemy was "about to envelop the entire exposed and unprotected right flank of the regiment." Tilton was ordered to retire and take up a new position, in two lines "at the left and rear of a battery (Bigelow) which had been posted about 300 yards to my right and rear." This brought Tilton's Brigade into Trostle's Woods, along the north side of the Wheatfield Road, facing towards the west. The 118th Pennsylvania was on the right of the first line. Although it is not clear, it is possible that the 1st Michigan was on the left of the first line and the 18th and 22nd Massachusetts were on the right and left of the second line. [62]

Sweitzer reported that there was no enemy on his front except in front of the 32nd Massachusetts. Barnes had sent Sweitzer precautionary orders "that when we retired we should fall back under cover of the woods." When Colonel Prescott, 32nd Massachusetts, was told this he responded, "I don't want to retire; I am not ready to retire; I can hold this place..." When told this was only a precautionary order, Prescott apparently calmed down, and was satisfied that it was not a preemptory order. Shorty thereafter, however, Tilton retired and Sweitzer received orders to do the same. Sweitzer's new position placed him along the Wheatfield Road, to the left of Tilton in Trostle's Woods. The two brigades thus formed a right angle to each other, Tilton facing west and Sweitzer facing south. [63]

Trostle's Woods formed a rough triangle. It was about 200 yards south to north and about 500 yards east to west along the Wheatfield Road. The Trostle Farm was about 150 yards further north from the northwest corner of the woods. Tilton's Brigade, occupied a frontage of about 100 yards. This left a gap, of about 250 yards, from Tilton's right flank to the Trostle Farm. Sweitzer occupied a frontage of about 280 yards.

There are some unexplained actions, and perhaps some lapses in judgement, by the Fifth Corps commanders on the Stony Hill. Sweitzer does not explain why, when the right flank was threatened, he did not order the 62nd Pennsylvania and the 4th Michigan to change front to face west, as they were originally posted. Tilton did not explain why the 18th Massachuestts was not moved to the right of the 118th Pennsylvania to strengthen that flank. While the batteries along the Wheatfield Road were vulnerable without direct infantry support, along with Sweitzer and Tilton, they may have been able to catch the Confederate infantry in a cross-fire, and been better able to stop the attack. Also unexplained is why Barnes, when he ordered a withdrawal, did not inform the Third Corps troops to his left. This withdrawal left the Third Corps right exposed and forced them to retire as well.

Approaching the field, as Barnes and the Third Corps troops were falling back, was Brigadier General John C. Caldwell's First Division, Second Corps (3320 men). Caldwell had received orders from his corps commander, Major General W. S. Hancock, to report to Sykes. Caldwell sent an aide, Lieutenant Daniel K. Cross, to find Sykes "but he did not succeed in finding him." While Caldwell did state he met a staff officer, who he thought was Lieutenant Colonel Locke, Sykes" assistant adjutant-general, at least one historian believes that it could just have easily been Major Henry E. Tremain, of Sickles' staff. It is known that Major Tremain did lead Caldwell's Third Brigade into position. Caldwell's Division cleared the Wheatfield and established a line about 600 feet south and west of the position held by Barnes. [64]

"The Second Day at Gettysburg: Day of Decision," 1992 Association of Licensed Battlefield Guide Battlefield Seminar. (click on image for a PDF version)

It is not clear whether or not Sykes knew that Caldwell was supposed to report to him for orders. With elements from three different corps (Second, Third and Fifth) now fighting along Sykes' front, Menade had not placed anyone in overall command. Sykes, in corps command only since June 28, may have been hesitant to give orders to any but his own troops without clear authority from Meade. This was a point Sykes would have been sensitive about considering the actions of Third Corps staff officers trying to issue orders to Fifth Corps troops without authority. Sykes was probably in the process of bringing up the rest of his Corps when Caldwell arrived on the field.

Sidney Burbank

As Caldwell was advancing through the Wheatfield, Romeyn B. Ayres was advancing his two brigades of Regulars from the north slope of Little Round Top across Plum Run to Houck's Ridge and a stone fence on the east edge of the Wheatfield. Lieutenant James P. Pratt described the advance "over rocks and in the marsh. A dozen paces forward, and we came within this enfilading fire. Men began to fall very fast, but the line kept steadily on. We gained the other side, and lay down." Colonel Sidney Burbank led the Second Brigade (958 strong) followed by Colonel Hannibal Day's First Brigade (1574 strong). The enfilade fire described by Pratt was coming from Confederate soldiers in Devil's Den and on the south end of Houck's Ridge. Once on Sidney Burbank the ridge, the 17th U. S.. Infantry, Burbank's left flank regiment, had to refuse part of its line to try to cover this fire. Because Caldwell was in his front, and probably because Sweitzer was marching across the Wheatfield, Ayres could not advance. [65]

Caldwell, meanwhile, was looking for some aid for his hard-pressed division. He asked Sweitzer if he could advance across the Wheatfield in support. Sweitzer referred Caldwell to Barnes, who was close by. Barnes then asked Sweitzer if he would take his brigade in. "I would", Sweitzer said, "if he wished me to do so." Barnes said he did, and then gave "a few patriotic remarks", probably to the 32nd Massachusetts, to which the command responded with a cheer before advancing. Sweitzer advanced to the stone fence on the south side of the Wheatfield to support the troops he supposed were in his front. The 4th Michigan extended beyond the wall to near the position held by the 32nd Massachusetts earlier in the afternoon. Ayres, after consulting with Caldwell, also prepared to move through the Wheatfield and "occupy the woods in my front." Sykes, at about the same time, sent Lieutenant Ingham with similar orders for Ayres but Ingham did not reach Ayres in time. Events in the Wheatfield were starting to happen too fast. [66]

The Union positions at the Peach Orchard had collapsed and Third Corps troops began streaming towards the rear. Confederate troops, under Brigadier General W. T. Wofford, began advancing down the Wheatfield Road. This became part of a general Confederate advance south of the Wheatfield Road with portions of four Confederate brigades (Wofford, Kershaw, Semmes, Anderson) converging on the Wheatfield itself. Three Fifth Corps brigades were about to be caught in the middle of this advance.

Tilton, in Trostle's Woods, reported "squads of men belonging to the 2d & 3d Corps breaking through the ranks in their hurry to the rear..." Some skirmishers from the 118th Pennsylvania were trying to assist in keeping Confederate skirmishers from Bigelow's Battery. Watson's Battery was temporarily stationed near the Trostle Farm before moving to a position about 800 feet east of the farm. Tilton, whose horse had been shot, was unable to maintain his position and retired from Trostle's Woods. Tilton assumed a new position just north of Little Round Top and reported to Sykes. [67]

Barnes may have been wounded while trying to direct Tilton in Trostle's Woods. The historian of the 118th Pennsylvania remembered that Barnes rode "valiantly amid the thickest of the fray, encouraging, persuading, directing, with that same courageous judgement which had ever been his distinguishing characteristic." Sweitzer reported that after he had retreated from the Wheatfield, and shortly after dark, he was placed in command of the division as Barnes was reported missing. He also stated that Barnes "returned about midnight or afterwards and assumed command of the Divn." [68]

At the stone wall in the Wheatfield, Sweitzer's color-bearer suddenly remarked: "Colonel, I'll be _____if I don't think we are faced the wrong way; the rebs are up there in the woods behind us, on the right." This was soon confirmed by reports from the 62nd Pennsylvania and the 4th Michigan. These units were ordered to change front to met this new threat. Sweitzer sent an aide to communicate with Barnes but he was no longer in Trostle's Woods, as the enemy had reached his position and "as far back as where we had started from, and along the road in rear of the wheat-field." Most of Sweitzer's brigade, now finding themselves in hand-to-hand combat, started to pull out. Colonel Harrison Jeffords, 4th Michigan, was killed trying to rescue his regimental colors. [69]

Once Sweitzer had cleared his front, Ayres also tried to move into the Wheatfield, Burbank's brigade, using the crotchet made by the left flank of the 17th U. S., tried to do a left wheel to connect with Sweitzer's left flank. Burbank, after completing a half-wheel, reported that at first he received no fire on his front, but suddenly was receiving a heavy fire on his right flank. Burbank was forced to withdraw from the field under this heavy fire. When Burbank reached the stone wall on Houck's Ridge, after Day's Brigade had started to fall back, the brigade realigned itself before continuing the withdrawal to Little Round Top. [70]

This Confederate attack seems to have taken place while both Sweitzer and Burbank were in the Wheatfield. With all the smoke and confusion it is possible that neither Sweitzer nor Burbank realized exactly where the other was in the Wheatfield. It also appears, from the flow of events, that Burbank may have had a chance to withdraw before Sweitzer. Burbank and Day retreated directly to Little Round Top, Sweitzer headed toward Tilton's position, and Confederate troops started moving into Plum Run.

Captain Frank C. Gibbs, Battery L, 1st Ohio Light, responding to orders from Sykes, placed two guns on the right (north) slope of Little Round Top and four guns north of the Wheatfield Road. To Gibbs' right was Captain Almont Barnes, Battery C, 1st New York, who was not in a very good position to use his guns. Burbank and Day withdrew through Gibbs' guns on the slope. As soon as the front was cleared, "the enemy put in his appearance, and we received him with double charges of canister, which were used so effectively as to compel him to retire." [71]

While Gibbs' Battery was in action, Captain August P. Martin was notified that General Weed had been mortally wounded. Weed had asked to see Charles Hazlett. Weed gave him instructions for the payment of some small debts and, as Hazlett drew closer to receive a confidential message, he was shot in the head. [72]

Company K, 1st Pennsylvania Reserves

Also helping to compel the Confederates to retire was Crawford's Third Division, the Pennsylvania Reserves. The ever present Captain Moore, of Sickles' staff, stated that he met Crawford at Power's Hill. Crawford, who, for some unexplained reason, thought Moore was on Meade's staff, moved toward the Round Tops under Moore's direction. Crawford stated that he "followed through the woods in my front to a road which, starting at the Baltimore turnpike, runs in a Southerly direction, crossing the Taneytown Road and skirtng the foot of the Northern slope of Round Top, becomes a cross road from the Taneytown to the Emmittesburg road." [73]

Arriving near Little Round Top, Sykes ordered Crawford to mass his command to the right (north) side of the Wheatfield Road. Crawford was no sooner in position than he received a new order to cross the road to the north slope of Little Round Top. At the same time, he was ordered to detach one brigade to aid Vincent on the south slope. This was just before Ayres withdrawal from the Wheatfield, The Third Brigade, under Colonel Joseph W. Fisher, minus the 11th Reserve, was sent to Vincent's aid. Fisher's Brigade took position behind the 20th Maine and the 83rd Pennsylvania, just prior to Chamberlain's advance. The 11th Reserve became temporarily attached to the First Brigade, under Colonel William McCandless. Crawford formed McCandless into two lines, the 6th, 11th, and 1st, in front and the 13th and 12th Reserves in the rear. Coming up behind Crawford, and passing to his left flank was the 98th Pennsylvania from the Third Brigade, Third Division of the Sixth Corps. [74]

The 98th Pennsylvania charged past Crawford's line and into Plum Run. Who ordered Crawford forward is open to interpretation. Sykes, in his official report, said he ordered the charge. Crawford maintained that when he asked Sykes for orders, he was authorized "as I was upon the ground, to act as I deemed proper." [75]

Whoever issued the orders, the Reserves now fired two well-directed volleys, gave a cheer and charged forward at a run. George Swope, 1st Reserves, remembered this as "a moment of great excitment - Every member of the Reserves (were) anxious to advance - General Crawford amid tremendous cheers seized our Regimental flag and ordered the charge. I saw him wave the colors and advance with them down Little Round Top, probably half the distance to Plum Run." The Confederates were forced out of Plum Run Valley and driven back to the stone wall, previously occupied by Ayres, "for the possession of which there was a short but determined struggle." The Confederates were driven from the wall and across the Wheatfield to Rose's Woods. [76]

Watson's and Walcott's Batteries were caught between the advancing Confederates and the Union line. Watson's Battery was overrun east of the Trostle Farm, but Lieutenant Samuel Peeples "having procured the services of the Garabaldi Guards..." (39th New York of the Second Corps) led a counterattack, recaptured the guns and took everything safely to the rear. Walcott, on the north side of the Wheatfield Road, along the lane leading to the Jacob Weikert Farm, had no infantry support nearby. When Walcott saw the Confederates emerge from Trostle's Woods he ordered his guns spiked and one was before they were abandoned. Three regiments from the Sixth Corps, the 62nd New York, and the 93rd and 139th Pennsylvania, delivered two volleys into the Confederate ranks before advancing, recapturing Walcott's guns and taking position along the Weikert lane. [77]

After the fighting, and as darkness was setting in, Colonel James C. Rice, commanding Vincent's brigade, ordered the 20th Maine to advance and occupy Big Round Top. Fisher also detached two regiments, the 5th and 12th Reserves, from his brigade to aid in this occupation. By the day's end, the Fifth Corps occupied both Big and Little Round Tops in force, with McCandless Brigade occupying an advanced position near the Wheatfield, Sykes was able to state that "the key of the battlefield was in our possession intact. Vincent, Weed, and Hazlett, chiefs lamented throughout the Corps and army, sealed with their lives the spot intrusted to their keeping, and on which so much depended." [78]

At 3:00 a.m., July 3, Walcott's and Almont Barnes' Batteries were assigned to the Second Division, Sixth Corps and helped to guard the extreme left flank of the army. Although the batteries did not fire a shot on July 3, they did come under enemy fire. At 1:45 p.m., Sykes received a report from Colonel Kenner Garrard, commanding Weed's Brigade, and Tilton that Confederates were advancing on their left and front. Sykes was subsequently told by headquarters that if he was attacked, it was not Meade's "purpose to withdraw any portion of your troops from the positions they now occupy." At no time on July 3 did Sykes receive orders to advance his whole corps. [79]

Crawford received orders at 5:00 p.m. "to advance that portion of my command which was holding the ground retaken on the left, and which still held the line of the stone wall in front, to enter the woods, and, if possible, drive out the enemy. It was supposed that the enemy had evacuated the position." Crawford ordered McCandless, with the 11th Reserves, to advance. He also requested support from Brigadier General Joseph J. Bartlett, commanding both the Third Brigade, Third Division and Second Brigade, First Division, Sixth Corps, who sent Colonel David J. Nevin (Third Brigade, Third Division) to Crawford's support. Nevin's main line advanced about 200 yards behind McCandless as he crossed the Wheatfield. The 6th Pennsylvania and 139th Pennsylvania (Nevin) sent skirmishers to the right to clear out Confederate skirmishers. The 139th Pennsylvania also claimed to have recaptured one brass Napoleon and three caissons belonging to Bigelow's Battery. [80]

McCandless discovered a line of the enemy in the woods to his left and at a right angle to his line. This was Brigadier General Henry L. Benning's Brigade from Hood's Division, Longstreet's Corps, which had been left in the woods by a misunderstanding of orders. By the time the orders were resolved Colonel D, M. Dubois, 15th Georgia, found himself almost trapped between McCandless and Nevin and had to fight his way out. The rest of the brigade managed to get out with slight loss. This armed reconnaissance found the enemy to be in force and still willing to fight. [81]

On July 3, Brigadier General Charles Griffin, the regular commander of the First Division, arrived on the field. For some reason not fully explained, Griffin did not relieve the wounded Barnes until July 4. One source has Griffin stating: "To you General Barnes, belongs the honor of the field; you began the battle with the division, and shall fight it to the end." Whether this was Griffin's real reason is not known. It is also speculated that Griffin had talked with Sykes about the division's performance on July 2 and that Griffin did not want to assume any responsibility for the division's actions on the field. Sweitzer reported that after he had retreated from the Wheatfield, and shortly after dark, he was placed in command of the division as Barnes was reported missing. He also stated that Barnes "returned about midnight or afterwards and assumed command of the Divn." [82]

Hannibal Day

At 7:00 a.m. on July 4, Day's Brigade was ordered out on a reconnaissance. After crossing Plum Run the skirmishers were ordered to advance and drive in the enemy pickets. The 3rd, 4th, and 6th U. S. formed the first line supported by the 12th and 14th U. S. Major Grotius Giddings, 14th U. S., received orders to move his regiment through a small piece of woods on the left to see who occupied the house (probably the Rose Farm): Captain Guido Ilyes, commanding the skirmishers, reported that the house contained wounded from both sides plus "a large quantity of arms." At the same time, two Confederate cannons opened fire with shell at an easy range. Giddings received orders to fall back and rejoin the brigade and then the brigade moved back to the east side of Little Round Top to the rear of Hazlett's Battery. [83]

The was some confusion associated with the Fifth Corps on July 5. If Sykes had no troops with Sedgwick's Sixth Corps or in Sedgwick's support, he was authorized to "move out on the road to Emmitsburg, the left-hand road, going a short distance on the Taneytown road, and leaving it before it crosses Rock Creek." After moving out four or five miles, Sykes was to wait for further orders from Major General O. O. Howard, commanding Eleventh Corps. At 4:30 a.m. Sykes reported that his men were in hand and as soon as his pickets were recalled he would move. At 10:20 a.m. headquarters wanted an explanation of a report that Sykes was in readiness to move with the Sixth Corps; no orders for such a movement having been issued. This confusion was apparently not straightened out until much later when at 7:30 p.m. Meade informed Sedgwick that he had not remembered directing Sykes to support Sedgwick but instead had authorized his moving with the Eleventh Corps. Sykes reported at 9:30 p.m. that he was encamped on the south side of Marsh Creek along the Emmitsburg Road and would march at 4:00 a.m. "in order to pass through Emmitsburg before any of the troops behind me can reach the rear of my column." [84]

On July 6, Crawford requested, through Meade, that his Second Brigade, left at Alexandria, be ordered to re-join the division. "Its separation," Crawford noted, "was merely temporary..." The brigade never rejoined Crawford. [85]

By July 10, the Fifth Corps had marched 55 miles and had reached the Antietam at Delaware Mills. The Corps had marched through Emmitsburg, Creagerstown, Utica, and Middletown, crossing the Catoctin and South Mountain ranges at High Knob and Fox's Gap. Sykes reported that the Antietam was "very high and swift." A scout from the Cavalry Corps reported no Confederates at Sharpsburg and that they had "ceased crossing at Williamsport." [86]

Between July 10 and 14, Sykes maneuvered in the face of the enemy. His men also set to work constructing breastworks and rifle-pits. On July 13, Sykes was directed to place the Fifth Corps to the right of Hays (Second Corps) and the left of Sedgwick in the area of Williamsport. Sykes felt the interval was not large enough for two divisions. Crawford was placed on the right of Hays and one brigade from Griffin's Division was placed to the right and rear of Crawford. On July 14, the Corps pursued the Confederates two miles beyond Williamsport. On that date, the Gettysburg Campaign came to an end. It was now time to asses the costs of the campaign. [87]

According to the June 30 muster report, the Fifth Corps numbered 10,907 officers and men. By the end of the campaign, the Corps had sustained 2,187 casualties, about 20% of its total strength. But the casualties were not evenly distributed among the various units. Crawford's Division had 210 casualties out of 2862 engaged. Barnes lost 904 out of 3417 and Ayres lost 1029 out of 4021. Burbank's brigade of Ayres division had some of the highest casualties in the Corps. The 17th U. S., for example, lost 58% of its men (150 out of 260 engaged). Sweitzer's Brigade officially lost about 30% of its strength (427 out of 1423) but one regiment, the 9th Massachusetts, was only lightly engaged in skirmish duty near Wolf's Hill, while the other regiments were caught in the maelstrom of the Wheatfield. The Artillery Brigade, as a whole, had few casualties, although Watson's Battery had the highest percentage loss of any Union battery during the battle (22 lost out of 71 engaged). [88]

Colonel Patrick R. Gurney, 9th Massachusetts, stated that when he rejoined Sweitzer's Brigade, it seemed "more appropriate to say that we constituted the Brigade...The Brigade -except ourselves, had been fought nearly to extinction." The 4th Michigan lost 165 out of 342 and the 62nd Pennsylvania lost 175 out of 426 engaged. The 9th Massachusetts was, therefore, ordered to join Tilton's Brigade. [89]

Captain James A. Bates, Chief Ambulance Officer, reported that he was "kept constantly running from the hospital to the battle-field until 4 a.m. July 3." The 81 ambulances had transported 1300 wounded. At 10:00 a.m. July 3, J. J. Milhau, the Fifth Corps Medical Director, ordered the wounded to be moved one mile to the rear "as the enemy had commenced to shell the hospital." This time the 81 ambulances moved 2600 wounded one and a half miles. [90]

Sykes, in his after-action report, stated that the Corps buried 404 Confederate dead, captured 13,351 small arms, and one Napoleon. Sykes was happy to report that "the Fifth Corps sustained its reputation. An important duty was confided to it, which was gallantly performed....Prompt response and obedience to all orders characterized them." [91]

How did Sykes, himself, perform during the campaign and battle?

  • Sykes assumed command of the Corps on June 28, the day Meade assumed command of the Army of the Potomac.
  • On the march from Frederick to Gettysburg, Sykes kept the First and Second Divisions moving together and left aides and guides for the Third Division with instructions to close-up as soon as possible.
  • By noon of July 2, the Corps was united on the battlefield. On receipt of Meade's orders, Sykes moved the Corps to the left in a timely manner. (Even Birney admitted this.) When called on, by Warren, for a brigade, Vincent was sent immediately to Little Round Top. Sweitzer and Tilton were posted on the Stony Hill to help support the Third Corps in Rose's Woods.
  • Sykes appears not to have given Barnes any specific orders after posting him, but, instead, allowed Barnes to use his own discretion in the handling of the First Division.
  • Sykes, also, presumably, saw to the posting of his Second and Third Divisions.

  • When he saw Weed moving to join Sickles, he promptly ordered it back to Little Round Top.
  • It is not clear that Sykes was aware that he had authority over Caldwell's Division. Sykes, as a career officer, was probably reluctant to issue orders to troops not under his immediate command, without clear authorization. When he realized that Caldwell's left was in danger, he did order in the best troops he had, the two brigades of Regulars. Sykes allowed, or ordered, Crawford to advance while he helped to rally the First and Second Divisions.

Sykes, who may have partially still been in the mind-set of a division commander, seems to have done as good a job as could have been expected. He did carry out his assignment from Meade to hold the left and by the end of the day the key to the battlefield was firmly in the grasp of the Fifth Corps.

The Fifth Corps would continue to serve as a unit with the Army of the Potomac, but as with most of the units, the Gettysburg Campaign would bring changes to the Corps organization.

On August 14, the two brigades of Regulars, much reduced in numbers, were ordered to Alexandria, and thence to New York City to help quell the draft riots. Although some of these units would return to the Army of the Potomac, they did so as a mere shadow of their former selves. [92]

James Barnes went on sick leave after his wounding on July 2. He served on court-martial duty and commanded the defenses of Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. He ended the war in command of the prison camp at Point Lookout, Maryland. He was brevetted a major general of volunteers on March 13, 1865, for meritorious services and mustered out of volunteer service on January 15, 1866. He died on February 12, 1869 in Springfield, Massachusetts. [93]

Charles Griffin resumed command of the First Division on July 4 and led it through the rest of the war. On April 1, 1865, he assumed command of the Corps and served as one of the officers assigned to carry out the terms of Lee's surrender. During the battle of the Wilderness, Lieutenant General U. S. Grant heard Griffin utter some remarks that Grant took to be mutinous. When Grant told Meade that Griffin ought to be arrested, Meade merely replied "...its only his way of talking." Griffin was brevetted major general, U. S. Army, on March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services in the field. In 1866 he served on a board to determine the kind of small arms to be used by the Army and on July 28, 1869, was appointed colonel of the 35th Infantry. While in temporary command of the Fifth Military District (Texas and Louisiana), Griffin refused to leave his post when yellow fever broke out. He died at Galveston, Texas, on September 15, 1869, at the age of 41. [94]

Romeyn B. Ayres remained with the Fifth Corps to the end of the war. He received the brevets of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel in the regular army for gallant and meritorious services at Gettysburg, the Wilderness and Weldon Railroad. He was brevetted a major general, U. S. Army, on March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services in the field during the Rebellion. Upon the reorganization of the army in 1866, he was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 28th Infantry. On July 15, 1879, he was promoted to colonel of the 2nd Artillery. He died at Fort Hamilton, New York, on December 4, 1888, still on active duty after 41 years of service. [95]

Samuel Wylie Crawford also continued with the Fifth Corps in command of the Third Division until the end of the war. He received the Regular Army brevets of colonel, brigadier general and major general for the battles of Gettysburg and Five Forks, Virginia, and for gallant and meritorious services in the field. He was named colonel of the 16th Infantry on February 22, 1869, but was transferred to the 2nd Infantry on March 15. He retired from the service on February 19, 1873, and in 1875 was placed on the retired list with the rank of brigadier general. He purchased the land in Plum Run valley, the scene of the charge of the Pennsylvania Reserves, and served as a director of the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association from 1880 to 1892. He died at his home in Philadelphia on November 3, 1892. [96]

Gouverneur K. Warren was placed in temporary command of the Second Corps from August 1863 to March 1864. When the Army of the Potomac was reorganized he was given command of the Fifth Corps on March 24, 1864, replacing George Sykes. Warren led the Corps through the campaigns against Richmond until the battle of Five Forks, Virginia, on April 1, 1865, when he was summarily relieved of command by Major General Philip H. Sheridan. In the post-war years Warren served as a member of the commission to examine the Union Pacific railroad and was in charge of a survey of the Gettysburg battlefield. He made repeated requests for a board of inquiry into the causes of his relief at Five Forks. When the request was finally granted in 1879 he was fully exonerated. Warren died at his home in Newport, Rhode Island, on August 8, 1882. [97]

Of the seven Union infantry corps commanders at Gettysburg only two do not have monuments, Daniel E. Sickles and George Sykes. Although not a brilliant strategist, there is nothing in the contemporary records to indicate any dissatisfaction with Sykes' handling of the Fifth Corps. In September 1863 Sykes and several other officers became involved in raising funds for a testimonial to Major General George B. McClellan. This was stopped by Meade, presumably on orders from Washington. Rumors at headquarters told how Secretary of War Edwin Stanton had drawn up an order dismissing Sykes and the other officers from the service but that the order had been stopped by a leading Republican member of Congress. [98]

The years of campaigning were beginning to take their toll on Sykes' health. He was plagued by sciatica and on March 23, 1864, his Corps medical inspector recommended an immediate leave of absence. Whether this prompted the move or not, on March 24, Sykes was relieved of command of the Fifth Corps and ordered to report to the Department of Kansas at Fort Leavenworth. Several other officers were relieved at the same time, but one artillery officer believed that Sykes was "the only one I should think any loss." A staff officer felt Sykes had been relieved because the authorities at Washington "disliked his rough manners." Meade wrote his wife that he had tried very hard to retain Sykes, at least as a division commander, "but without avail." [99]

Sykes commanded the District of South Kansas during Sterling Price's Missouri raid late in 1864 until he was relieved because the department commander, Major General Samuel R. Curtis, believed he was unable to take the field. In March, 1865, Grant requested Sykes as a division commander, but this request was not granted. At the end of the war, Sykes reverted to his regular army rank of lieutenant colonel, Fifth Infantry. Sykes was brevetted a brigadier general and a major general on March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services at Gettysburg and in the field during the Rebellion. He was promoted colonel, Twentieth Infantry on January 12, 1868. He was still serving in this capacity when he died of cancer on February 8, 1880. [100]

Sykes' Civil War career will always be linked to that of the Second (Regular) Division and the Fifth Corps. He never commanded volunteer troops exclusively, which may partially explain the lack of a monument to Sykes at Gettysburg. In his farewell address to the Fifth Corps, Sykes wrote that the soldiers' "manly virtues, courage, and patriotism will still be conspicuous in campaigns to come" and that the Maltese Cross "will in the shock of battle always be found in the thick of your country's foes." He felt that the achievements of the Fifth Corps added a luster to the country's history and "in the great battle of the war, on the 2d of July, 1863, your heroism and valor indesputably saved the day." [101]


1. Reese, Timothy J. Sykes' Regular Infantry Division, 1861-1864: A History of Regular United States Infantry Operations in the Civil War's Eastern Theater. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Company, Inc, 1990, page 352. (cited hereafter as Reese.)

2. Malone, Dumas, ed. Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1946, Vol. XVII, page 255 (cited hereafter as DAB). Cullum, George W. Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U. S. Military Academy from 1802 to 1867. New York: J. Miller, 1879. Rev. ed. with suppl. containing the roster of graduates to January 1, 1879, Volume 2, page 62 (cited hereafter as Cullum.)

3. Reese, page 17; Johnson, Robert U., and Buel, Clarence C. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Volume II, page 359.

4. Cullum, page 62; The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, DC: 1880-1901. Series I, Vol. 2, page 390 (cited hereafter as O.R. and unless otherwise noted Series I.)

5. O.R., Vol. 5, page 18; Powell, William H. The Fifth Army Corps. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1896, page 25-26 (cited hereafter as Powell); Welcher, Frank J. The Union Army, 1861-1865: Organization and Operations. Volume I: The Eastern Theater, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989, page 364 (cited hereafter as Welcher).

6. O.R. Vol. 11(2), page 30-32, Vol. 11(3), page 183; Vol. 51(1), page 619; Powell, page 29, 45-46; Welcher, page 364.

8. DAB, Vol. VII, page 617-618; Cullum, Vol. II, page 196-197.

9. DAB Vol. I, page 630-631; Cullum, page 339.

10. DAB, Vol. II, page 372-373.

11. DAB, Vol. XIX, page 473; Cullum, Vol. 2, page 254-255.

12. Cullum, page Vol. 2, page 382; Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964, page 547 (cited hereafter as Warner.)

13. Phisterer, Frederick, compiler. New York in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1865. Albany: J. R Lyon Company, 1912, Vol. I, page 583, Vol. V, page 4291; Heitman, Francis B. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States Army, from its Organization September 29, 1789 to March 2, 1903. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1903, page 637 (cited hereafter as Heitman); Hunt, Roger D, and Brown, Jack R. Brevet Brigadier Generals in Blue. Gaithersburg, MD: Olde Soldier Books, Inc., 1990, page 362.

14. O.R. Vol. 11(2), page 30-32; Powell, page 46-47; Welcher, page 365-366; Fox, William F. Regimental Losses in the American Civil War, 1861-1865. Albany: Albany Publishing Co., 1889, page 74 (cited hereafter as Fox).

15. O.R. Vol. 12(2), page 259-260; Welcher, page 366-367; Fox, page 75; Powell, page 244-245.

16. The Medal of Honor of the United States Army. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1948, page 112; Warner, page 528; DAB, Vol. II, page 373; DAB, Vol. XIX, page 473.

17. O.R. Vol. 19(1), page 174-176; Welcher, page 367-368; Powell, page 306.

18. Cullum, Vol. 1, page 384-385; DAB, IX, page 371.

19. O.R. Vol. 19(2), page 188, 545; Vol. 12(2), page 18; Vol. 12(2) Supplement, page 824-827.

20. O.R. Vol. 21, page 400, 429; Vol. 19(2), page 569; Welcher, page 369.

21. O.R., Vol. 51(1), page 959.

22. O.R. Vol. 21, page 882; Vol. 25(2), page 190, 205, 230; Cullum, page 195; Powell, page 418.

23. Cullum, Vol. 2, page 194-195; DAB, Vol. I, page 453-454. See Henry Hunt's article in Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Vol. 3, page 259.

24. O.R. Vol. 25(2), page 152.

25. O.R. Vol. 25(1), page 507, 509; Fox, page 75.

26. Welcher, page 371; Powell, page 502; Cullum, Vol. 1 page 197, 382. Weed's promotion meant the lose of another outstanding artillery officer to the infantry.

27. O.R. Vol. 25(2), page 57-573.

28. O.R. Vol. 25(2), page 535.

29. O.R. Vol. 25(2), page 572-573, 593.

30. O.R. Vol. 51(1), page 1043.

31. Heitman, page 337; Warner, page 99; O.R. Vol. 19(1), page 179, 478, 486.

32. O.R. Vol. 51(1), page 1044.

33. O.R. Vol. 51(1), page 1045, 1046; Vol. 27(3), page 17, 24.

34. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 40, 47; Vol. 51(1), page 1048.

35. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 38, 39.

36. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 598, 614. For more information see: O'Neill, Robert F., Jr. The Cavalry Battles of Aldie, Middleburg and Upperville. Lynchburg, VA: H. E. Howard, 1993, pages 119-130.

37. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 641-643; Vol. 51(1), page 1063.

38. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 214, 273; Vol. 27(1), page 56-57; Thomson, O. R. Howard, and Rauch, William H. History of the "Bucktails" Kane Rifle Regiment of the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps (13th Pennsylvania Reserves, 42d of the Line). Philadelphia: Electric Printing, Co., 1906, page 260 (cited hereafter as "Bucktails").

39. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 314, 316, 318, 320.

40. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 353.

41. Merrill, Catherine. The Soldier of Indiana in the War for the Union. Indianapolis: Merrill and Company, 1869, page 102-103 (cited hereafter as Soldier of Indiana).

42. O.R. Vol 27(1), page 595; Vol. 51(1), page 1065.

43. O.R. Vol 27(3), page 424. Sykes probably meant he had not had the corps concentrated since Frederick not Fredericksburg.

44. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 595; 27(3), page 483; Sweitzer to Chamberlain, no date, Joshua L. Chamberlain Papers, Library of Congress. It was estimated the the Reserves marched 30 miles on June 26, 15 miles on June 28, 20 miles on June 29, 18 miles on June 30 and 15 miles on July 1. From "Bucktails", page 261.

45. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 595, 653; Vol. 51(1), page 200; Locke to Chamberlain, 5 July 1886, Box 3, April - December 1886 Folder, Frost Family Collection, Yale University Library; Pfanz, Harry W. Gettysburg: The Second Day. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987, page 62 and 207 (cited hereafter as Pfanz).

46. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 592; Meade, George Gordon, With Meade at Gettysburg. Philadelphia: John E. Winston, Co., 1930, page 108-109.

47. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 592-593; Pfanz, page 207. Locke rejoined Sykes just prior to Meade's conference. The staff, on their own initiative, joined Sykes on the field. General Birney stated that Sykes "reached my left opportunely", O.R., Vol. 27(1), page 483.

48. Pfanz, page 206; O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 138. For marching rates see: Scott, H. L. Military Dictionary. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1864, page 403 note. The rate of march was usually two to two and half miles an hour.

49. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 596, 600, 659; Survivors' Association. History of the Corn Exchange. Philadelphia: J. L. Smith, 1888, page 240 (cited hereafter as Corn Exchange); Sweitzer to Chamberlain; Powell, page 526; Nash, Eugene A. History of the Forty-fourth Regiment New York Volunteer Infantry in the Civil War, 1861-1865. Chicago: R. R. Donnelly and Sons, Co., 1910 (Reprint: Morningside House, Inc., Dayton, OH, 1988), page 143 (cited hereafter as Nash).

50. Massachusetts Soldiers, Sailors, and Marines in the Civil War. Compiled by The Adjutant General. Norwood, MA: Norwood Press, 1932, Volume 5, pages 338, 378; O.R., Vol. 51(1), page 891-892.

51. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 659-660; Gettysburg Compiler, October 24, 1899; Pfanz, page 239.

52. Bandy, Ken, and Freehand, Florence. The Gettysburg Papers. Dayton, OH: Morningside Bookshop, 1978, Vol. 2, page 521 (cited hereafter as Gettysburg Papers); O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 651; O. W. Damon diary, photocopy in GNMP Files; Nicholson, John P., editor. Pennsylvania at Gettysburg. Harrisburg: Wm. Stanley Ray, 1914 Vol. 2, page 777 (cited hereafter as PA at Gbg); 155th Regt. Assn. Under the Maltese Cross. Pittsburgh: 155th Regt. Assn., 1910, page 170; White, Russell C., ed. The Civil War Diary of Wyman S. White. Baltimore:Butternut and Blue, 1991, page 166.

53 O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 617, 628. The troop strengths and casualty figures are from Busey, John W., and Martin, David G. Regimental Strengths and Losses at Gettysburg. Hightstown, NJ: Longstreet House, 1986, page 247-250 (cited hereafter as Busey & Martin).

54. O.R. 27(1), page 617. See also Desjardin, Thomas A. Stand Firm Ye Boys From Maine: The 20th Maine and the Gettysburg Campaign. Gettysburg Thomas Publications, 1995.

55. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 617, 628; New York Monuments Commission for the Battlefields of Gettysburg and Chattanooga, Final Report on the battlefield of Gettysburg. Albany: J. B. Lyons, Co., 1900, Vol. I, page 371 (cited hereafter as NY at Gbg).

56. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 651; Vol. 51(1), page 201; PA at Gbg, Vol. I, page 502.

57. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 593; Pfanz, page 298-299.

58. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 610; Sweitzer to Chamberlain.

59. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 607; PA at Gbg, Vol 2, page 634-635.

60. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 601.

61. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 601; Ladd, David L., and Ladd, Audrey J. The Bachelder Papers: Gettysburg in Their Own Words. Dayton, OH: Morningside House, Inc., 1994, Vol. I, page 665. This placed the three regiments on slightly different elevations, one above and behind another.

62. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 603, 608; Corn Exchange, page 242-245; PA at Gbg, Vol. 2, page 634-635.

63. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 601, 611.

64. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 379, 593; Coddington, Edwin B. The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study in Command. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968, page 401.

65. Soldier of Indiana, page 116; O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 634, 645. The marker for the 17th U. S. is about 140 feet east of the monument for the Fifth New Hampshire at the intersection of Ayres and Sickles Avenues.

66. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 612, 634; Pfanz, page 298-299. The Fourth Michigan probably advanced to the area of the present Irish Brigade Monument.

67. Parker, John L. History of the Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry, the Second Company Sharpshooters, and the Third Light Battery, in the War of the Rebellion. Boston: Regimental Association, 1887, page 339; Tilton to Barnes, 14 March 1864, GNMP Files 4-10n; O,R. Vol. 27(1), page 608.

68. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 605; Corn Exchange, page 272-273; Sweitzer to Chamberlain.

69. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 612; James Houghton Journal, copy in GNMP Files, 6-4MI.

70. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 645, 646. For the general principles of wheeling, see: Casey, Silas. Infantry Tactics. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1862, Reprint, Dayton, OH: Morningside House, Inc., 1985, pages 88-94.

71. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 645, 661, 662; NY at Gbg, Vol. 2, page 1189. It is also possible that Gibbs' fire may have hit some of the Regular Division's "walking wounded" trying to get back to Little Round Top. Martin's only orders to Barnes had been to "Follow the Regulars and don't let Sickles get you!" (NY at Gbg: Vol. 3, page 1189).

72. Gettysburg Papers Vol. 2, page 523-524; Pfanz, page 240.

73. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 653; 51(1), page 200-201; Crawford, Samuel W. "Pennsylvania Reserves at the Battle of Gettysburg". Philadelphia Weekly Press, September 8, 1886. Crawford started his move on the Granite Schoolhouse Lane but at the fork in the road appears to have turned left to follow present day Hospital Road. The First and Second Divisions probably followed Granite Schoolhouse Lane to the Taneytown Road.

74. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 653, 657, 658; PA at Gbg. Vol. 2, page 525.

75. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 593 and 653; Philadelphia Weekly Times, September 8, 1886.

76. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 653; "Bucktails", page 266; George Swope to Philip J. Rau, August 31, 1892, copy in GNMP Files 6-1PA.

77. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 235, 660, 685; Parker, page 313. For more information on Watson's Battery see: Woods, James A. "Defending Watson's Battery"; Gettysburg Magazine, #9, July 1993.

78. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 593, 618, 658.

79. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 500, 661, 675. The two batteries served with Colonel Lewis A. Grant and were posted on the east side of Big Round Top.

80. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 654, 657, 685.

81. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 75, 654, 657; 27(2), page 416-417, 423-424.

82. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 605; Corn Exchange, page 272-273.

83. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 637, 639, 641, 643; Reese, page 258-260.

84. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 530, 534, 537, 540.

85. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 563.

86. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 595; 27(3), page 615.

87. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 595; 27(3), page 672.

88. See Busey and Martin, page 247-250, for a complete breakdown of casualties for each regiment.

89. Gurney to Chamberlain, October 26, 1865, Joshua Chamberlain Papers, Library of Congress, copy in GNMP Files 6-9MA.

90. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 597.

91. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 594.

92. O.R. Vol. 29(2), page 39-40; Reese, page 266-268.

93. Cullum, Vol. 1, page 340; DAB, Vol. 1, page 630-631.

94. Cullum, Vol. 2, page 197; DAB, Vol. 7, page 617-618.

95. Cullum, Vol. 2, page 195-196; Warner, page 14.

96. Heitman, Vol. 1, page 337; Warner, page 99-100; Vanderslice, John M. Gettysburg: Then and Now. New York: G. W. Dillingham, 1899, page 395.

97. Cullum, Vol. 1, page 255; DAB, Vol. 9, page 473-474.

98. Nevins, Allan, editor. A Diary of Battle: The Personal Journals of Colonel Charles S. Wainwright. New York: Harcourt, Brace, World, Inc. 1962, page 284 and 286; O.R. Vol. 29(2), page 227, 261-262; see also Revised Regulations for the Army of the United States, 1861, page 38 for the regulations regarding memorials (Article XXVI).

99. Reese, page 293-294; Letters, Vol. 2, page 185; Wainwright, page 335; Lyman, Theodore. With Grant and Meade from the Wilderness to Appomattox. Boston: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1922, Reprint: Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1994, page 80.

100. O.R. Vol. 41(3), page 12, 763; Vol. 46(2), page 925 Cullum, Vol. 2, page 63 and Supplemental, page 156; DAB, Vol. 17, page 255; Reese, page 351.

101. O.R. Vol. 33, page 724.

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