Geologic Forces Still Shape This Youthful Landscape
With no foothills to obstruct your view, the jagged peaks and deep canyons of the Teton Range rise abruptly from the Jackson Hole valley. Striking, magnificent views provoke wonder. This landscape was born out of an ancient past and shaped by recent geologic forces. The 2.7 billion-year-old rocks found in the core of the range are some of the oldest in North America, but these mountains rank among the youngest in the world.
Beginning 100 million years ago, long before today's mountains formed, the collision of tectonic plates along North America's west coast bowed-up a vast block of sedimentary rock deposited by ancient seas. Beginning 10 million years ago, movement on the Teton fault generated massive earthquakes causing the mountains to rise while the valley floor dropped. The vertical displacementfrom the sedimentary rocks overlaying the mountaintops to the same layers beneath the valley floorapproaches 30,000 feet.
While movement on the Teton fault lifted the range, erosion sculpted the landscape. Starting two million years ago, massive glaciers up to 3,500 feet thick periodically flowed south from Yellowstone and filled the valleyeroding mountains, transporting and depositing huge volumes of rocky glacial debris. As ice sheets filled the valley, alpine glaciers sculpted the jagged Teton skyline. These glaciers carved the peaks and canyons and deposited moraines along the glacier's edge. Today these moraines dam beautiful lakes, like Jenny Lake, along the base of the Teton Range. The general color scheme of vegetation in the 310,000-acre park hints at this geologic story.
Using geology and vegetation as clues, you can determine key wildlife habitat. Geology, plants, and animals interact dynamically over a large region, or ecosystem. The mission of the National Park Service is to safeguard natural and cultural resources for the enjoyment of this and future generations. Please help care for this beautiful place.
Natural Communities Color the Park's Scenery
Alpine communities are harsh habitats often the color of bare rock. Elevation, hard winters, and brief summers challenge life above treeline. Lichens cling to rocks while phlox and moss campion resist the wind and cold by growing low on scant soils. Flowers emit scents that lure insects to pollinate them. The insects attract white-crowned sparrows, which eat the insects. In summer, tiny pikas dry and store plants for winter. Pikas and yellow-bellied marmots watch for predators like weasels and raptors. Most alpine residents winter at lower elevations or hibernate.
Darker greens of Teton landscapes are forests that grow where moraines and mountainsides hold water within reach of tree roots.
Forests of lodgepole pine and other conifersDouglas-fir, Englemann spruce, limber pine, and subalpine firoccur in lower elevations of the Teton Range. In summer, elk and mule deer seek their shade. Black and grizzly bears frequent this area searching for berries, insects, and small mammals. Red squirrels live in the trees, gathering and storing cones in caches for winter. Long-tailed weasels and pine martens prey on the squirrels, snowshoe hares, deer mice, and other small mammals. Colorful western tanagers fly through less dense parts of the forest canopy.
Above 8,500 feet, whitebark pine, spruce, and fir dominate forests. Whitebark pinea keystone species sensitive to global climate change, insects, and diseaseis an important food source for red squirrels and grizzly bears. These pines also retain moisture on high windswept slopes, benefiting the entire high-altitude forest community. On the edges of these forests ruffed grouse nest on the ground and feed on buds and insects. Great horned owls hunt the forest's voles, mice, and gophers.
Sagebrush flats color the landscape a silvery gray-green. This plant community, covering most of the valley floor, looks barren and sparse but is quite lush. Rocky, well-drained soils discourage most plants, but hardy big sage, low sage, antelope bitterbrush, and over 20 species of grasses thrive. Sage grouse use sagebrush for shelter, food, and nesting areas. Arrowleaf balsamroot and lupine add spring color. Small mammals like Uinta ground squirrels, white-footed deer mice, and least chipmunks live here and attract raptors. Badgers dig burrows, and coyotes and wolves lope across cobbled plains. Pronghorns live here in summer but migrate southeast to the upper Green River Basinto avoid deep winter snow. Evenings and mornings, elk herds feed on grasses in spring, summer, and fall. Where bitterbrush abounds, moose forage, especially in winter and early spring. Birders can find sage thrashers, greentailed towhees, western meadowlarks, and vesper and Brewer's sparrows. Bison roam the steppes between the Snake River and the forests. For Native Americans, the valley was productive for hunting and gathering, but severe winters meant they did not live here year-round. Permanent residents came eventually, starting in the mid-1880s as farmers and ranchers. Improved shelter, irrigation, and more hardy seed varieties enabled a meager living. Now people value the valley's scenery, human history, and quality of life.
Wet Meadows and Wetlands
Green hues that fall between silvery sage and dark forest may indicate wet meadows, willow flats, or wetlands. Wet meadows and willow flats are flooded by water part of the year. A high water table and pockets of good soil make possible abundant grasses, sedges, and forbs. Many birds and small mammals eat these plants. In the West, the narrow bands of vegetation along waterways may account for over 90 percent of an entire region's biological diversity. Wetlands around rivers, lakes, and marshes share many characteristics of the neighboring aquatic community.
Lakes, Ponds, Rivers
Lakes and ponds dot the landscape with shades of blue. Streams and rivers are reflected as ribbons of blue and silver. Snake River tributaries drain the mountains around Jackson Hole. Stream banks, floodplains, lakes, and ponds are rich habitats teeming with life. Snake River float trips are an excellent way to see the park's variety of wildlife. Native cutthroat trout, mountain whitefish, and other fish are crucial food for otters, bald eagles, and osprey. At Oxbow Bend you may see American white pelicans, great blue herons, and trumpeter swans.
Enjoy a Safe Visit and Be Bear Aware
The park's clean air and waters, and its natural sounds, enhance your visit and the quality of habitat for native species1,200 plants, 300 birds, over 60 mammals, and 12 fish. The park and parkway let you enjoy nature's sights and sounds safely. Stay on trails to protect native vegetation. Dispose of waste properly in bear-resistant trash containers; recycle or reuse food and drink containers. Observe wildlife quietly from a safe distance: 100 yards from bears and wolves, 25 yards from all other animals. The park newspaper lists schedules of ranger-led activities like talks, walks, hikes, demonstrations, and other programs conducted early June through September. Campfire programs cover a range of topics at Colter Bay, Signal Mountain, Jenny Lake, and Gros Ventre amphitheaters. The newspaper lists visitor center hours and concession services, like restaurants, lodging, stores, gas stations, and mountaineering and float trip services.
Be Bear Aware! All odorous items must be stored properly at all times to protect people and bears. Ask at a visitor center or check the park newspaper to learn about proper food storage in bear country.
Exploring Grand Teton
Camping Camping is permitted in five campgrounds, first-come, first-served. Trailers, RVs, and tents are allowed in all campgrounds except Jenny Lake, which is tents only. Only dead and down wood may be collected as firewood. Please see the park newspaper for group camping information.
Backcountry camping is permitted only in designated areas; permits are required, and reservation requests are accepted from January 5 through May 15. A service fee is charged for advance reservations.
Water Safety and Protection Floating the Snake River in the park is allowed only in hand-propelled boats and rafts; inner tubes are prohibited. Only experienced floaters should launch on the river. Motorboats are allowed on Jackson and Jenny lakes; Jenny Lake has a 10-hp limit. Hand-propelled craft are allowed on most lakes. Sailing, windsurfing, and water skiing are allowed on Jackson Lake only. All craft require permits and yearly registration at park visitor centers.
Swimming in park waters is generally a cold experience. The shallow areas of Jackson, Leigh, String, and Jenny lakes have reasonable temperatures in July and August. There are no lifeguards. Swimming in the Snake River is not advised.
Stream and lake water should be boiled or treated to kill or remove harmful organisms like Giardia and Campylobacter that may cause severe gastrointestinal distress.
Fishing is allowed in most park streams and lakes. Wyoming fishing licenses are required and are sold at Dornans, Signal Mountain Lodge, and Colter Bay Marina. Visitor centers have information on park fishing regulations. Aquatic nuisance species are a concern. Clean and dry boats, boots, and waders before you enter a new body of waterand never empty containers of bait, fish, plants, or animals into park waters.
Vehicles Drive only on established roadways and observe posted speed limits. Pass bicyclists with caution. Dawn and dusk are excellent times to see wildlife; watch other drivers for sudden stops. Park in turnouts or completely off the road to observe or photograph wildlife and scenery. Be alert for animals along or crossing roadways.
Wildlife Feeding any wildlife is prohibited. Animals in the park are part of complex, protected natural systems. Let animals find natural foods. Never handle smaller animals like ground squirrels. They can carry disease. Larger animals are unpredictable and can cause serious injuries. Approaching too closely is prohibited: Minimum distances are 100 yards from bears and wolves and 25 yards from all other wildlife. Regulations prohibit destruction, injury, disturbance, or removal of cultural or natural features, including all plants, animals, rocks, and arrowheads or other historic artifacts.
Pets Pets must be leashed (maximum length six feet) at all times. Pets are not allowed in public buildings, on trails, in the backcountry, on most ranger-led activities, or in visitor centers. They are prohibited in boats on rivers and on lakes other than Jackson Lake. Never leave pets unattended, especially in a closed vehicle. Pet regulations are strictly enforced. Service animals like guide dogs are welcome; contact the park.
Climbing Mountain climbing is a technical sport requiring proper knowledge, experience, physical condition, and equipment. Overnight trips require a backcountry permit. Jenny Lake Ranger Station offers climbing information from June through early September. Solo climbing is not advised.
For firearms regulations see our website or ask at a visitor center.
Accessibility We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. For information contact a visitor center or a ranger or visit www.nps.gov/grte.
Wilderness in Grand Teton National Park
Grand Teton National Park and the National Park Service protect nearly half of the park as wilderness, including most of the Teton Range. These lands are formally recommended to Congress to be part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. The 1964 Wilderness Act made designated wilderness the most protected category for federal public lands.
The Act and National Park Service policies mandate preserving the land's wilderness character and natural conditions. Wilderness offers outstanding opportunities for solitude and a primitive and unconfined type of recreation. The US Forest Service manages over one million acres of designated wilderness next to the national park and memorial parkway.
Source: NPS Brochure (2013)
Brochures ◆ Site Bulletins ◆ Trading Cards
A 2000-year Environmental History of Jackson Hole Wyoming Inferred from Lake-sediment Records (Karen Jacobs and Cathy Whitlock, 2008)
A Guide to Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming NPS Handbook #122 (1984)
A Place Called Jackson Hole: Historic Resources Study (John Daugherty, Grand Teton Natural History Association, 1999)
A Tale of Dough Gods, Bear Grease, Cantaloupe, and Sucker Oil: Marymere/Pinetree/Mae-Lou/AMK Ranch (Kenneth L. Diem, Leonore L. Diem and William C. Lawrence, ©University of Wyoming, 1986)
American Bison: Status Survey and Conservation Guidelines 2010 (C. Cormack Gates, Curtis H. Freese, Peter J.P. Gogan and Mandy Kotzman, eds., 2010, ©International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources)
Analyzing stakeholder preferences for managing elk and bison at the National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park: an example of the disparate stakeholder management approach USGS Open-File Report 2005-1224 (Lynne Koontz and Dana L. Hoag, 2005)
Burned Area Survey of Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway: The Fires of 1988 (Ann Rodman, Henry Shovic, Don Despain and Paul Schullery, June 1990)
Campfire Tales of Jackson Hole (G. Bryan Harry, ed., Grand Teton Natural History Association, 1960)
Colter's Hell and Jackson's Hole (Merrill J. Mattes, 1962)
Creation of Grand Teton National Park (Jackie Skaggs, January 2000)
Creation of the Teton Landscape: The Geologic Story of Grand Teton National Park (J.D. Love and John C. Reed, Jr., ©Grand Teton Association, 1971)
Day Use of Grand Teton National Parks Backcountry Areas (Clynn Phillips, John Hoesterey and Jacquelin Buchanan, September 1981)
Economic analysis of alternative bison and elk management practices on the National Elk Refuge and Grand Teton National Park: a comparison of visitor and household responses USGS Open-File Report 2004-1305 (John B. Loomis and Lynne Caughlan, 2004)
Geologic Resources Inventory Report, Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/GRD/NRR-2010/230 (K. KellerLynn, August 2010)
Geophysical Study in Grand Teton National Park and Vicinity, Teton County, Wyoming USGS Professional Paper 516-E (John C. Behrendt, Benton L. Tibbetts, William E. Bonini and Peter M. Lavin, 1968)
Greater Yellowstone Climate Assessment: Past, Present, and Future Climate Change in Greater Yellowstone Watersheds (Steven Hostetler, Cathy Whitlock, Bryan Shuman, David Liefert, Charles Wolf Drimal and Scott Bischke, June 2021)
Greater Yellowstone Network Amphibian Monitoring
Amphibian Monitoring in the Greater Yellowstone NetworkProject Report 2007: Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GRYN/NRTR—2009/151 (Debra A. Patla and William R. Gould, January 2009)
Amphibian Monitoring in the Greater Yellowstone NetworkProject Report 2008 and 2009: Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/GRYN/NRDS—2010/072 (Debra A. Patla, August 2010)
Greater Yellowstone Network Amphibian Monitoring: 2010-2011 Annual Status Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/GRYN/NRDS-2012/332 (Debra Patla and Kristin Legg, June 2012)
Greater Yellowstone Network Amphibian Monitoring: 2012-2013 Biennial Status Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2016/1140 (Andrew Ray and Debra Patla, February 2016)
Greater Yellowstone Network Amphibian and Wetland Monitoring: Status Report for 2014, 2015, and 2016 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2018/1638 (Debra Patla and Andrew Ray, May 2018)
Greater Yellowstone Network Amphibian and Wetland Monitoring: Status Report for 2017 and 2018 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2020/2111 (Debra Patla and Andrew Ray, April 2020)
Ground-water data from selected sites in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming USGS Open-File Report 89-51 (D.J. Parliman and H.W. Young, 1989)
Ground water east of Jackson Lake, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming USGS Circular 494 (Laurence J. McGreevy and Ellis D. Gordon, 1964)
Historic Structure Report/Administrative Data/Historical Data/Architectural Data: Leek's Lodge, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming (Jean Carlton Parker, April 1979)
Historic Structures Report/History Section: Maud Noble Cabin, Grand Teton National Park (Erwin N. Thompson, November 1970)
Historic Structures Report: Maud Noble Cabin and Out-Building, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming (Charles S. Pope, January 1970)
History of Jackson's Hole, Wyoming Before the Year 1907 (Walcott Watson, 1935)
Hydrologic and water-quality data for selected sites, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, September 1988 through September 1990 USGS Open-File Report 91-56 (H.W. Young, D.J. Parliman, M.L. Jones and M.A. Stone, 1991)
Interpretive Program Study 2015-2016, Grand Teton National Park (Pat Stephens Williams and Ray Darville, May 23, 2017)
Junior Park Ranger, Grand Teton National Park (Date Unknown)
Leigh and String Lakes Visitor Use Study at Grand Teton National Park: 2017 Data Collection Summary NPS Natural Resource Report (Ashley D'Antonio, Derrick Taff, Christopher Monz, Peter Newman, Jenna Baker, Will Rice and Zach Miller, March 2018)
Migrations and Management of the Jackson Elk Herd National Biological Survey Resource Publication 199 (Bruce L. Smith and Russell L. Robbins, 1994)
Monitoring Amphibian Populations in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks Final Report (Charles R. Peterson, Edward D. Koch and Paul Stephen Corn, October 9, 1992)
Monitoring Five-Needle Pine on Bureau of Land Management Lands in Wyoming: Summary Report for 2013, 2014, 2016, 2017 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2019/1931 (Erin Shanahan, Kathryn M. Irvine, Kristin Legg, Siri Wilmoth, Rob Daley and Joshua Jackson, May 2019)
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 2011 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/GRYN/NRDS-2012/278 (Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group, April 2012)
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 2012 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/GRYN/NRDS—2013/498 (Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group, June 2013)
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 2013 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/GRYN/NRDS—2014/631 (Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group, March 2014)
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 2014 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/GRYN/NRDS—2015/796 (Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group, May 2015)
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 2015 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2016/1146 (Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group, March 2016)
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 2016 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2017/1453 (Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group, May 2017)
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 2017 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2018/1689 (Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group, August 2018)
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 2018 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/GRYN/NRDS—2019/1225 (Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group, May 2019)
Monitoring Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: 2019 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/GRYN/NRDS—2020/1273 (Greater Yellowstone Whitebark Pine Monitoring Working Group, April 2020)
Monthly Narrative Report to Chief Architect: Report on E.C.W. Activities (Sanford Hill and Howard Gregg, May 27-June 27, 1937)
Murie Ranch Historic Furnishings Report (Diane M. Sanders, 2013)
National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms
4 Lazy F Dude Ranch (Steven F. Mehls, March 20, 1988)
AMK Ranch (Steven F. Mehls, March 20, 1988)
Andy Chambers Ranch Historic District (Carol Drake Mehls, March 30, 1988)
Bar B C Dude Ranch (Steven F. Mehls, March 20, 1988)
Cascade Canyon Barn (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Chapel of the Transfiguration (Clayton Fraser, February 25, 1980)
Cunningham Cabin (Donald F. Dosch, March 12, 1973)
Death Canyon Barn (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Double Diamond Dude Ranch Dining Hall (Janene Caywood, Anne Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Geraldine Lucas Homestead / Fabian Place Historic District (Ann Hubber based on HABS documentation by Young and Ruhl, 1997)
Hunter Hereford Ranch Historic District (Ann Hubber, Janene Caywood and Kathryn Scnied, 1997)
Jackson Lake Lodge (Paul S. Reed and Edith B. Wallace, October 29, 2001, rev. January 28, 2002)
Jackson Lake Ranger Station (Steven F. Mehls, August 30, 1988)
Jenny Lake Boat Concession Facilities (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Jenny Lake CCC Camp #NP-4 (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Jenny Lake Ranger Station Historic District (Steven F. Mehls, March 20, 1988)
Kimmel Kabins (Steven F. Mehls, March 20, 1988)
Leek's Lodge (Ned Frost, June 26, 1974)
Leigh Lake Ranger Patrol Cabin (Steven F. Mehls, January 17, 1989)
Manges Cabin (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Menor's Ferry (Nedward M. Frost, February 26, 1969)
Moose Entrance Kiosk (Steven F. Mehls, March 20, 1988)
Moran Bay Patrol Cabin (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Mormon Row Historic District (A. Hubber, C. Miller and J. Caywood, January 1996)
Multiple Property Submission (Ann Hubber and Janene Caywood, November 20, 1997)
Murie Ranch Historic District (Michael Cassity, October 15, 2003)
Murie Residence (Carol Drake Mehls, March 20, 1988)
Old Administrative Area Historic District (Steven F. Mehls, March 20, 1988)
Ramshorn Dude Ranch Lodge (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Snake River Land Company Residence and Office (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
String Lake Comfort Station (Steven F. Mehls, January 17, 1989)
The Brinkerhoff (Steven F. Mehls, September 14, 1988)
The Highlands Historic District (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Triangle X Barn (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
Upper Granite Canyon Patrol Cabin (Janene Caywood, Ann Hubber and Kathryn Schneid, 1997)
White Grass Dude Ranch (Steven F. Mehls, March 20, 1988)
White Grass Ranger Station Historic District (Steven F. Mehls, March 20, 1988)
Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR-2012/550 (R. Douglas Ramsey, Christopher M. McGinty, Ellie I. Leydsman McGinty, Lisa A. Langs Stoner, Benjamin A. Crabb, William A. Adair, Alexander Hernandez, John C. Schmidt, Milada Majerova, Benjamin Hudson, Ashton K. Montrone, John H. Lowry and Matthew E. Baker, July 2012)
Nature Notes: Grand Teton National Park (1936-1941)
Paleontological Resources at Grand Teton National Park, Northwestern Wyoming (Vincent L. Santucci and William P. Wall, extract from University of Wyoming National Park Service Research Center Annual Report, Vol. 22 Article 7, 1998)
Paleontological Survey of Grand Teton National Park (Krisha H. Tracy, William P. Wall, Alfred J. Mead and Vincent L. Santucci, extract from University of Wyoming National Park Service Research Center Annual Report, Vol. 26 Article 2, 2002)
Park Newspaper (Teewinot)
2000: 50th Anniversary
Park Newspaper: Solar Eclipse August 21, 2017, Grand Teton National Park (2017)
Preliminary study of subsurface wastewater movement in and near Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, through October 1976 USGS Open-File Report 77-275 (Edward Riley Cox, 1977)
Proactive Decision Support Tools for National Park and Non-Traditional Agencies in Solving Traffic-Related Problems (©Antonio Fuentes, PhD Thesis, 2019)
Rendevous in Jackson Hole (Merrill J. Mattes, extract from The Denver Westerners Monthly Roundup, Vol. 16 No. 7, July 1960; ©Denver Posse of Westerners, all rights reserved)
Shaded Relief Map: Grand Teton National Park, WY Scale: 1:62,500 (USGS, 1982)
Status of Whitebark Pine in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: A Step-Trend Analysis with Comparisons from 2004 to 2015 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2017/1445 (Eric Shanahan, Kristin Legg and Rob Daley, May 2017)
Summary and Evaluation of Landbird Monitoring in Grand Teton National Park, 2005-2008 NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GRYN/NRTR-2012/622 (Stacy Ostermann-Kelm, William Gould, Susan Wolff, Rob Daley and Robert Bennetts, September 2012)
Teton Dakota: Ethnology and History (John C. Ewers, 1938)
The Elk of Grand Teton and Southern Yellowstone National Parks (Glen F. Cole, 1969)
The Northern Backcountry Patrol Cabins of Grand Teton National Park (James A. Pritchard and Katherine Longfield, extract from University of Wyoming National Park Service Research Center Annual Report, Vol. 31, 2008)
The Present Plight of the Jackson Hole Elk Bureau of Biological Survey Wildlife Research and Management Leaflet BS-12 (H.P. Sheldon, Olaus J. Murie and W.E. Crouch, July 1935)
The Research Station's Place in History (Leonore Diem, University of Wyoming, 1978)
Topographic Map: Grand Teton National Park, WY Scale: 1:62,500 (USGS, 1982)
Vascular Plants of Grant Teton National Park, Wyoming (Richard J. Shaw, extract from SIDA Contributions to Botany, Vol. 4, 1968)
Visitor Reactions to the Recreational Fee Demonstration Program: Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks (Allen Lundgren, David W. Lime, Cynthia A. Warzecha, Michael S. Lewis and Jerrilyn L. Thompson, September 25, 1997)
Water Quality of the Snake River and Five Eastern Tributaries in the Upper Snake River Basin, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 1998-2002 USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5017 (Melanie L. Clark, Wilfrid J. Sadler, and Susan E. O'Ney, 2004)
Water quality and hydrogeology near four wastewater-treatment facilities in Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway, Wyoming, September 1988 through September 1997 USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 99-4117 (Kenneth J. Hedmark and H.W. Young, 1999)
Water Quality Summary for the Snake River and Alpine Lakes in Grand Teton National Park and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway: Preliminary Analysis of 2013 Data NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2016/1228 (Alysa Yoder, Andrew Ray, Kathryn Mellander, Chad Whaley and Rodney Roy, May 2016)
Water Quality Summary for the Snake River and Alpine Lakes in Grand Teton National Park and the John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway: Preliminary Analysis of 2014 Data, Revised May 2016 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2016/1229 (Andrew Ray, Katie Kaylor, W. Adam Sigler, Kathryn Mellander and Chad Whaley, May 2016)
Water Quality Summary for the Snake River and Alpine Lakes in Grand Teton National Park and John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway: Preliminary Analysis of 2015 Data (Revised - 2019) NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRYN/NRR—2019/1932 (Mary Levandowski, Andrew Ray, Kathryn Mellander and Chad Whaley, May 2019)
Water resources of Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming USGS Open-File Report 74-1019 (Edward Riley Cox, 1974)
Handbooks ◆ Books
Last Updated: 17-Jun-2022