Managing Multiple Uses on National Forests, 1905-1995
A 90-year Learning Experience and It Isn't Finished Yet



List of Figures

List of Tables





Chapter 1. Introduction

The Concept of Managing for Multiple Uses Emerges
     The Organic Act of 1897

Chapter 2. Managing Multiple Uses and Protecting Resources: 1905 to 1945

The General Character of National Forest Resource Management
     Early National Forest Staffing
     Decentralizing Decisionmaking
     Professional Forester Recruitment Accelerates
     Research and Cooperation With State and Private Landowners
Implementation and Coordination of Resource Uses and Management
     Managing Grazing by Cattle and Sheep
     Managing Wildlife Resources and Use
     Managing Water Resources
     The Weeks Act of 1911 and Eastern National Forests
     Managing National Forests for Timber Production
     Improvement of Forest Fire Control
     Insect and Disease Management and Control
          White Pine Blister Rust Control
          Other Pest Management Activities
     Managing Recreation Uses and Activities
     Wilderness Preservation
     Natural Areas for Research
          Hardrock Minerals
     Management of Special Uses
National Forest Use and Management at the End of World War II

Chapter 3. Managing Multiple Uses in the Face of Unprecedented National Demands: 1945 to 1970

National Forest Planning and Performance: 1945-1970
     Diversifying Staff and Skills in Managing Growing Multiple Uses
The Management of Multiple Uses: 1945-1970
     Population, Economic, and Demand Trends
     Grazing Use and Management
          Stockowners Sensitive to 1960 Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act
          The National Grasslands
     Managing Surface Resources on Mineral Leases and Claims
          Mining Claims
     Using and Managing Timber Resources
          Sustained-Yield Units and Long-term Timber Supply Contracts
          Timber Management Planning
          1961 National Development Program for National Forests
          Preparation of Timber Management Plans
          The Role of Road Development in Timber Resource Management
          Access To Respond to Natural Disasters
          Reforestation and Stand Improvement
     Planning for Multiple Uses Under the MUSY Act
     Insect and Disease Management
          Insect Suppression
          Disease Control
     Protection from Forest Fires
          Fuel Management Activities
          Initiation of Fuel Management
     Managing Recreation Uses and Resources
          National Recreation Areas
          Designation of Wild and Scenic Rivers and National Trails
     Wilderness Preservation and Management
     Reservation of Research Natural Areas
     Protecting and Managing Watershed Condition
          Soil Surveys Initiated
          Water Storage Development
          Barometer Watershed Projects To Increase Streamflow
     Wildlife and Fish Management
          The 1945 to 1960 Period
          Wildlife Habitat Management and Staffing: 1945-1959
          Strengthening of Wildlife Management in the 1960's
          1960's Trends in Wildlife and Fisheries Use
Emergence of National Policy for the Environment in 1970 The 1960's Open Major Issues for Timber and Multiple-Use Management
     Timber Management and Fish Habitat
     Clearcutting: Hardwoods and Wildlife on the Monongahela National Forest
     Elk/Timber Management Conflicts
     The Emergence of the Bitterroot Controversy

Chapter 4. Policy Issues and Management conflicts Challenge Multiple-Use Planning and Management During the 1970's

The National Setting
Administration and Congressional Efforts To Expand National Forest Timber Supplies
     Housing Goals, Timber Demands, and Price Responses
     The Administration's Initial Responses to Rising Timber Demands and Prices
     Congressional Response and the Timber Supply Act of 1969
          Emergence of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act in 1974
     Administration Efforts To Increase Timber Supplies: 1970-1979
          Report of the President's Advisory Panel
          An Independent Effort for Consensus
     The Performance of Timber Supplies and Housing Goals in the 1970's
The Clearcutting Issue Leads to New Guidelines for Managing Multiple Uses
     Early National Forest System Response to Clearcutting Critique: 1970
     In-Service Evaluation of the Clearcutting Issue on Selected National Forests
     Chief Cliff Gives Emphasis to the Ecosystem Approach and Training
     A Nationwide Field Evaluation of National Forest Timber Management
     Congressional Hearings Elevate Clearcutting to National Issue: 1971
     Church's Clearcutting Guidelines: 1973
     Emergence of the National Forest Management Act of 1976
Wilderness Planning and Designation
     Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE)
     Eastern Wilderness and Congressional Disavowal of the Pristine Doctrine
     RARE II
Multiple-Use Planning Procedures Improved
     Regional Planning Area Guides and Unit Plans for Multiple-Use Management
          Unit plans
          "Functional" Resource Plans Link to Unit Plans
          Influence of RPA Legislation
          Influence of the National Forest Management Act of 1976
     The Emergence and Development of Public Participation
Lessons from the National Issues of the 1970's

Chapter 5. The Performance of Multiple-Use Management: 1970 to 1979

The Internal Forest Service Setting: The 1970's
     National Forest Managers' Training in Ecosystem Management
     Classifying National Forest Lands and Resources
     Timber Management
          Stratification of the Commercial Forest Land Base
          The Shift to the Unit Planning System
          Nondeclining-Flow Policy and Its Measure: Potential Yield
          Silvicultural Practices
     Timber Harvests, Logging Systems, and Landscape Management
          Logging Equipment: Methods and Systems
          Road Design and Construction
          Landscape Management
     Wilderness Management and Use
     Outdoor Recreation and Use Management
          Growth in Total Visitor Use
          Staffing for Recreation Management
          Capacity and Use at Developed Sites
          National Forest Trails
          Visitor Information Services and Centers
          Recreation Special Use Permits
          Offroad Vehicle Use and Management
          Cultural Resource Management
          National Recreation Areas and Wild and Scenic Rivers
     Minerals Management
          Surface Mining Activities and Environmental Protection
          Environmental Analysis Related to Minerals
          Leasable Minerals
     Control of Forest Fires and Fuel Management
          Better Trained and Equipped Firefighters
          Emergence of Fire as a Management Tool in the West
          Fire Management Areas
          Fuel Management
          A National Model for Planning National Fire Management Budgets
     Preservation of Research Natural Areas
          Biosphere Reserves
     Forest Pest Management
          Major Insect and Disease Problems
          Insect Control
          Disease Control
          Herbicide Use
     Range Management
          Range Analyses, Planning, and Management
          Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976
          System-Wide Assessment of Range Condition
          The Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978
          The Use and Performance of National Forest Rangelands in the 1970's
     Soil and Water Resource Management
          National Forest Water Rights
          Watershed Improvements
     Managing Wildlife and Fish Habitats and Use
          Species Richness Approach
          Featured Species Approach
          Managing Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests: An Integrated System
          Support for and Coordination With Other Resource Activities
          A Case in Point: Coordinating Timber Management and Elk
          South Fork Salmon River Strategy
          Endangered Species Management
          Habitat Improvement Activities
          State Cooperation
          Wildlife Management Institute Study
          Wildlife and Fish Population Status and Trends
National Forest Land and Resource Management Performance in the 1970's
     Implications for the 1980's and 1990's

Chapter 6. National Forest Management for Multiple Uses: 1980 to 1995

The General Setting
     A New Approach to Forest Planning
     Economic and Policy Highlights
     The Role of Public Participation and Growing Confrontation
          Growing Public Confrontation
The National Forest Planning Process and its Performance
     The Public Issue and Management Concern
     The Role of Planning Alternatives and Management Direction
     Management Direction for Implementing Alternatives
     Principal Guidelines for Planning Multiple Uses
     The Interdisciplinary Process
     The Plan Decision Process: Plan Approval, Appeals, and Litigation
          The Preferred Alternative
          Forest Plan Appeals
          NEPA and NFMA Forest Planning Litigation
          Project-Level Appeals and Litigation
          National Action Plan To Improve NEPA Compliance
     Revision of the Rules of National Forest Land and Resource Management Planning
     Wilderness Designation, Use, and Management
          Management of Wilderness
               Wilderness Management: 1980-1986
               Renewed Efforts To Upgrade Wilderness Management: 1987-1995
     Research Natural Areas
     Timber Resource Management
          Timber Volume Sold
          Potential for Timber Supply Disruption due to Appeals and Litigation Evaluated
          The Northern Spotted Owl and Old-Growth Management Controversy
          The Below-Cost Timber Sale Issue
          Timber Harvests
          Road Construction
               Road Analysis and Display System
          Silvicultural Examinations and Practices
               Timber Stand Improvement
               Forest Growth, Mortality, and Potential Yield Trends
     Pest Management and Forest Health
          The 1992 Forest Health Strategic Plan
               Western Forest Health Initiative
          Exotic Pests and Log Imports
          Vegetation and Animal Control
     Fire and Fuel Management
          Wildfires Worsen After 1984
          Fuel Management
     Management of Rangelands
          Domestic Livestock Use
          Range Management Activities
               Noxious Weed Control
               Role of Public Participation
               Issuance of New Grazing Permits
          Emergence of the "County Supremacy" Movement on Federal Lands
     Mineral Exploration & Development
          Oil and Gas Leases
          Coal and Geothermal Leasing
          Minerals Leased on Acquired National Forest Lands
          Locatable Minerals
          Mineral Materials
     Soil, Water, and Air Resources
          Coordinating Resource Management With Soil and Water Objectives
          Soil and Water Inventories
               Long-Term Soil Productivity Study Initiated
               Shift Toward an Ecological Approach and Emphasis
               Water Resource Surveys
               Soil and Water Monitoring
          Riparian and Wetlands Management
          Water Rights
          Soil and Water Resource Improvements
     Air Quality Management
     Weather Monitoring Program
Outdoor Recreation Use and Management
     Recreation Use of National Forests
     National Recreation Strategy
          Universal Access to Recreation Opportunities
          Scenic Byways and Tourism on National Forests
          Urban National Forests
          Interpretive Services
          "Challenge Cost-Share" Program Expands Recreation Partnerships
          Volunteer Services Contribute to Recreation Program
     Heritage Management
          Tread Lightly
          Leave No Trace
     Wild, Scenic, and Recreational Rivers
     Special Recreation Areas
Law Enforcement
     Marijuana Cultivation on National Forests
Wildlife and Fisheries Management
     Management Practices: 1980-1986
          Fisheries Management
          Threatened and Endangered Species
          Wildlife and Fishery Use: 1980-1986
     Wildlife and Fishery Habitat Relationships: Modeling Efforts
     Wildlife and Fishery Management and Use: 1987-1995
          Fisheries Management
          Every Species Counts
          Protecting Endangered Species After Natural Disasters
          Habitat Management for Endangered Species Reintroduction and Recovery
          PACFISH Strategy for Endangered Salmon in the Pacific Northwest
          Get Wild
     The Growth of Partners in Habitat Management
1980 to 1995: A Period of Accelerating Transition and Transformation in Managing Multiple Uses on National Forest System Lands

Chapter 7. Policy Commitment to Ecosystem Approach to Managing Multiple Uses

Forest Service Ethics and Course to the Future
Breaking New Ground Once More


A 90-Year Learning Experience and It Isn't Finished Yet
The Ecosystem Connection

About the Author


Figure 1. National Forest System lands, including the forest reserves, 1891-1995

Figure 2. Number of livestock permitted to graze on national forests, 1906-1992

Figure 3. National forest timber harvests, 1905-1945

Figure 4. Acres burned by wildfires on national forests, 1910-1994

Figure 5. U.S. urban and rural population, 1940-1990

Figure 6. National forest timber sold and harvested, 1950-1969

Figure 7. Outdoor recreation visitor use of national forests, 1925-1964

Figure 8. Outdoor recreation visitor use of national forests, 1965-1994

Figure 9. Selected trends in national forests big game populations, 1930-1992

Figure 10. Average new housing units constructed annually per 5-year period, 1950-1994

Figure 11. Wholesale price trend for softwood lumber, 1960-1988

Figure 12. Trend of new home mortgage interest rates, 1963-1994

Figure 13. Price increases for softwood lumber, 1970-1979

Figure 14. Average annual national forest harvest by decade for major U.S. regions, 1950-1994

Figure 15. National forest timber sold and harvested, 1970-1994

Figure 16. Total road mileage in the National Forest System, 1967-1995

Figure 17. National forest wilderness area and visitor use, 1965-1994

Figure 18. Developed outdoor recreation site capacity and use, 1970 and 1979

Figure 19. National forest area leased for mineral exploration and development, 1970-1979

Figure 20. Decline in pesticide treatments in the Eastern Region of the National Forest System, 1960-1980

Figure 21. Beef cattle numbers in the United States and its western regions, 1970-1976

Figure 22. Acres of soil, water, and geologic resources inventoried, selected years 1970-1979

Figure 23. Wildlife and fisheries user days (WFUD's) on national forests, 1966-1995

Figure 24. National forest area treated to provide wildlife food and cover benefits in 1970, 1974, and 1979

Figure 25. National forest timber growth, harvest, and mortality, 1952-1991

Figure 26. Oil and gas leases on national forests, 1983-1994

Figure 27. Coal leases and production on national forests, 1980-1994

Figure 28. The Pathway Hypothesis: Over time, the pathway of traditional national forest management leads to a fully holistic approach to resource management


Table 1. Number of Forest Service employees by occupation and skill

Table 2. Number of recreation special use permits issued to commercial concessionaries, 1979

Table 3. Completed mineral area operating plans by region, 1979

Table 4. Number of public input events by type of event

Table 5. Appeals of completed forest plans by number, status, and year

Table 6. Resolution of forest land and resource management plan appeals

Table 7. Summary of project appeal activity, 1986-1992

Table 8. Distribution of administrative appeals related to national forest management for 1991 and 1992

Table 9. Trend in clearcutting and total area harvested on national forests, 1984-1993

Table 10. National Forest System long-term sustained-yield capacity and allowable sale quantity by region, 1994

Table 11. Wildlife Challenge Cost-Share assistance

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Last Updated: 20-May-2009