Gettysburg Seminar Papers


by Edward F. Guy, Jr.

Too often when examining the battle of Gettysburg, we talk about grand strategy, tactics, terrain features and lost opportunities. We discuss the decisions and personality flaws of the generals. We emphasize the blood and sacrifice in numbers and losses of our favorite units. The individual soldier becomes a mere pawn in the great game. Yet the individual was important. His life was precious. Whether in the Union or Confederate army, each soldier had a wife or sweetheart, mother or father, friend or relative, praying fervently for his safe return. We shall examine some of these individuals who made up the Army of Northern Virginia.

In order to have some continuity to this collection of stories, we shall present them in the form of an imaginary tour of the Confederate line of battle at Gettysburg. We will begin at the southern end (or Confederate right flank), near the Alabama monument. We will travel northward along Warfield Ridge and Seminary Ridge to the famous Lutheran Seminary. Turning east we will pass though the historic town of Gettysburg and then proceed around to Culp's Hill (or Confederate left flank). This tour will follow the Southern battle line for July 2 and 3. Some of the stories will deal with what these men accomplished at Gettysburg. Other stories will relate to some other part of the war. Each story will help illuminate the character of the soldier who stood poised to strike his enemy on one of history's most famous battlefields.

As the Confederates lined up to attack July 2, 1863, Hood's division formed on the right of McLaws' division. Hood's command was comprised of the brigades of Law, Robertson, Benning, and Anderson. McLaws' division was comprised of the brigades of Kershaw, Barksdale, Semmes, and Wofford. By all accounts they made a splendid body of soldiers.

On the extreme Confederate right flank was Law's brigade. Standing in the ranks was Sgt. Randolph C. Smedley (Co. I, 15th Ala.). He was considered by his colonel one of the finest men in the regiment. Smedley went though the entire war, and was never wounded, never sick, and never absent from duty. Yet he returned home and died of fever in the fall of 1865. [1]

In the same regiment was Pvt. John J. Jones (Co. H, 15th Ala.). Jones suffered from consumption. He had joined the army with the desire of dying a hero, rather than dying in bed. Outdoor life in the service seemed to agree with him, because he got healthier as the war progressed. Unfortunately, after the war Jones returned to indoor living, and died in bed of consumption. [2]

A similar story concerned Pvt. Will H. Hammack (Co. D, 15th Ga.) of Benning's brigade. Hammack, described as one of their best soldiers, fought through every battle that his regiment was in, and was, supposedly, never wounded or sick, until his health broke down in the Richmond trenches. He was sent to his Crawford, Ga., home and died of diarrhea. Incidentally, records show that Hammack had been sick at least twice. [3]

The Texans of Robertson's brigade have left many accounts of their Gettysburg adventures. Two of the best accounts come from Corporals John Stevens and William Fletcher.

Stevens (Co. K, 5th Texas) had to "fight for life" about 30 paces from the Union lines among the boulders on Little Round Top July 2. It never dawned on him that he could be killed, even though six Texans fell dead around him. He only feared the fire from his comrades further down the hill. Stevens was finally captured when a Federal officer slapped him on the back with the flat end of his sword and told him to "drop his gun and behave himself." Only when he saw that the woods behind him were full of Yankees, did Stevens realize that he was a prisoner. [4]

Another account of the Texans at Gettysburg came from Corporal William A. Fletcher (Co. F, 5th Texas). Fletcher recalled how a sergeant wanted him to carry the regimental colors in the charge. Fletcher refused. According to Fletcher, the flag went down about five times. The last time it went down, the sergeant was carrying it. The flagstaff hit Fletcher in the head, with the colors wrapping around Fletcher's legs. Fletcher kicked and cursed the flag out of his way.

Fletcher and another man fought behind a rock on the slope of Little Round Top. After awhile, a Confederate officer came up to them and said, "Boys, aim well." Fletcher replied, "Cousins, move on; you are drawing the fire our way." The officer moved on, inspecting a broken line of battle on the slopes of Little Round Top. Fletcher remembered it as the bravest act he ever saw. The brave officer might have been 1st Lt. John Cussons, Gen. Law's aide-de-camp. Later, on guard duty near the end of the battle, Fletcher recalled that he could only stay awake by putting tobacco juice in his eyes. The pain kept him from falling asleep. [5]

As the men of G. T. Anderson's brigade waited to advance July 2, one of the soldiers posed a question. "Suppose," he said, "that, by divine revelation, it were made known in a manner that we all believed it, that some one of us would walk across that valley and up to those batteries and be blown to atoms by one of those cannon, and thus sacrificing one life instead of many, the victory would be ours, is there one of us that could do it?" 1st Lt. Frederick Bliss (Co. B, 8th Ga.) immediately rose up, pointed to the enemy's guns and said, "Yes, if I could do that, I would walk straight across that valley and put my breast to one of the cannon and myself pull the lanyard." Bliss had been accused of cowardice for leaving the field due to illness in a previous battle. Though exonerated in court martial proceedings, the stigma must have remained with him. Bliss was mortally wounded in the attack. Taken to the rear, he asked the attending surgeon to face him towards the battlefield. Fred Bliss died July 4, 1863. [6]

Following Hood's attack, McLaws' division rushed forward. Kershaw's South Carolina brigade were supported by Semmes' Georgians. Barksdale's Mississippians were followed by Wofford's Georgians.

In the ranks of Kershaw's brigade was Pvt. Thomas W. Sligh (Co. E, 3rd SC). Tom was Gen. Kershaw's orderly. He was ordered to stay behind and hold the officers' horses. Instead, he begged permission to go into the charge with his friends. The adjutant said that he could do so this once, but sternly warned him not to ask again. Tom went off smiling and died in the assault July 2. [7]

Also in the attack was, perhaps, the most celebrated enlisted man in the Army of Northern Virginia, Sgt. Richard Kirkland (Co. G, 2nd SC). Kirkland was known as the "Angel of Fredericksburg." He bravely crossed the stone wall at Marye's Heights to aid the Union wounded. He was promoted to lieutenant for an unspecified act of gallantry at Gettysburg. Richard Kirkland was killed at Chickamauga, GA in September of 1863. When shot, his last words to his friends were, "Save yourself and tell my father I died right." [8]

Supporting Kershaw was the brigade of Gen. Paul J. Semmes. One of Semmes' men was Sgt. William M. Jones (Co. K, 50th GA). Jones was badly wounded in the leg July 2. He was taken to a hospital in the rear. He didn't seem to trust the regimental surgeon, who wanted to amputate Jones' leg. Jones asked for a second opinion from the brigade surgeon, Dr. George R. C. Todd. Dr. Todd agreed that the leg needed to be removed. Jones asked that Dr. Todd perform the operation. The amputation was successful, and Jones survived his Gettysburg experience. [9] In so doing, he provided an interesting footnote in history, for Dr. Todd was President Lincoln's brother-in-law. Jones said that Todd arrived July 5. He may have been mistaken about the date, but he would have known Surgeon Todd. [10]

Lt. Col. John C. Fizer (17th Miss.), of Barksdale's brigade, was known as "a great favorite with the soldiers. [sic.]" He was still concerned about being overrun at Fredericksburg on May 3, 1863, and losing the guns of the celebrated Washington Artillery. As the Mississippi troops prepared for action July 2 at Gettysburg, a member of the Washington Artillery, Capt. Charles W. Squires, rode up to Lt. Col. Fizer. Fizer made the comment to Squires that they would soon recover the lost guns. Fizer was later carried to the rear, wounded. Passing Squires he said that they had gotten the guns, as promised. Fizer did not realize that most of the cannons overrun that day would be lost in Union counterattacks. Fizer later lost an arm at Knoxville, Tenn. November 29, 1863. He was shot while climbing the enemy parapet with a hatchet attached to his sword belt. He had planned to personally chop down the U. S. flag inside Ft. Sanders. [11]

Another man involved in the attack on Ft. Sanders was 1st Lt. Thomas W. Cummings (Adj., 16th GA) of Wofford's brigade. Tom was captured. As he surrendered, he exclaimed, "You have got my arms, sir, but it is a proud satisfaction that you take them from me in the middle of this fort." [12]

As Longstreet's attack was being driven home July 2, 1863, it was picked up by Gen. R. H. Anderson's division. Anderson's attack advanced en echelon from south to north with Wilcox's, Lang's, and Wright's brigades. The attack faltered with Posey's and Mahone's men going only part way or not advancing at all.

In the ranks of Wilcox's Alabamians stood a soldier who epitomized the sadness of Civil War, 3rd Lt. Edmund D. Patterson (Co. D, 9th AL). Patterson was originally from Ohio. Before the war, he moved to Waterloo, Alabama, and became a teacher. He was captured July 2 at Gettysburg and was imprisoned on Johnson's Island, not far from his home at Lorain, Ohio. Edmund remained bitter toward his family for many years after the war, because they didn't help him during his long imprisonment. [13]

Another casualty in the twilight attack of July 2, was a Florida soldier in Lang's brigade. His name was Capt. William Bailey (Co. G, 5th FL). He was wounded July 2 and captured. His health became broken by wounds and confinement. While in prison at Hilton Head, SC, Bailey wrote a poignant letter to the Union authorities dated December 25, 1864. Realizing that he would die in prison if not exchanged soon, he sought a parole of 60 days to return home and effect an exchange. For this special consideration, William gave his word of honor to distribute whatever the Union authorities wished (within reason) to the Federal prisoners in the South. The request was denied and Capt. Bailey died of inflammation of the lungs on March 5, 1865. It is hard to imagine the quiet desperation of this gallant soldier and his Christmas letter. [14]

Pvt. Alexander A. Lomax (New Co. I, 12th Mississippi) was a member of Posey's Mississippi brigade. Described as "a pure Christian soldier," he became the chaplain of the 16th Mississippi in December of 1863. He became known as the "Fighting Chaplain," for, even though he took up the Bible, he did not relinquish his musket. He would always take up his musket and join in the battle. When asked why, Lomax replied, "My place is on the firing line; for if any of my boys should be mortally wounded, I would be there to take a dying message to a loving mother, wife, sister or sweetheart; and if in the rear, the poor soldier might die before I could get to him." Lomax served faithfully all the way to Appomattox. [15]

Charles E. DeNoon was 1st Lt. in Co. K, 41st Va. He belonged to Mahone's brigade of Virginians. Charlie's brigade was engaged in the heavy skirmishing at Gettysburg and was under the frightful shelling. Charlie managed to keep his family apprised of his activities with a stream of letters. After the Confederate army returned to Virginia, Charlie mentioned the return of the regimental adjutant, Benjamin H. Nash. Apparently, DeNoon had a considerable grudge against Nash. Nash was a state senator and was often away in the state legislature. Charlie thought Nash soldiered as a diversion, and resented it. Charlie also resented a perceived slight Nash had made against him earlier in the war. It is hard to say if they were ever reconciled. Nash might never have known about Charlie's disparaging comments in his letters. Ironically, when Charles DeNoon was killed leading a charge at the battle of the Crater at Petersburg (June 30, 1864), it was Benjamin Nash who wrote the most glowing tribute to him. [16]

North of Anderson's division was the division of Gen. William D. Pender, comprised of the brigades of Perrin, Lane, Scales and Thomas. Some of these men had fought gallantly on July 1 around the Lutheran Seminary. Some battled on the skirmish line July 2 and 3. Some were called upon to join the last desperate attack, known today as Pickett's Charge.

2nd Lt. Alexander S. Douglas (Co. C, 13th SC) was in charge of the ambulance corps of Perrin's brigade at Gettysburg. The ambulance corps was comprised of two dependable men from each company of each regiment in the brigade. On July 2 while Perrin's brigade was lying behind a temporary breastwork of rail fences, Douglas spied a wounded Federal soldier between the opposing lines. The pitiful cries for help stirred Douglas to action. Rounding up four volunteers from the ambulance crew, the lieutenant and crew rushed to the wounded enemy. All the way they were targets for Union marksmen. The rescuers placed the wounded man on the stretcher and began the trek back to the Confederate lines. The Union men stopped firing at them once they realized their humanitarian purpose. Douglas was wounded in the leg August 16, 1864, but was present at Lee's final surrender at Appomattox. [17]

Lane's brigade had a member of a most remarkable family in its ranks. He was 1st Lt. Alfred H. Tolar (Co. H, 18th NC). Alfred was one of nine brothers in Confederate service. Alfred was wounded July 3. His colonel wrote that Alfred was wounded while leading his company upon the enemy's works and was at the time acting very gallantly. Col. Barry described Tolar as "an efficient and capable officer," and "A sober, industrious & moral man." Alfred was disabled by a wound in the groin. [18]

One of Alfred's brothers was nearby in Co. H, 1st (Orr's) SC Rifles. His name was John H. Tolar. The other brothers were not at Gettysburg. Three died of wounds; three were disabled by wounds; one was imprisoned late in the war; one, the youngest in the service, deserted April 27, 1865; and two, including one who was disabled, were paroled at Greensboro, NC, May 1, 1865. [19]

Incredibly, there were at least two other families with nine brothers in Confederate grey. Jacob and Nancy Wright of Edgefield Co., SC, had nine Confederate sons, [20] as did Amos E.D. Chauncey (or Chancey) of Montgomery Co., NC. [21]

Scales' brigade had two brothers with a unique story. Third Lt. Henry J. Walker and Pvt. Levi Walker were both members of Co. B, 13th NC. Levi lost his leg at the battle of Gettysburg. His brother, Henry, lost his leg at Hagerstown, MD, July 13, 1863, during the retreat. They both had their left legs amputated. When fitted with artificial legs later, they noticed that they could swap artificial legs and still have a perfect fit. On Levi's wedding day, he slipped and accidentally broke his cork leg. Brother Henry came to the rescue with the loan of his own artificial leg, and the marriage went off smoothly. The swap may be without parallel in the history of marital bliss. [22]

The terrors of the battlefield had a corrosive effect on some men. Soldiers who had performed their duties adequately on many battlefields might suddenly collapse. Such may have been the case with two officers in Thomas' Georgia brigade. Capt. Thomas M. Yopp (Co. H, 14th GA) was charged with misbehavior before the enemy at Gettysburg July 2. He was found guilty of refusing to lead his company when ordered to advance as skirmishers and letting his 2nd lieutenant command the company. Instead, Yopp remained sheltered behind a stone wall 300 yards behind his company, until he was arrested. [23] First Lt. J.R.F. Miller (Co. A, 49th GA) shamefully abandoned his company when they were ordered to the front as skirmishers. He returned on the night of July 3. [24] Both men would cease to be officers and would have their crimes printed in their hometown newspapers. They would also be returned to the ranks. Yopp transferred to the Confederate Navy on April 16, 1864.

When the Southern forces launched their invasion of Pennsylvania, Gen. Robert E. Lee ordered his men to respect private property. Some respected Lee's orders, and some did not. On the grounds of the Lutheran Theological Seminary stands the Schmucker house. Dr. Samuel S. Schmucker was a prominent abolitionist. He returned home after the battle and found that the Confederate troops had vandalized his property. His books had been strewn about and stomped on with dirty boots. Schmucker found his Bible still in the case. He found a note scribbled inside by a Confederate soldier. His name appears to be J. G. Bearden. The Southern soldier noted that he had found the Holy Bible on the ground and that he had put it back. [25]

Proceeding east from Seminary Ridge, we pass through the town of Gettysburg. On July 2 and 3, it became a haven for Confederate marksmen. Here were men from the divisions of Gen. Robert Rodes and Gen. Jubal Early. Rodes' division was spread from Long Lane to Middle St., with sharpshooters occupying many of the buildings on the south end of town at various times. Early's men were poised from the southern edge of town toward what is now East Confederate Avenue.

State pride ran very deep among Southern soldiers. This was underscored by the saga of 3rd Lt. Peter H. Larey (Co. M, 6th Alabama) of O'Neal's brigade, Rodes' division. He had fought with great heroism in the battles around Richmond and in Maryland in 1862. He was wounded at Malvern Hill, yet remained with his command until ordered to the rear. Wounded again at Sharpsburg, Larey stayed with his company, cheering his men until sheer exhaustion forced him to retire from the field. He later expressed a desire to transfer to a Georgia command, as his wife and children lived in that state (Larey himself was born in SC). He had joined the 6th Alabama because his brother, Henry, was a member of that regiment. Henry was killed at Seven Pines. Peter wrote that he has "been winning laurels for the brows of Alabamians, who, in many cases, I feel assured are my inferiors in military skill & ability." It seems that his appeal fell on deaf ears because he served through the war with his regiment of Alabamians. He was wounded July 19, 1864, captured April 2, 1865, at Petersburg, and spent the last part of the war in prison. [26]

There are stories about Gettysburg that could best be described as eerie. Two men in Rodes' division, who did not make it into the town, might serve as examples. Capt. George T. Baskerville (Co. I, 23rd NC) of Iverson's brigade was killed on July 1. It is said that when his wife learned of her husband's death, she took to her bed and never rose again. [27] When Lt. Col. David Winn (4th GA) was shot and killed July 1, a handsome portrait of him fell off the wall in his Georgia home. The picture hit the back of a chair and poked a hole through the head. His wife later learned that he had been shot in the head. [28]

Col. Risden T. Bennett (14th NC) of Ramseur's brigade was badly wounded July 2 or 3 by Union sharpshooters. Bennett claimed to have received six shots through his hat, one through his left hand, and one through the groin, as he stood up to inspire his men. There is a story that Chaplain George Patterson (3 NC) found him by lantern light and prayed the burial rites over him at Bennett's request. Bennett recovered, and had the pleasure of meeting Patterson again in 1886 in a western town. [29]

Brave men were in abundance in the army. That was certainly true in Early's division, comprised of Gordon's, Avery's, Smith's and Hays brigades. As stated earlier, they were positioned to the east of Rodes' division. Hays' and Avery's troops made the famous charge up East Cemetery Hill July 2, while Gordon's brigade was moved close by in reserve. Gordon's men had already done well on July 1. Smith's brigade was held further back, guarding the rear on the second day, but fought near Culp's Hill July 3.

Pvt. Holmes Willis (Co. I, 8th LA) of Hays' brigade, was born in New Hampshire, moved south at some point, and enlisted June 19, 1861, in Louisiana. He captured a Union flag July 2 in the failed attack. He would lose his arm at Rappahannock Bridge Nov. 7, 1863, thus ending his war career. [30]

Col. Isaac E. Avery (6th NC), commanding his brigade, ended his career at Gettysburg, when he was shot from his horse in the charge July 2. In the darkness he scribbled a note to tell his father that he died facing the enemy. He died July 3. [31]

Col. Clement A. Evans (31st GA) was wounded July 1, but stayed with his men. He took the surgeon's certificate, excusing him from duty and pocketed it, preferring to remain with his regiment. He was badly wounded at Monocacy, MD, July 9, 1864, especially when some straight pins in his pocket were shattered and driven into his wound. Again, he would not leave his men. Altogether, Evans was wounded five times in the war, but was present at Appomattox. [32]

Fifth Sgt. William H. Lackey (Co. E, 52nd VA) was born in Wabash County, Indiana in 1842. He moved south and enlisted at Staunton, VA, on August 1, 1861. He carried the regimental colors through 38 battles and 13 other engagements. Presumably, he carried the colors at Gettysburg. Incredibly, he was never wounded, though the flag was repeatedly shot from his hands, and his clothes were perforated with bullets. [33]

Johnson's division comprised of Jones', Williams', Steuart's, and Walker's "Stonewall" brigade fought on Culp's Hill on July 2 and 3. The wooded, rocky hill and scarcity of information hid many acts of heroism there. Both Sgt. Andrew Sullens (Co. B, 48th VA) and Sgt. Joseph H. Pickle (Co. D, 50th VA) of Jones' brigade were promoted to Ensign in April of 1864 for conspicuous gallantry while carrying the colors at Gettysburg. Sullens was later captured at Spotsylvania May 12, 1864 and died of variola at Elmira, NY, February 22, 1865. [34] Pickle was killed May 5, 1864, at the Wilderness. [35]

Pvt. Charles S. Clancey (1st LA) of Williams' brigade bore the colors of his regiment so far to the front of the Union breastworks, that he could not escape. He tore the bullet-torn flag from the staff and hid the banner in his shirt. He took the flag through his prison experiences at Fort McHenry and Fort Delaware. When exchanged August 1,1863, he bore the flag back to his regiment in triumph. Clancey was captured again May 12, 1864, at Spotsylvania. He escaped from Elmira, NY, December 30, 1864. [36]

Sgt. Gabriel Shank (Co. G, 10th VA) of Steuart's brigade showed bravery of a different sort. At the beginning of the war, he was a consistent member of the Mennonite Church in Rockingham Co., Virginia. Church officials warned him that he would lose his church membership if he joined the service. Shank left the church and enlisted anyway. He became a Presbyterian. After 1st Manassas, Shank volunteered to carry the colors. He bore them through every battle in which his regiment fought. His first flag was shot to pieces and Shank was wounded at Cedar Mountain and Chancellorsville. Shank was captured at Fishers Hill, Virginia, and died of small pox at Fort Delaware March 18, 1865, not long before the final surrender of Lee's army. [37]

Omitted from this imaginary tour of Gettysburg are the stories about Pickett's division, Heth's division, the cavalry and the artillery. We could easily double the length of our tour. After all, there were about 75,000 Confederate soldiers at the battle of Gettysburg. Each man had his own unique, personal story. It is too bad that we don't know most of them. Learning more about those that have been recorded can help us realize more clearly the real human tragedy of that war.


1 William C. Oates, The War Between the Union and the Confederacy and Its Lost Opportunities, (New York and Washington, D.C.: The Neale Company, 1905), reprint ed. (Dayton, OH: Press of Morningside Bookshop, 1974), 727-8.

2 Ibid, 716.

3 Thomas L. Ware, Diary (Brake Collection: U.S. Military History Institute, Carlisle, PA). Cited hereafter as USAMHI. Original at Emory University Library; "Compiled Service Records of William H. Hammack," Record Group 109, Microfilm #266, Roll #293, National Archives, Washington, D.C. (cited hereafter as CSR, RG #, M#, R#, NA).

4 John W. Stevens, Reminiscences of the Civil War (Hillsboro, TX: Hillsboro Mirror Print, 1902) reprint ed. (Powhatan, VA: Derwent Books, 1982).

5 William A. Fletcher, Rebel Private: Front and Rear (Beaumont, TX: Press of the Greer Print, 1908) reprint ed. (Washington, D.C.: Zenger Publishing Co., Inc., 1954, 1985).

6 George Hillyer, "Battle of Gettysburg," address to the Walton County, GA, Confederate Veterans, August 2, 1904. From the Walton Tribune (Brake Collection: USAMHI); CSR 109M266R226NA.

7 D. Augustus Dickert, History of Kershaw's Brigade (Newberry, SC: Elbert H. Aull, Co., 1899) reprint ed. (Dayton, OH: Press of Morningside Bookshop, 1976), 254-5.

8 Stan Sirmans, "The Angel of Marye's Heights," North-South Trader, VII No. 5 (July-August 1980) 17-19, 36; CSR 109M267R156NA.

9 Bohannan, ed., "Wounded & Captured at Gettysburg: Reminiscence by Sgt. William Jones, 50th Georgia Infantry," Military Images, IX No. 6 (May-June 1988), 14-15.

10 Ibid.

11 Charles W. Squires, "My Artillery Fire Was Very Destructive: The Charles W. Squires Memoir" (Conclusion), Civil War Times Illustrated, XIV, No. 3 (June 1975), 19; Confederate Veteran, I, 335; CSR, 109M269R253NA.

12 Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, December 29, 1863; CSR 109M266R298NA.

13 John G. Barrett, ed., Yankee Rebel: The Civil War Journal of Edmund DeWitt Patterson (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1966); Blue & Gray (March 1987), 23; CSR 109M311R188NA.

14 CSR 109M251R59NA.

15 Confederate Veteran, XVIII, 80; CSR 109M268R206NA.

16 Richard T. Coutier, ed., Charlie's Letters: The Civil War Correspondence of Charles E. DeNoon (Collingswood, NJ: C.W. Historicals, 1989), 74, 77, 82, 102, 106, 108; CSR 109M324R862NA; CSR 109M324R866NA.

17 Dr. J.B.O. Landrum, History of Spartanburg County (Atlanta, GA: The Franklin Printing and Publishing Co., 1900), reprint ed. (Spartanburg, SC: The Reprint Company, 1960), 395-6.

18 "Monument to Nine Confederate Brothers," Confederate Veteran, XXI (May 1913), 225-6; Greg Mast, State Troops and Volunteers, I, 160.

19 Ibid.

20 J. Russell Wright, "Nine Brothers in the Army," Recollections & Reminiscences 1861-1865 Through World War I, 295-6.

21 1860 NC Census Roll 905, Page 915 NA.

22 Confederate Veteran, IV, 385; Military Images, XI, No. 3 (November-December 1989); North Carolina Troops 1861-1865, V, 298, 308.

23 CSR 109M266R288NA.

24 CSR 109M266R502NA.

25 A. Roger Gobbel, Donald N. Matthews, Elaine C. Matthews, On the Glorious Hill: A Short History in Words and Pictures of the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg (Lancaster, PA: Pridemark Press, 1976), 29.

26 CSR 109M311R162NA.

27 Walter Clark, ed., North Carolina Regiments 1861-1865, II, 239.

28 Gettysburg Compiler, October 11, 1887.

29 Letter from Risden T. Bennett to Judge Phillips May 28, 1891, NC State Archives, No. 138, S. D. Ramseur; Greg Coco, On the Blood-stained Field, I, 35; Randolph McKim, A Soldier's Recollections, 190-1.

30 CSR 109M320R200NA.

31 Glenn Tucker, High Tide at Gettysburg (Dayton, OH: Press of Morningside Bookshop, 1983) 291-3, 426; Oration at Kingston, NC, February 20, 1864, at Masonic demonstration in honor of COL Avery.

32 Robert Grier Stephens, Jr., ed. Intrepid Warrior: Clement Anselm Evans (Dayton, OH: Morningside house, Inc., 1992), 223.

33 Robert J. Driver, Jr., 52nd Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, VA: H.E. Howard, Inc., 1986), 128; CSR 109M324R936NA.

34 CSR 109M324R915NA.

35 CSR 109M324R924NA.

36 Augusta Chronicle and Sentinel, August 25, 1863; Andrew B. Booth, compiler, Records of Louisiana Confederate Soldiers & Commands, II (New Orleans, LA, 1920).

37 CSR 109M324R496NA.

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