Voyageurs
National Park
Minnesota
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Heart of the Continent

Voyageurs' landscape of abundant rock and dense woods hugs the outer edges of the Canadian Shield and the northern boreal forest. Interconnected lakes—Rainy, Kabetogama, Namakan, Sand Point, and dozens of smaller ones—were once routes for travel and trade.

This land of spectacular beauty and rich history was first proposed as a national park in 1891 by people concerned about encroaching industry. It would be another 80 years before Congress authorized the park. In 1975 Voyageurs became the nation's 36th national park.

Leave your car behind and set out on a water highway through the heart of the continent-in the wake of the Ojibwe and French-Canadian canoemen of long ago.

What a way to travel—no trains to catch, no traffic to annoy us, no towns to reach by evening, no appointments to remember! We wander anywhere our whims take us, through these lakes. Freedom surrounds us. We are finding more than peace here. This is an authentic and profound release from modern intricacies.

—Florence Page Jaques, Canoe Country Journal

Stories in the Rocks

Voyageurs National Park is one of the few places in North America where you can see and touch rocks half the age of the Earth. The exposed rock you see all around you is the southern edge of the Canadian Shield, a gigantic dome of volcanic bedrock that forms the core of the continent.

This bedrock is from the birth of North America. Massive, explosive volcanoes deposited layer after layer of ash and lava, building up the landmass. Subsequent uplifting, folding, tremendous pressure, and superheating created igneous and metamorphic rock.

Eons of erosion wore down the volcanic mountain ranges. The ice ages brought glaciers, moving rivers of ice that scoured away the younger rock layers. This action exposed the deep roots of the ancient mountains—granite, migmatite, and biotite schist you see today. As the glaciers receded, torrents of meltwater filled low-lying areas, creating lakes. The geologic forces of uplift and erosion continue to shape the landscape.

The oldest rock in the park tells a recent human story. Fault zones in exposed 2.8-billion-year-old greenstone revealed gold embedded in quartz veins. The discovery sparked a short-lived mining rush in the 1890s. To accommodate the gold miners on Little American Island, Rainy Lake City sprung up on the shores of Black Bay and grew to a population of over 200. No one got rich, and the boomtown was abandoned by 1901. Many of the newcomers stayed for good, and their descendants still live in the region.

Ecosystems on the Edge

The beautiful scenery that surrounds you is in fact a complex ecosystem. Since the retreat of the glaciers some 10,000 years ago, decomposed vegetation has covered the bedrock with less than a foot of topsoil, enough for the southern reaches of the boreal forest to take hold. Hardwoods like birch and aspen, and conifers like spruce and pine merge in a wondrous diversity of plant and animal life. This is a fragile, ever-changing world, affected by various human and natural forces.

One influence is modern industry—logging, mining, and commercial fishing. Fire suppression and timber harvesting have shaped the process of forest succession. The dense forests that blanket the land are a patchwork quilt of second-growth boreal species. Industry has also affected water levels, and management efforts improve habitat for fish, birds, and other aquatic life.

Climate change provides opportunity for new species to take hold. The same environment that welcomes new species causes others to move out. White-tailed deer and neotropical birds are relative newcomers, while elk, traditional residents, have moved north. Nonnative species like the emerald ash borer compete for food and alter the ecosystem.

Not all change happens on a large scale. The hatching of an eaglet, the lichen that breaks down rock for the forest floor, and the fallen tree that forms a rich micro-habitat—all contribute in their own small way to the character of the great North Woods.

Fortunes from Fur

For several generations the fur trade was one of North America's biggest industries. Trapping, trading, and travel routes were well established by the time Europeans came to North America in search of wealth. By the early 1700s, the heart of the fur trade had moved inland. The Ojibwe Indians were the gatekeepers of the rich fur lands north and west of the Great Lakes. Not only were they skilled traders, guides, interpreters, hunters, and trappers, but they supplied fur posts and canoe brigades with food, birchbark canoes, and other essentials.

The fur trade was a highly competitive commercial enterprise with a complex network of Indian alliances and specialized occupations: trappers, traders, clerks, and canoemen known as voyageurs. Expertly maneuvering the lightweight birchbark canoes through the North Woods, the voyageurs transported trade goods between Montreal and the Canadian Northwest. They returned with "soft gold"—pelts of beaver and other animals, which were shipped to European markets.

The route of the adventuresome voyageurs was so important that the 1783 treaty ending the American Revolution set the international boundary as the "customary waterway" between Lake Superior and Lake of the Woods. Today a 56-mile stretch of this water highway adjoins Voyageurs National Park, and is one of the reasons the park was established. The heyday of the fur trade is long gone, but the park still has elements of its illustrious past: place names like Grassy Portage and Cutover Island; stands of birch trees that provided materials for the essential canoes; and habitat for fur-bearing animals like beaver.

Exploring Voyageurs National Park

Stop first at one of the visitor centers: Rainy Lake, Kabetogama, and Ash River. Each has information, exhibits, park movie, bookstore, Junior Ranger programs, boat ramps, hiking trails, and more. Visitor centers are open daily in summer; Rainy Lake operates year-round.

Voyageurs is a water-based park. Travel to the 500-plus islands and 655 miles of shoreline is by watercraft. "Don't Miss" destinations include Anderson Bay, Ellsworth Rock Gardens, Hoist Bay, Kettle Falls, and Little American Island. But with 218,054 acres of land and water, there are countless out-of-the-way places to find your own adventure.

For detailed information, get a copy of the park newspaper Rendezvous or visit www.nps.gov/voya.

THINGS TO SEE AND DO

park map
(click for larger map)

>Scheduled Programs and Boat Tours Paddle a canoe on the Voyageurs Highway. Watch wildlife by day and stars by night. Explore historic Kettle Falls and Hoist Bay. Check the Rendezvous newspaper or park website for a current list of these activities and many more. Reservations are highly recommended for boat tours; visit Recreation.gov.

Boating Travel park waters by motorboat, kayak, canoe, sailboat, houseboat, or tour boat. Public boat launch ramps are available at park visitor centers. Crane Lake ranger station, and the two state forest campgrounds. Ash River and Woodenfrog.

Kabetogama Lake flows east and Rainy Lake flows west. Water flows from Crane Lake through Sand Point and Namakan lakes to Kettle Falls. Use nautical charts and monitor a weather radio for NOAA broadcasts. Use marine band channel 16 in emergencies.

Camping, Houseboating, and Day Use The park has over 240 designated boat-in campsites, houseboat sites, and day-use sites scattered throughout. There are no "drive to" sites in the park. Check at a visitor center for up-to-date information on camping regulations.

Fishing These waters are world-renowned for walleye, northern pike, smallmouth bass, and other freshwater species. Fishing in park waters requires a Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MNDNR) license. In Canadian waters you'll need an Ontario license. Contact US Customs for border crossing regulations.

Hiking The park's 15 trails offer something for everyone—easy, moderate, and strenuous. Some trails or trail sections are mobility accessible. For details check out individual trail maps at a visitor center or visit www.nps.gov/voya.

Winter From mid-November to late March, snow dominates the landscape. In winter you can drive your car on the lakes' ice roads, which begin at the visitor centers. Winter travel elsewhere in the park is by snowmobile, cross-country skis, or snowshoes. You can rent snowshoes and skis at the Rainy Lake Visitor Center.

MORE INFORMATION

International Border Always know where you are on the water. Check with Canadian and US Customs before crossing the border. Canadian Customs services are available by water at Portage Bay on Sand Point Lake and by vehicle at the Crane Lake Public Landing and at the International Falls Bridge. For detailed navigation information, visit www.nps.gov/voya/planyourvisit/lake-navigation.htm.

Revenue Canada Customs and Trade Administration
302 Scott St.
Fort Frances, Ontario P9A1H1
US Customs and Border Patrol
Two Second Ave.
International Falls, MN 56649
www.cbp.gov

Accessibility We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. For information go to a visitor center, ask a ranger, call, or check our website.

For a Safe Visit Know and follow all state and federal boating regulations. Boaters must Canoe campsite. Sand Point Lake carry one PFD (personal flotation device) for each passenger. Children under 10 must wear them on board vessels. • Treat lake water by boiling for five minutes before consuming. • Don't depend on cellphones; coverage is spotty in the park. • All food, garbage, and cooking equipment must be kept in a vehicle, vessel, bear-proof locker, or hung 10 feet high and 10 feet out from a pole or tree. • Use only dead and downed wood. To prevent the spread of invasive species, firewood that is brought in must be MNDNR approved. • Federal laws protect all natural and cultural features. Do not damage or collect them. • For a full list of park regulations, see the Rendezvous or visit our website.

Getting to Voyageurs
Voyageurs National Park is in northern Minnesota on the Canadian border. The nearest airport is at International Falls. The park is about a five-hour drive from Minneapolis/St. Paul: Take I-35 to Duluth, then US 53 north. See park map for detailed routes.

Source: NPS Brochure (2015)


Establishment

Voyageurs National Park — April 8, 1975



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Brochures ◆ Site Bulletins ◆ Trading Cards expand section

Documents

2013 Voyageurs National Park Moose Population Survey Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/VOYA/NRDS-2014/644 (Steve K. Windels, April 2014)

2014 Voyageurs National Park Moose Population Survey Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/VOYA/NRDS-2014/645 (Steve K. Windels, April 2014)

A Comparison of Beaver Foraging Behaviour in Two National Parks (Douglas Vincent, Lakehead University, January 2010)

A Master Plan for the Proposed Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (1968)

Alternatives for Reducing the Impacts of Regulated Lake Levels on the Aquatic Ecosystem of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota Draft Report to the International Joint Commission (Larry W. Kallemeyn and Glen F. Cole, May 1988)

An Analysis of the Effects of Fluctuating Water Levels on Littoral Zone Macrophytes in the Namakan Reservoir/Rainy Lake System, Voyageurs National Park and the Flora of Voyageurs National Park (Paul H. Monson, June 1986)

An Evaluation of the Mineral Potential of the Proposed Voyageurs National Park (Minnesota Geological Survey, 1969)

Analysis of Lake Levels at Voyageurs National Park Water Resources Report No. 86-5 (Marshall Flug, April 1986)

Annotated Bibliography of Voyageurs National Park Interior Lakes Documents and Datasets NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/VOYA/NRR-2020/2209 (Jaime F. LeDuc and Ryan P. Maki, December 2020)

Aquatic Studies in National Parks of the Upper Great Lakes States: Past Efforts and Future Directions NPS Technical Report NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-2005/334 (Brenda Moraska Lafrancois and Jay Glase, July 2005)

Aquatic Synthesis for Voyageurs National Park USGS Information and Technology Report USGS/BRD/ITR-2003--0001 (Larry W. Kallemeyn, Kerry L. Holmberg, Jim A. Perry and Beth Y. Odde, May 2003)

Bat Monitoring Protocol for the Great Lakes Inventory and Monitoring Network — Version 1.0 (NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GLKN/NRR-2020/2126 (Katy G. Goodwin, May 2020)

Bedrock and soil geochemistry from Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota USGS Open-File Report 2002-196 (Laurel G. Woodruff, William F. Cannon, Connie L. Dicken and Shana Pimley, 2002)

Bioaccumulative Contaminants in Aquatic Food Webs in Six National Park Units of the Western Great Lakes Region: 2008-2012 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GLKN/NRR-2016/1302 (James G. Wiener, Roger J. Haro, Kristofer R. Rolfhus, Mark B. Sandheinrich, Sean W. Bailey and Ried M. Northwick, September 2016)

Biogeographic Patterns of Inland Lake Fish Communities at Isle Royale, Voyageurs, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Park Units NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GLKN/NRTR—2014/893 (Owen Gorman, Larry Kallemey, and Ryan Maki, July 2014)

Building a Park for All: A History of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (Joan M. Zenzen, 2017)

Determining the Historical Impact of Water-level Management on Lakes in Voyageurs National Park NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/VOYA/NRTR-2014/920 (Mark B. Edlund, Claire A. Serieyssol Bleser, Larry W. Kallemeyn and Dan R. Engstrom, October 2014)

Development of Overnight and Day Use Sites, Voyageurs National Park (February 7, 2008)

Effects of changes in reservoir operations on water quality and trophic state indicators in Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 2001-03 USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5044 (Victoria G. Christensen, G.A. Payne and Larry W. Kallemeyn, 2004)

Effects of regulated lake levels on muskrats in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota Research/Resources Management Report MWR-9 (J.M. Thuber and R.O. Peterson, 1988)

Effects of regulated lake levels on northern pike spawning habitat and reproductive success in Namakan Reservoir, Voyageurs National Park Research/Resources Management Report MWR-8 (L.W. Kallemeyn, 1987)

Effects of regulated lake levels on the reproductive success, distribution and abundance of the aquatic bird community in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota Research/Resources Management Report MWR-13 (M.H. Reiser, 1988)

The effectes of regulated lake levels of beaver in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota Research/Resources Management Report MWR-11 (D.W. Smith and R.O. Peterson, 1988)

Eighty Years in the Making: A Legislative History of Voyageurs National Park (Fred T. Witzig, 2000)

Environmental Education Plan, Voyageurs National Park (2010)

Estimates of White-tailed Deer Density in Voyageurs National Park: 1989-2016 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/VOYA/NRR-2017/1427 (Thomas D. Gable, Steve K. Windels and Bryce T. Olson, April 2017)

Evaluation of Shoreline Impacts and Long-Term Monitoring of Shoreline Archeological Sites Within Voyageurs National Park International Joint Commission Study No. 12 (Timothy Schilling, Andrew LaBounty, Ashley Barnett and Mary Graves, 2015)

Expressions of the Past: Archeological Research at Voyageurs National Park Midwest Archeological Center Technical Report No. 104 (Jeffrey J. Richner, 2008)

Final Environmental Impact Statement for a Wilderness Recommendation, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (April 1992)

Foundation Document, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (August 2016)

Foundation Document Overview, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (August 2016)

From Things Left Behind: A Study of Selected Fur Trade Sites and Artifacts, Voyageurs National Park and Environs, 2001-2002 Midwest Archeological Center Technical Report No. 84 (Birk, Douglas A. and Jeffrey J. Richner, 2002)

General Management Plan: Voyageurs National Park (January 2002)

Geologic Resource Evaluation Report, Voyageurs National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/GRD/NRR-2007/007 (J. Graham, June 2007)

Geophysical Investigations at the Ellsworth Rock Garden Site (21SL1006), Voyageurs National Park Midwest Archeological Center Technical Report No. 111 (Steven L. DeVore, 2008)

Gold Mining Near Rainy Lake City From 1893 to 1901: Special History Study, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (David L. Fritz, September 1986)

Gray Wolves in and Adjacent to Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota: Research and Synthesis, 1987-1991 NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/MWR/NRTR/2004-01 (Peter J.P. Gogan, William T. Route, Edward M. Olexa, Nancy Thomas, David Kuehn and Kevin M. Podruzny, September 2004)

Great Lakes Junior Ranger Activity Book (Date Unknown)

Historic and Recent Landscape Changes in Relation to Beaver Activity in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (George Host and Paul Meysembourg, April 2010)

Historic Furnishings Report: Kettle Falls Hotel, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (David H. Wallace, September 1988)

Historic Structures Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota Draft (2002)

Impacts from Water-Level Regulation on Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Structure in Namakan Reservoir and Rainy Lake, Voyageurs National Park NPS Technical Report NPS/NRPC/WRC/NRTR-2008/129 (Daniel C. McEwen and Malcolm G. Butler, October 2008)

Junior Ranger (Ages 9 and up), Voyageurs National Park (Date Unknown)

Junior Ranger Garden Explorer Activity Book (Ages 7 and up), Voyageurs National Park (Date Unknown)

Lakecountry and Backcountry Site Management Plan: Environmental Assessment, Voyageurs National Park (July 1986)

Lakecountry and Backcountry Site Management Plan, Voyageurs National Park (April 1988)

Landsat-based Monitoring of Landscape Dynamics at Voyageurs National Park: 1995-2013 NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/GLKN/NRDS-2017/1089 (Alan A. Kirschbaum and Ulf B. Gafvert, March 2017)

Landsat-based Monitoring of Landscape Dynamics at Voyageurs National Park, 2002-2007 NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GLKN/NRTR-2010/356 (Alan K. Kirschbaum and Ulf B. Gafvert, July 2010)

Long-Range Interpretive Plan, Voyageurs National Park (2005)

Master Plan, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (February 1980)

Modeling the Effects of Past Climate Change on Lakes in Isle Royale and Voyageurs National Parks NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GLKN/NRTR—2014/909 (Mark B. Edlund, James E. Almendinger, Daniel R. Engstrom, Xing Fang, Joan Elias and Ulf Gafvert, September 2014)

Monitoring Water Quality of Inland Lakes, Great Lakes Network, 2009 and 2010: Data Summary Report NPS Natural Resources Data Series NPS/GLKN/NRDS-2011/163 (Joan E. Elias and Richard A. Damstra, May 2011)

Monitoring Water Quality of Inland Lakes, Great Lakes Network, 2011: Data Summary Report NPS Natural Resources Data Series NPS/GLKN/NRDS-2012/363 (Joan E. Elias and Richard A. Damstra, September 2012)

Monitoring Water Quality of Inland Lakes, Great Lakes Network, 2012: Data Summary Report NPS Natural Resources Data Series NPS/GLKN/NRDS-2014/629 (Richard A. Damstra, David Vander Meulen and Joan Elias, March 2014)

Moose Population Survey Report at Voyagers National Park 2015 NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/VOYA/NRDS-2015/971 (Steve K. Windels and Bryce T. Olson, September 2015)

Moose Population Survey at Voyageurs National Park 2016 NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/VOYA/NRDS-2016/1031 (Steve K. Windels and Bryce T. Olson, June 2016)

Moose Population Survey Report at Voyageurs National Park 2017 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/VOYA/NRR-2017/1455 (Steve K. Windels and Bryce T. Olson, May 2017)

Moose Population Survey Report 2019, Voyageurs National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/VOYA/NRR-2019/1885 (Steve K. Windels and Bryce T. Olson, March 2019)

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms

Gold Mine Sites (Liza Nagle and John J. Hackett, September 13, 1976)

Jun Fujita Cabin (John Hurley, August 15, 1994)

Kabetogama Ranger Historic District (Rachel Franklin, January 14, 1993)

Kettle Falls Historic District (John J. Hackett and Liza Nagle, September 13, 1976)

Kettle Falls Hotel (Henry M. Harren, October 28, 1974)

Little American Mine (Douglas George, December 18, 1974)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Voyageurs National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/VOYA/NRR-2015/1007 (Christine Mechenich, Justin A. VanDeHey, James E. Cook, David J. Mechenich, Jennifer L. McNelly and George J. Kraft, August 2015)

Natural Resources Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, Voyageurs National Park Draft (1989)

Newsletter (The Voyageur Messenger):
2009: Volume 2 Issue 1 — Spring/SummerVolume 2 Issue 2 — Fall/Winter
2010: Volume 3 Issue 1 — Spring/Summer
2011: Volume 4 Issue 1 — Spring/Summer
2013: Volume 6 Issue 1 — Spring/Summer

Park Newspaper (The Rendezvous): 2003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-20082008-20092009-20102010-20112011-20122012-20132013-20142014-20152015-20162016-20172017-2018201820192020

People of the Thick Fur Woods: Two Hundred Years of Bois Forte Chippewa Occupation of the Voyageurs National Park Area Midwest Archeological Center Special Report No. 3 (Jeffrey J. Richner, 2002)

Proposed Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (July 1964)

Publication Plan, Voyageurs National Park (2009)

Reproduction and Distribution of Bald Eagles in Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota, 1973-1993 Biological Science Report 1 (Leland H. Grim and Larry W. Kallemeyn, National Biological Service, April 1995)

Snowmobile Use in Voyageurs National Park: A Visitor Use Estimation Tool Final Report (Mae A. Davenport, Jerrilyn L. Thompson, Joanna M. Rosendahl and Dorothy H. Anderson, September 2003)

Songbird Monitoring in the Great Lakes Network Parks: 2014-2018 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GLKN/NRR-2021/2217 (Samuel G. Roberts, Zachary S. Ladin, Elizabeth L. Tymkiw, W. Gregory Shriver and Ted Gostomski, January 2021)

Special History Study on Logging and Lumbering as Associated with the Area Now Incorporated within the Present Bounds of Voyageurs National Park (David L. Fritz, August 1986)

Special History Study on the Dawson Trail and Transportation Routes Relating to Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (David L. Fritz, August 1986)

Special History: The Environment and the Fur Trade Experience in Voyageurs National Park, 1730-1870 (Ted Catton and Marcia Montgomery, July 2000)

Stabilization of the Clyde Creek Site, 21SL35, Voyageurs National Park (Mark J. Lynott, July 1984)

The Logging Era at Voyageurs National Park, Historic Contexts and Property Types (Barbara Wyatt, 1999)

The Voyageurs and Their Songs: Audio (Minnesota Historical Society / Université De Moncton, undated)

Traditional Ojibway Resources in the Western Great Lakes Final Report (N. Nieves Zedeño, Richard W. Stoffle, Fabio Pittaluga, Genevieve Dewey-Hefley, R. Christopher Basaldú and María Porter, May 1, 2001)

Trail Plan and Environmental Assessment, Voyageurs National Park Draft (1988)

Voyageurs National Park: General Management Plan/Visitor Use and Facilities Plan Newsletter No. 2 (May 1999)

Voyageurs National Park Moose Population Report 2017 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/VOYA/NRR-2017/1455 (Steve K. Windels and Bryce T. Olson, May 2017)

Voyageurs National Park Moose Population Survey 2015 NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/VOYA/NRDS-2015/971 (Steve K. Windels and Bryce T. Olson, September 2015)

Water-Level Regulation, Commercial Fishing, Logging, Dawson Trail, Gold Mining: Themes Associated with Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota: Historic Resource Study (David L. Fritz and Lawrence F. Van Horn, 2002)

Water quality of lakes in Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 1999 USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 2000-4281 (Gregory A. Payne, 2000)

Water quality of lakes and streams in Voyageurs National Park, northern Minnesota, 1977-84 USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 88-4016 (G.A. Payne, 1991)

Water Resources Scoping Report, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NRWRS/NRTR-98/201 (Don P. Weeks and Roger J. Andrascik, October 1998)

Wetland Bird Monitoring Summary Report, Voyageurs National Park NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/VOYA/NRDS-2015/972 (Sarah Malick and Steve K. Windels, September 2015)

Wetland Monitoring: Voyageurs National Park Final Report (Jim Meeker and Allan Harris, February 2004)

Wilderness Recommendation, Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota (May 1983)

Wildland Fire Management Plan Environmental Assessment, Voyageurs National Park (June 1987)

Wildland Fire Management Plan, Voyageurs National Park (August 1987)



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Videos

Voyageurs National Park (1986)



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Last Updated: 28-May-2022