Hawai'i Volcanoes
National Park
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'Āina a ke akua i noho a i . . . Land where the goddess dwells

Volcanoes are monuments to Earth's origin, evidence that primordial forces are still at work. Volcanic eruptions remind us that our planet is ever-changing, with its basic processes beyond human control. As much as we have altered Earth's face to suit our needs, we can only stand in awe before the power of an eruption.

Volcanoes are also prodigious land builders—they created the Hawaiian Island chain. Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, two of the world's most active volcanoes, still add land to the Island of Hawai'i. Mauna Loa, Earth's most massive mountain, has an estimated volume of 19,000 cubic miles. Today's summit of Mauna Loa Volcano stands 56,000 feet (17,000 m) above the depressed sea floor—over 27,000 feet (8,230 m) taller than Mount Everest.

Unlike explosive continental volcanoes, the more fluid and less gaseous eruptions of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa produce fiery fountains and rivers of molten lava. Added layer upon layer, the flows produced a barren volcanic landscape that served as a foundation for life. Hundreds of species of plants and animals found their way across the vast Pacific on wind, water, and the wings of birds. A few survived, adapted, and prospered during this time of isolation. The arrival of humans—first Polynesians, then Europeans—and the plants and animals they brought drastically altered this evolutionary showcase, this grand natural experiment.

Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park shows the results of 70 million years of volcanism, migration, and evolution in the Hawaiian Island-Emperor Seamount chain. These processes first thrusted a bare land from the sea and then clothed it with complex, unique ecosystems and a distinct human culture. Created to preserve the natural setting of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, the park is also a refuge for the island's native plants and animals and a link to its human past. Park managers and scientists work to protect the park resources and to promote understanding and appreciation of the park. Research by US Geological Survey scientists makes Kīlauea one of the best understood volcanoes in the world. It sheds light on the birth of the Hawaiian Islands and planet Earth's beginnings. Each eruption reminds us of the power of natural processes to change the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and the sea that surrounds this volcanic island.

Trouble in Paradise

The Hawaiian Archipelago, once celebrated as islands of evolution, are now islands of extinction. The arrival of people changed the conditions that fostered the original diversity of life. As land was cleared to plant crops and build communities, forests vanished. Polynesian and other settlers introduced invasive plants and animals, and some thrived and multiplied in their new home. The impact has been catastrophic.

Pigs destroy the understory of tree fern and 'ōhi'a forests. Their muddy wallows become breeding grounds for the mosquitoes that transmit avian malaria and pox to native birds. Mongooses, cats, and rats eat native birds and their eggs. Invasive plants, like the faya and kāhili ginger, displace vast areas of Hawaiian forests. The onslaught of introduced plants and animals drove countless native species to extinction and still threatens unique life forms in Hawai'i.

Saving an Ecosystem

Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park is like an island within an island. It shelters remnants of the once-rich tapestry of Hawaiian life now unraveled by invasive species. In some parts of the park, natural habitats are damaged beyond recovery.

Park staff concentrate on the most biologically diverse habitats and those that offer the best chance for restoration. The strategy is to control or eliminate the most disruptive invasive plant and animal pests. Crews build fences to keep out feral animals, track and kill feral pigs, and destroy faya, guava, and kāhili ginger. As native plant communities establish themselves again, the populations of Hawaiian honeycreepers, nēnē, Kamehameha butterflies, and happyface spiders may flourish.

In recognition of its outstanding natural values, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park has been named an International Biosphere Reserve and a World Heritage Site. The park continues to promote the vitality of this remnant of pristine Hawai'i.

Life Comes to a New Land

A few million years ago, spores released into the wind from a fern in southeast Asia were carried by air currents high into the jet stream, where they drifted eastward. Eventually they settled on lava fields in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. This is just one way that life came to the Hawaiian Islands.

Insects, seeds, and spiders also rode air currents to the islands. Migrating or storm-driven birds carried seeds in their digestive tracts or on their feathers. Ocean currents carried salt-resistant seeds and insects, plants, and snails on floating debris. Amphibians, reptiles, freshwater fish, and most mammals were unable to cross the ocean expanse—only the monk seal and hoary bat succeeded. Few of the millions of organisms embarking on this chance voyage made it here. Of those, only a few survived.

Over a span of 32 million years, plants and animals colonized the Hawaiian Island chain at a rate of one insect every 68,000 years, one plant every 98,000 years, and one bird every one million years. The species changed gradually, evolving new forms better adapted to island life. Without the predators and competitors of their former homelands, they didn't need elaborate defense mechanisms to survive. Qualities that once protected them proved unnecessary and were eventually lost. Contradictory terms now describe these new life forms: nettleless nettles, mintless mints, stinkless stink bugs, and flightless birds. About 90 percent of Hawai'i's native flora is endemic, found nowhere else on Earth. The islands' 110 endemic land birds evolved from as few as 30 original ancestors; about 1,100 kinds of flowering plants evolved from 270 to 280 immigrants; over 1,000 mollusks evolved from at least 22 immigrants; and about 10,000 endemic insects and spiders developed from 350 to 400 separate original colonizers. The diversity of life that came to flourish on these isolated, once barren islands bears witness to the force of evolution and the tenacity of life.

Ho'oulu Lāhui . . . People of the Islands

I ke ao kahiko, ua ka'i nā po'e Hawai'i ma ka wa'a kaulua a pae ma kēia 'āina. Mamuli o ka 'ike ana i ke ahi o Pele—he 'āina, he 'āina i mua o kākou. Ua hele mai lākou me nā mea pono āpau ne ka noho ana a noho lākou me ka 'ike 'ole. He 'āina he mea nui loa ia lākou pēlā me ke kai. Kēia mau mana'o lanakila lākou. Ua hele mai lākou me ke akua. O kō lākou akua oia no o Kāne, Kū, Lono, Kanaloa, Pele a me nā 'aumākua a me nā akua 'ē a'e. Aia o Pele mā na 'āina āpau. Kekahi o lākou ke mālama nei nō. Mahalo lākou i kō lākou akua no nā mea āpau.

He po'e na'auao lākou. Mai ka 'āina nā mea 'ai āpau. Mai ke kai ka pa'akai a me ka i'a a mai ka lani ka wai. Mālama lākou i ka 'āina a me ke kai e like me ka mālama ana o ke kino o ke kanaka. O ke aloha o ka 'āina, he mea pau'ole—kō kākou 'āina aloha.

—Hawaiian translation of the "People of the Islands" story

Polynesians from distant lands came to the shores of Hawai'i over a thousand years ago. Sailing on large, double-hulled canoes they navigated by using the position of the stars, the sun, and the moon, by the movement of waves, and by the flight of birds. These ancestors of Native Hawaiians, guided by the elemental forces of nature, arrived with only bare necessities. By drawing upon the resources of the land and sea, they sustained themselves and thrived.

Native Hawaiians recognized and revered a pantheon of gods, goddesses, and guardian ancestors with traditions that have evolved and are still practiced today. Woven into all aspects of life were ritual and reciprocal protocols that asked permission and gave thanks. These were necessary for the perpetuation of resources upon which life depended. Accumulated knowledge and wisdom enabled Native Hawaiians to adapt to life on these volcanically active lands. They tended crops in shallow rock pits, dried salt along the shoreline to preserve fish, and captured birds to eat. Water was collected in gourds, drop by drop from the ceilings of lava tubes or from springs. Deities rewarded careful stewardship, and their wrath was felt if they were displeased. Today, in these seemingly inhospitable lands, a myriad of resources feed, clothe, and house the people of Hawai'i.

Some Native Hawaiian families trace their lineage to Pelehonuamea, a woman deified because of her power over volcanic eruptions and lava flows. Today Pele resides in Halema'uma'u. Respect for her presence is essential in a land where evidence of her work abounds, and where landscapes can be transformed overnight. Through the centuries, in times of plenty and of scarcity, Native Hawaiians remain steadfast in their love of these cherished islands, their 'āina aloha.

Exploring Hawai'i Volcanoes

Planning Your Visit

park map
(click for larger map)

On Kīlauea: Crater Rim Drive A six-mile drive leads you through steaming vents and rain forest, with stops along the way. Chain of Craters Road A 38-mile round-trip drive intersects Crater Rim Drive, descends 3,700 feet to the coast, and ends at a 2003 lava flow.

At Kahuku: The Kahuku area is open Saturdays and Sundays, 9 am to 3 pm. It is closed weekdays and federal holidays. Please visit www.nps.gov/havo for information.

• Trails The park has over 150 miles of trails. On Mauna Loa: Both backpackers and mountaineers can enjoy the challenges of this one- to four-day hike. Warning: You must be in good physical condition and be properly equipped for winter mountaineering.
• Climate At 4,000 feet of elevation the Kīlauea summit can be rainy and chilly at any time. Usually the coastal area is warm and dry. Be prepared for variable weather. Bring a rain jacket and wear long pants and closed-toe shoes.

Regulations
• Collecting rocks, lava, sand, cultural artifacts, plants, or animals is prohibited.
• Archeological sites and artifacts are protected by federal law. Be respectful and do not climb on, build, or alter any rock structure. Do not make rubbings or molds of petroglyphs.
• Fishing on the coast from the eastern park boundary to the cliff midway between Keauhou and Halapē is for native Hawaiian Kalapana residents only.
• Backcountry camping brochure and the required permit are available at Backcountry Camping Permit Office. Group limit is 12 people. Practice Leave No Trace: if you pack it in—pack it out.
• Fires are allowed only in fireplaces and grates at Nāmakanipaio Campground and the Kīpukapuaulu and Kīlauea Overlook picnic areas. Vehicle exhaust systems can start fires in grassy areas; park only where designated. Do not smoke on trails. Lighting or possession of fireworks is prohibited.
• Pets must be leashed and attended. They are not allowed in all undeveloped areas including wilderness and on front and backcountry trails.
• Nēnē (Hawaiian Goose), a critically endangered species, needs your protection. Watch for nēnē along roads. Slow down in nēnē habitat areas marked by signs. Do not feed nēnē! Feeding causes them to beg for food at roadsides and to approach vehicles, putting them at risk of injury or death.
• Firearms regulations are available on the park website.
• Bicycles are restricted to designated paved roads and trails and to gravel roads. Ask for a brochure at Kilauea Visitor Center.

For Your Safety
• Hiking STAY ON MARKED TRAILS. Avoid cliffs, earth cracks, and steam vents; these unstable features may collapse or be slippery. Hiking over cracks, holes, loose rock, and thin lava crust greatly increases your risk of injury. Wear sturdy closed-toe shoes. Lava fields are shadeless and hot. Wear sunscreen, a hat, and sunglasses. Carry at least two quarts of water per person.
• Along the coast expect strong winds, steep sea cliffs, high waves, and unpredictable surf.
• Volcanic eruptions can be extremely hazardous. Areas around erupting vents are closed to travel—and even from a distance fumes and fallout (Pele's hair, cinder, and ash) can irritate lungs and eyes. Heed all ranger instructions and obey all signs. For US Geological Survey eruption updates visit: volcanoes.usgs.gov/hvo/activity/kilaueastatus.php.

Services
• Hotel and Cabins Volcano HouseSM Hotel and Nāmakanipaio Campground and Cabins are run by Hawai'i Volcanoes Lodge Co., LLC. Contact www.hawaiivolcanohouse.com for information. Park entrance fees apply; campground registration required, and fees apply. Restrooms, water, and picnic tables are available. Fires are allowed only in existing fireplaces or grates.
• Campgrounds Park entrance fees apply. The park has two drive-in campgrounds. Nāmakanipaio (off Hwy 11) is run by Hawai'i Volcanoes Lodge Company, LLC (see above). Kulanaokuaiki (off Hilina Pali Road) is first-come, first-served; no reservation required. Water not available; campfires prohibited. Use fueled camp stoves only. Stays limited to seven consecutive days per month and 30 days per year.

Accessibility Wheelchairs for use in the park are available at Kīlauea Visitor Center and Jaggar Museum. Kīlauea Visitor Center, Jaggar Museum, Volcano House, the Volcano Art Center Gallery, and hula platform are wheelchair-accessible. Nāmakanipaio Campground has wheelchair-accessible campsites and restroom. Visit Kīlauea Visitor Center for information on wheelchair-accessible trails.

Visitor Alert!

High amounts of dangerous sulfur dioxide gas may be present in areas of the park. These gases are a danger to everyone, particularly to people with heart or respiratory problems and infants, young children, and pregnant women.

Volcanic gas looks like smog. Keep your windows closed when it is visible.

If air irritates, smells bad, or you have difficulty breathing—leave the area.

When areas are closed for high sulfur dioxide you will be directed to areas that are open.

Kīlauea Visitor Center offers update; on air quality 24 hours a day.

Source: NPS Brochure (2015)


Establishment

World Heritage Site — December 10, 1987
International Biosphere Reserve — August 1, 1980
Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park — September 22, 1961
Hawai'i National Park — August 1, 1916


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Brochures ◆ Site Bulletins ◆ Trading Cards expand section

Documents

2021 US National Seismic Hazard Model for the State of Hawaii (Mark D. Petersen, Allison M. Shumway, Peter M. Powers, Morgan P. Moschetti, Andrea L. Llenos, Andrew J. Michael, Charles S. Mueller, Arthur D. Frankel, Sanaz Rezaeian, Kenneth S. Rukstales, Daniel E. McNamara, Paul G. Okubo, Yuehua Zeng, Kishor S. Jaiswal, Sean K. Ahdi, Jason M. Altekruse and Brian R. Shiro, extract from Earthquake Spectra, September 22, 2021)

A Compilation of Whole-Rock and Glass Major-Element Geochemistry of Kalauea Volcano, Hawai'i, Near-vent Eruptive Products: January 1983 through September 2001 USGS Open-File Report 2003-477 (Carl R. Thornber, Ken Hon, Christina Heliker and David A. Sherrod)

A General Index to Lassen Nature Notes, 1932-1936 and Hawaii Nature Notes, 1931-1933 (Hazel Hunt Voth, 1938)

A History of Hawaii National Park (I.J. Castro, undated)

A preliminary study of effects of feral pig density on native Hawaiian montane rainforest vegetation Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 182 (Pamela Y. Scheffler, Linda W. Pratt, David Foote, and Karl N. Magnacca, 2012)

A Review of Invasive Plant Management in Special Ecological Areas, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, 1984-2007 Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 187 (Rhonda K. Loh, Tim Tunison, Chris Zimmer, Robert Mattos and David Benitez, 2014)

A Settlement Pattern Analysis of a Portion of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: Archeology of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Western Archeological and Conservation Center No. 44 (Thegn Ladefoged, Gary F. Somers and M. Melia Lane-Hamasaki, 1987)

A survey of the marine organisms at Halape, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 10 (Frederick W. Ball, July 23, 1975)

A test of two herbicides for use on banana poka (Passiflora mollissima) in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 79 (Gregory L. Santos, Linda W. Cuddihy and Charles P. Stone, August 1991)

Abbreviated Final General Management Plan, Wilderness Study, and Environmental Impact Statement, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (Summer 2016)

An Administrative History of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and Haleakala National Park (Frances Jackson, 1972)

An inventory and assessment of anchialine pools in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park from Waha'ula to Ka'aha, Puna and Ka'u, Hawaii Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 69 (David K. Chai, Linda W. Cuddihy and Charles P. Stone, October 1989)

Ainahou Ranch House and Gardens Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (2004)

Ancient Hawaii Shore Zone Fishponds: An Evaluation of Survivors for Historical Preservation (Russell Anderson Apple and William Kenji Kikuchi, July 1975)

Archeological Overview and Assessment and Research Design, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Final Report (August 2008)

Birds of Kalapana extension Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 36 (Sheila Conant, October 1980)

Botanical baseline study of forests along the east rift of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park adjacent to Kahauale'a Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 61 (Linda W. Cuddihy, Stephen J. Andersen, Charles P. Stone and Clifford W. Smith, December 1986)

Botanical survey of Kilauea Volcano East Rift Craters: Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 122 (Thomas R. Belfield, September 1998)

Checklist of vascular plants of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 64 (Paul K. Higashino, Linda W. Cuddihy, Stephen J. Anderson, and Charles P. Stone, August 1988)

Chronological narrative of the 1959-60 eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii USGS Professional Paper 537-E (D.H. Richter, J.P. Eaton, K.J. Murata, W.U. Ault, and H.L. Krivoy, 1970)

Chronological narrative of the 1969-71 Mauna Ulu eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii USGS Professional Paper 1056 (Donald A. Swanson, W.A. Duffield, D.B. Jackson, and D.W. Peterson, 1979)

Control of fire tree (Myrica faya) with herbicides in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 82 (Linda W. Cuddihy, Gregory L. Santos and Charles P. Stone, December 1991)

Control of the Himalayan raspberry (Rubus ellipticus) with cur stump herbicide treatments in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 80 (Gregory L. Santos, Linda W. Cuddihy and Charles P. Stone, September 1991)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Ainahou Ranch House and Gardens, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (2004)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Crater Rim Historic District, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (2006)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Kilauea Administration and Employee Housing Historic District (2006)

Distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) on the East flank of Mauna Loa, Hawaii Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 30 (M. Lee Goff, February 1980)

Effects of cattle grazing on the mountain parkland ecosystem, Mauna Loa, Hawaii Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 51 (Linda W. Cuddihy, July 1984)

Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future USGS General Information Product 117 (Robert I. Tilling, Christina Heliker, and Donald A. Swanson, 2010)

Evaluation of rare and endangered bird research programs for Hawaii's National Parks Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 23 (Charles H. Lamoureux, February 1979)

Experimental restoration of mesic and wet forests in former pastureland, Kahuku Unit, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 175 (Sierra McDaniel, Rhonda Loh, Susan Dale, and Corie Yanger, 2011)

Explosive Eruptions at Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i? USGS Fact Sheet 132-98 (Larry G. Mastin, Robert L. Christiansen, Donald A. Swanson, Peter H. Stauffer and James W. Hendley II, 1998)

Fire Effects in the Coastal Lowlands, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 88 (J. Tim Tunison, J. A. K. Leialoha, Linda W. Pratt and P. K. Higashino, April l994)

Fire effects in the submontane seasonal zone Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 97 (J. Tim Tunison, Rhonda L. Loh, and J. A. K. Leialoha, December 1995)

Fire Management Plan, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (2005, rev. May 15, 2007)

Fire on the Rim: The Creation of Hawaii National Park Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Occasional Papers Volume 1, Number 1 (Jadelyn J. Moniz Nakamura, c2010)

Forest Bird Inventory of the Kahuku Unit of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 143 (Erik Tweed, P. Marcos Gorresen, Richard J. Camp, Patrick J. Hart and Thane K. Pratt, May 2007)

Foundation Document, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i (January 2017)

Foundation Document Overview, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Hawai'i (January 2017)

Fountain grass control in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 1985-1992 Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 91 (J. Tim Tunison, Nicholas G. Zimmer, Michael R. Gates and Robert M. Mattos, April 1994)

Gathering on the Rim: People Build a Park Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Occasional Papers Volume 1, Number 2 (Jadelyn J. Moniz Nakamura, Fall 2010)

General Management Plan, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (Summer 2016)

Geologic Resources Inventory Report, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/GRD/NRR-2009/163 (T.L. Thornberry-Ehrlich, December 2009)

"Giant of the Pacific": Mauna Loa Reconnaissance 2003 Pacific Island Cluster Publications in Anthropology 4 (Dennis Dougherty, 2004)

Goats in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park: A Story to be Remembered (W. Edwin Bonsey, undated)

Goat Management Problems in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: A History, Analysis, and Management Plan NPS Natural Resources Report No. 2 (James K. Baker and Donald W. Reeser, 1972)

Hawai'i Island National Parks Junior Ranger Adventure Book (c2016)

Hawaii National Park (United States Railroad Administration, 1919)

Hawaii Nature Notes (1931-1959)

Hawaii History, 1778-1910, The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, Theme XXI, Political and Military Affairs, 1865-1910 (Russell A. Apple, July 1972)

Hawai'i, the Military, and the National Park: World War II and Its Impacts on Culture and Environment (William Chapman, et al., 2014)

Hawai'i Volcanoes Disaster Recovery Project: Civic Engagement and Comment Analysis Report (May 2020)

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Fern Checklist Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 8 (Tissa Herat and Rukmani M. Herat, August 1975)

Hawaiian oral tradition describes 400 yers of volcanic activity at Kīlauea (Donald A. Swanson, extract from Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 176, 2008)

Helium, mercury, sulfur compounds, and carbon dioxide in soil gases of the Puhimau Thermal area, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii USGS Open-File Report 78-246 (Margaret E. Hinkle, 1978)

Herbicidal control of selected alien plant species in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: a preliminary report Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 60 (Gregory L. Santos, Dina Kageler, Donald E. Gardner and Charles P. Stone, December 1986)

Hilina Pali 2005: The Civilian Conservation Corps, An Archeological Inventory Survey of the Hilina Pali Erosion Control Project of 1940 Pacific Island Network Publications in Anthropology 12 (Summer Roper and Jadelyn Moniz Nakamura, 2008)

Invasion and Recovery of Vegetation after a Volcanic Eruption in Hawaii (HTML edition) (Garrett A. Smathers and Dieter Mueller-Dombois, 1974)

Inventory of vascular plants of the Kahuku addition, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 157 (David M. Benitez, Thomas Belfield, Rhonda Loh, Linda Pratt and Andrew D. Christie, June 2008)

Junior Ranger Adventure Book, Hawai'i Island National Parks (Date Unknown)

Junior Ranger Handbook (Ages 7 to 12), Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (Date Unknown)

Junior Ranger Handbook (Ages 6 and under), Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (Date Unknown)

Junior Ranger Handbook, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (Date Unknown)

Kealakomowaena: Life on a Lava Landscape, Part I Pacific Island Cluster Publications in Anthropology 15 (Jadely J. Moniz Nakamura and Mara Durst, 2011)

Keonehelelei: Archeological Inventory Survey of the Footprints National Register Site, Ahupua'a of Kapapala, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Publications in Anthropology No. 2 (Jadelyn Moniz Nakamura, 2003)

Keonehelelei — The Falling Sands, A Historical Overview and Archeological Survey of the Ka'u Desert Pacific Island Cluster Publications in Anthropology 2 (Jadelyn Moniz Nakamura, 2003)

Kilauea Administration and Employee Housing Historic District, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (2006)

Kilauea—an Explosive Volcano in Hawai'i USGS Fact Sheet 2011-3064 (Don Swanson, Dick Fiske, Tim Rose, Bruce Houghton and Larry Mastin, 2011)

Land Protection Plan, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Draft (June 1985)

Living on Active Volcanoes—The Island of Hawai'i USGS Fact Sheet 074-97 (Christina Heliker, Peter H. Stauffer and James W. Hendley II, 2000)

Lowland bird inventory Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 137 (Kathryn E. Turner, Richard J. Camp and Thane K. Pratt, December 2006)

Magma Migration and Resupply During the 1974 Summit Eruptions of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii USGS Professional Paper 1613 (John P. Lockwood, Robert I. Tilling, Robin T. Holcomb, Fred Klein, Arnold T. Okamura and Donald W. Peterson, 2000)

Major-Element, Sulfur, and Chlorine Compositions of Glasses from the Submarine Flank of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, Collected During 1998-2002 Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) Cruises USGS Open-File Report 2004-1378 (Michelle L. Coombs, Thomas W. Sisson, and Peter W. Lipman, 2004)

Master Plan, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (1975)

Mauna Loa—History, Hazards, and Risk of Living With the World's Largest Volcano USGS Fact Sheet 2012-3104 (Frank A. Trusdell, 2012)

Mites (Chelicerata: Acari) parasitic on birds on birds in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 29 (M. L. Goff, February 1980)

Morphology of extinct lava tubes and the implications for tube evolution, Chain of Craters Road, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii USGS Open-File Report 92-352 (K.M. Cooper and James P. Kauahikaua, 1992)

Mosses of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 153a (Mashuri Waite, October 2007)

Mosses of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 153b (Mashuri Waite, October 2007)

Mullein survey & removal efforts on Mauna Loa in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 126 (Rhonda K. Loh, Alison Ainsworth, Brandon Miner, Robin Russell, Jon Makaike and J. Tim Tunison, May 2000)

National Parks in Hawaii University of Hawaii Cooperative Extension Circular 443 (Wade W. McCall, February 1972

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms

1790 Footprints (Russell A. Apple, September 5, 1973)

Ainahou Ranch (Janet Keswick and Thomas Quinlan, February 25, 1994)

Ainapo Trail (Russell A. Apple, July 18, 1973)

Kilauea Crater (Russell A. Apple, May 25, 1973)

Old Volcano House #42 (Russell A. Apple, June 5, 1973)

Puna-Ka'u Historic District (Edmund J. Ladd, c1974)

Whitney Seismograph Vault #29 (Russell A. Apple, May 30, 1973)

Wilkes Campsite (Russell A. Apple, August 21, 1973)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/HAVO/NRR-2019/1967 (Fung Associates, Inc. and SWCA Environmental Consultants, August 2019)

Natural Resources Management Plan, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii (June 1978)

Nesting success and population status of the 'elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) in the Mauna Loa Strip section of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 118 (Zee Sarr, Nicholas P. Shema and Charles P. Stone, June 1998)

Paliuli Emergency Salvage Project Publications in Anthropology No. 8 (Catherine Glidden, 2006)

Plant inventory of the 'Ōla'a Trench at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 139 (Mashuri Waite and L. Pratt, April 2007)

Population dynamics of introduced rodents in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park 1986-1990 Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 183 (Pamela Y. Scheffler, David Foote, Charlotte Forbes Perry, Karin Schlappa and Charles P. Stone, 2012)

Predicting Impacts of Sea Level Rise for Cultural and Natural Resources in Five National Park Units on the Island of Hawai'i Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 188 (Lisa Marrack and Patrick O'Grady, June 2014)

Proceedings of the International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology and its Extraterrestrial Applications A Special Session of the 29th. Annual Convention of the National Speleological Society, White Salmon, Washington, 16 August 1972 (©William R. Halliday, ed., 1976)

Proposed native ecosystem restoration program for Halape, Keauhou, and Apua point-Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 28 (Clifford W. Smith, February 1980)

Prospects for biological control of non-native plants in Hawaiian National Parks Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 45 (Donald E. Gardner and Clifton J. Davis, October 1982)

Rare plant stabilization projects at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, 1998-2008 Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 174 (Thomas Belfield, Tim Tunison, Jonathan Chase, and Sierra McDaniel, July 2011)

Rare plants of Naulu forest and Poliokeawe Pali, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 108 (Lyman L. Abbott and Linda W. Pratt, December 1996)

Rare plants of the Mauna Loa Special Ecological Area, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 130 (Thomas R. Belfield and Linda W. Pratt, Oct. 2002)

Rare plants within managed units of 'Ola'a forest, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 115 (Linda W. Pratt and Lyman L. Abbott, December 1997)

Rehabilitation of 'ōhi'a-swordfern (Metrosideros polymorpha-Nephrolepis multiflora) woodlands following the Kupukupu Fire, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 160 (Sierra McDaniel, Rhonda Loh, Susan Dale, Kimberly Smith and Maya Vaidya, September 2008)

Rehabilitation of seasonally dry 'ohi'a woodlands and mesic koa forest following the Broomsedge Fire, Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 147 (Rhonda Loh, Sierra McDaniel, David Benitez, Matthew Schultz, D. Palumbo, Alison Ainsworth, K. Smith, Tim Tunison, and M. Vaidya, August 2007)

Revised checklist of vascular plants, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 5 (F. Raymond Fosberg, April 1975)

Shoreline Bird Inventories in Three National Parks in Hawaii: Kalaupapa National Historical Park, Haleakala National Park and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 149 (Kelly Kozar, Roberta Swift and Susan Marshall, September 2007)

Statement for Management, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (1985)

Sulfur Dioxide Emission Rates from Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, an Update: 1998-2001 USGS Open-File Report 2002-460 (T. Elias and A.J. Sutton, 2002)

Superintendent Annual Reports
1922-19281927-19451928-1931July 1931-June 1932July 1932-June 1933July-Dec 1933 & Jan-June 19351934July 1935-Dec 1936193719381939194019411942-19431944-19451946-194719481949

Surveys of procellariiform seabirds at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, 2001-2005 Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 163 (Roberta Swift and Evana Burt-Toland, February 2009)

Succession in pig disturbed mountain parkland Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 89 (J. Tim Tunison, Rhonda K. Loh, Linda W. Pratt and Dina W. Kageler, April 1994)

Testing native species response to fire - a first step towards building fire resilient native plant communities at Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 167 (Rhonda Loh, A. Ainsworth, Tim Tunison, and C. D'Antonio, September 2009)

The 2018 rift eruption and summit collapse of Kilauea Volcano (C. A. Neal, S.R. Brantley, L. Antolik, J. Babb, M. Burgess, K. Calles, M. Cappos, J. C. Chang, S. Conway, L. Desmither, P. Dotray, T. Elias, P. Fukunaga, S. Fuke, I. A. Johanson, K. Kamibayashi, J. Kauahikaua, R. L. Lee, S. Pekalib, A. Miklius, W. Million, C. J. Moniz, P. A. Nadeau, P. Okubo, C. Parcheta, M. P. Patrick, B. Shiro, D. A. Swanson, W. Tollett, F. Trusdell, E. F. Younger, M. H. Zoeller, E. K. Montgomery-Brown, K. R. Anderson, M. P. Poland, J. Ball, J. Bard, M. Coombs, H. R. Dietterich, C. Kern, W. A. Thelen, P. F. Cervelli, T. Orr, B. F. Houghton, C. Gansecki, R. Hazlett, P. Lundgren, A. K. Diefenbach, A. H. Lerner, G. Waite, P. Kell, L. Clor, C. Werner, K. Mulliken and G. Fisher, extract from Science, December 11, 2018)

The bioecology of Psylla uncatoides in the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park and the Acacia koaia sanctuary Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 23 (John R. Leeper and J.W. Beardsley, April 1973)

The coastal woodland of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park: vegetation recovery in a stressed ecosystem Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 72 (Julia Williams, November 1990)

The distribution of invasive plant species of concern in the Kīlauea and Mauna Loa strip areas of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, 2000-2010 Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 179 (David M. Benitez, Rhonda Loh, Tim Tunison, Nicholas G. Zimmer, Jon Makaike, R. Mattos and M. Casali, 2012)

The distribution of selected localized alien plant species in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 84 (J. Tim Tunison, Louis D. Whiteaker, Linda W. Cuddihy, Anne M. La Rosa, Dina W. Kageler, M. R. Gates, N. G. Zimmer and L. Stemmermann, January 1992)

The expansion of Koa forest after cattle and goat removal in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 99 (J. Tim Tunison, A. A. McKinney and W. L. Markiewicz, December 1995)

The Hilina Pali fire: a controlled burn exercise Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 18 (Terry T. Parman and Kirk Wampler, May 1977)

The impact and spread of Rubus ellipticus in 'ola'a forest tract Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 107 (Lisa Stratton, December 1996)

The impacts of Malaria on birds in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 47 (Charles G. van Riper III, Sandra G. van Riper, M. :ee Goff and Marshall Laird, November 1982)

The influence of feral goats on koa (Acacia koa Gray) reproduction in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 3 (Gunter Spatz and Dieter Mueller-Dombois, February 1972)

The influence of feral goats on the lowland vegetation in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 13 (Dieter Mueller-Dombois and GunterSpatz, October 1972)

The Origin of Tubular Lava Stalactites and Other Related Forms (Kevin Allred and Carlene Allred, extract from International Journal of Speleology, Vol. 27B, 1998)

The plant genus Hibiscadephus in Hawai'i: a history, analysis of problems, and a management plan for trees in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 34 (James K. Baker, September 1980)

The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, 1983 to 2003 USGS Fact Sheet 144-02 (Christina Heliker and Steven Brantley, 2002)

The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i: The First 20 Years USGS Professional Paper 1676 (Christina Heliker, Donald A. Swanson and Taeko Jane Takahashi, eds., 2003)

The roles of fungi in Hawaiian island ecosystems I. Fungal communities associated with leaf surfaces of three endemic vascular plants in Kilauea Forest Reserve and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 42 (Gladys E. Baker, Paul H. Dunn and William A. Sakai, July 1974)

The Volcano Letter (complete set, ~1gb) or download by decade: 1920s1930s1940s1950s (The Volcano Letter is in the public domain, 1925-1955; the Preface, Acknowledgements, Introduction and Index are ©Smithsonian Institution, Robert S. Fiske, Tom Simkin and Elizabeth A. Nielsen, eds., 1987)

Trace Element and Nd, Sr, Pb Isotope Geochemistry of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i, Near-vent Eruptive Products: 1983 - 2001 USGS Open-File Report 2003-493 (Carl R. Thornber, James R. Budahn, W. Ian Ridley and Daniel M. Unruh, 2003)

Vegetation above a feral pig fence in rain forests of Kilauea's East Rift, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 124 (Linda W. Pratt, Lyman L. Abbott and David K. Palumbo, December 1999)

Vegetation management strategies for three national historical parks on Hawai'i Island Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 121 (Linda W. Pratt, September 1998)

Vegetation map, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 4 (Dieter Mueller-Dombois and F. Raymond Fosberg, October 1974)

Vegetation recovery following pig removal in Ola'a-Koa rainforest unit, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 123 (Rhonda K. Loh and J. Tim Tunison, January 1999)

Viewing Lava Safely — Common Sense is Not Enough. USGS Fact Sheet 152-00 (2000)

Volcanic Air Pollution—A Hazard in Hawai'i USGS Fact Sheet 169-97 (Jeff Sutton, Tamar Elias, James W. Hendley II and Peter H. Stauffer, 2000)

Volcanic and Seismic Hazards on the Island of Hawaii USGS General Interest Publication (1990)

Volcanism in Hawaii: Volume I USGS Professional Paper 1350 (Robert W. Decker, Thomas L. Wright, and Peter H. Stauffer, eds., 1987)

Volcanism in Hawaii: Volume II USGS Professional Paper 1350 (Robert W. Decker, Thomas L. Wright, and Peter H. Stauffer, eds., 1987)

Yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) biology and abatement in the National Parks of Hawaii Pacific Islands Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit Technical Report No. 86 (Parker Gambino and Lloyd L. Loope, February 1992)



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Videos

Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

Kilauea Volcano, Halema'uma'u Crater, Summit Vent Lava Lake (USGS, 2016)

Kīlauea Eruption Update (6:54, October 2018)



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Last Updated: 21-Apr-2022