Rocky Mountain
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Nature's Knife Edge

To ascend Rocky Mountain National Park's Trail Ridge Road is to leave this world and enter another. It carries you, breathless with wonder and altitude, toward a fragile alpine realm, the tundra. Most animals hibernate or migrate during the harsh winters. No trees can live here.

Despite the brief, six-week growing season, plants survive. Most conserve energy by miniaturizing. Each July thousands of brilliant alpine sunflowers, Rydbergia grandiflora, burst from the thin blanket of soil that covers parts of the tundra. For decades these hardy plants have worked toward this moment. Many tundra flowers track the sun to maximize their intake of light, required for photosynthesis.

Park your vehicle at the Alpine Visitor Center and behold 360-degree views of astonishing peaks, lakes, snowfields, canyons, forests, and meadows spread over 400 square miles. For a close look at the alpine ecosystem walk the Tundra Communities Trail to the east. To the west. the Rockies' spine divides the continent into two watersheds. One flows west to the Pacific, the other east to the Atlantic.

On the park's drier east side, snow blows in from the wetter west, replenishing the few remaining glaciers. All rest in cool, dark valley cirques, or bowl-shaped depressions. Higher summer temperatures since the 1990s have caused the glaciers to melt back. On the park's west side, in the Never Summer mountains, the Colorado River begins as a tiny stream fed by snowmelt. Downstream, it will provide water to 40 million humans.

Thrust skyward by Earth's forces between 40 and 70 million years ago, then sculpted by three glacial episodes, the Rockies are "new" in geologic terms. In 2009 Rocky Mountain National Park, a small neighborhood within this vast mountain range, became one of the nation's "newest" designated wildernesses. Nature has always ruled this wild, fantastic place. But as human-triggered events outside park boundaries increasingly affect life within the park, how will nature respond? What is our role?

Nature's Guideposts

Montane
below 9, 000 feet

The montane ecosystem is the park's gateway whether you enter from Grand Lake, Estes Park, or Wild Basin. On warm, south-facing slopes the ponderosa pines will greet you with their sweet fragrance. The open, sunlight-dappled forest of tall (up to 150 feet) trees feeds and shelters the tassel-eared Abert's squirrel.

Chokecherry, currant, and serviceberry bushes sustain many animals, insects, and birds. Beavers and otters work and play in the montane's streams. Elk, one of the park's larger mammals, gather here to rut in fall. They eat the aspen trees' soft inner bark and shoots, and leave a calling card of abraded aspen trunks. On cooler, north-facing slopes, forests are dense with Douglas-fir and lodgepole pine.

Subalpine
9,000-11,400 feet

Snow that falls in the alpine zone blows down to the subalpine, creating a wet ecosystem with over 30 inches of precipitation annually. Sharp-tipped, pungent Engelmann spruce and flat-needled fir trees prevail, reaching 100 feet. The understory supports shrubs like blueberry, wax currant, huckleberry, and Wood's rose. Wildflowers like arnica, fairy slipper, twinflower, and purple elephant's head colonize open meadows.

On the park's southern edge, the water ouzel, or American dipper, defies fast-running streams to dive for food. Downy and hairy woodpeckers, bold Steller's jay, and the yellow-rumped warbler share the woods. Look for the pocket gopher and golden-mantled ground squirrel.

Alpine
above 11,400 feet

Extremely thin soil, strong ultraviolet light, drying winds, and bitter cold define life on the tundra. Many plants hug the ground in dense mats (such as avens), preserve moisture with waxen leaf surfaces, or trap warmth against stems and leaves with hairs.

Animals also must adapt or die. Marmots store fat, then draw upon their reserves as they hibernate. Bighorn sheep graze here in summer, but migrate in fall, like many other species in the park, to lower elevations. The resilient white-tailed ptarmigan is an exception. This bird stays all winter in the alpine zone, warmed by feathered eyelids, nostrils, legs, and feet.

Legacy of Stewardship (1915-2015)

Native Americans lived on and cared for this land for centuries. As human numbers and uses grew, people recognized that preservation was needed. Many passionate advocates for a park emerged, including naturalist and guide Enos Mills (1870-1922). He led the push for a wilderness park. Mining, grazing, and logging interests lobbied for a national forest where commercial activities could continue. In 1915 Congress dedicated Rocky Mountain National Park.

Influential Estes Park resident Mary King Sherman (1862-1935) also campaigned hard to establish the park. She promoted outdoor education, citing better health and an increased sense of civic duty as benefits. Her ideas are cornerstones of National Park Service programs today.

Long before anyone envisioned a Rocky Mountain National Park, Isabella Bird (1831-1904) published A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains. Her book helped make others aware of the region's rugged beauty and "unprofaned freshness" and paved the way for preservation.

In 1873 a fur trapper called Mountain Jim helped Isabella Bird climb Longs Peak. He was one among many who traveled to the Rocky Mountains in search of natural beauty or bounty.

park map

topo map
(click for larger maps)

Native Americans preceded all others in this wild place. Tools, pottery, and rock piles whisper of human presence over 10,000 years ago, when Paleo-Indians seasonally hunted and possibly traded here. Later, Ute, Cheyenne, and Arapaho bands came to these mountains. They probably wore the path now known as Trail Ridge Road. They left few other traces.

Over one million people now pour into the park in a six-week period each summer. Nearby urban areas affect how the park is managed. Decades of fire suppression created dense undergrowth, which only increased the threat to surrounding communities and caused changes in the forest composition. Over 35 invasive plant species now mingle with natives.

To better understand these and other challenges, the park has set aside areas for science and research. It is also home to the Continental Divide Learning Center, where education and research programs focus on park resources.

As Rocky Mountain National Park moves into its second century it will continue to preserve natural systems and cultural stories for future generations. What role can you play in the park's next one hundred years?

Roaming Rocky Mountain National Park

Park Information Check your free park newspaper for current information about visitor centers, safety and high country survival, ranger-led programs, services, hiking trails, wildlife, shuttle buses, and more. Find lodging and visitor services at Estes Park and Grand Lake.

Safety Avoid lightning. Begin your hike early in the day. Get below treeline or to a shelter by afternoon, when thunderstorms begin. If caught above treeline in a storm, run from summits and isolated trees and rocks. Avoid small cave entrances and overhangs. Crouch down on your heels. • Many park visitors experience altitude sickness. Consult your doctor if you have a respiratory or heart condition. • The park's swift-running streams, waterfalls, falling trees, and sudden weather changes present many natural hazards. • While driving, stay alert for wildlife crossing the roads.

Pets Pets are prohibited in all areas not accessible by motor vehicle, including trails and meadows. Do not leave pets unattended in vehicles. Where allowed, pets must be kept on a six-foot leash.

Hunting, Fishing, and Firearms Hunting is prohibited in the park. • For firearms regulations check the park website. • Fishing requires a Colorado fishing license.

Regulations Abide by park regulations and restrictions, available at visitor centers and entrances. Camp only in designated campgrounds. All backcountry camping requires a permit. Do not leave property unattended for more than 24 hours without prior permission. • All vehicles, including bicycles, must stay on roads or in parking areas. Stopping or parking on roads is prohibited. • Overnight parking requires a permit. • Do not feed, approach, or try to touch any wild animal. • Leave wildflowers and other plants for others to enjoy. • Open alcoholic beverage containers in vehicles on park roads are illegal. • Marijuana use is prohibited in the park.

Accessibility We strive to make our facilities, services, and programs accessible to all. For information go to a visitor center, ask a ranger, call, or check our website.

Source: NPS Brochure (2015)


Establishment

Biosphere Reserve — October 26, 1976
Rocky Mountain National Park — Jan. 26, 1915


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Brochures ◆ Site Bulletins ◆ Trading Cards expand section

Documents

2020 Rocky Mountain National Park Research Conference: Continual Change, Collaborative Stewardship: Abstracts (March 6, 2020)

A Guide to the Geology of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (Carroll H. Wegemann, 1944)

A Guide to the Geology of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (Carroll H. Wegemann, 1955)

A History of the CCC in Rocky Mountain National Park (Julia Brock, 2005)

A Mandatory Permit System and Interpretation for Backcountry User Control in Rocky Mountain National Park: An Evaluative Study (James R. Fazio, 1974)

A Natural Resource Condition Assessment for Rocky Mountain National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/WRD/NRR-2010/228 (David M. Theobald, Jill S. Baron, Peter Newman, Barry Noon, John B. Norman III, Ian Leinwand, Sophia E. Linn, Richard Sherer, Katherine E. Williams and Melannie Hartmann, July 2010)

A Report on the Geology of Rocky Mountain National Park (William L. Effinger, 1934)

Administrative History 1915-1965, Rocky Mountain National Park (Lloyd K. Musselman, 1971)

Alpine vegetation composition, structure, and soils monitoring for Rocky Mountain National Park: 2009 Summary Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/ROMN/NRDS—2010/057 (Isabel Ashton, Mike Britten, Donna Shorrock and Billy Schweiger, June 2010)

Alpine vegetation composition, structure, and soils monitoring for Rocky Mountain National Park: 2010 Summary Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/ROMN/NRDS—2011/148 (Isabel Ashton, March 2011)

An Assessment of Informal Trails and Visitor-Created Sites in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado: Project Summary Report on Bouldering Impacts in the Chaos Canyon and Emerald Lakes Areas (Ashley D'Antonio and Christopher Monz, October 21, 2016)

An Evaluation of a Potential Barrier to the Upstream Movement of Brook Trout in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado NPS Technical Report NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-2005/337 (Christopher Myrick and Matthew Kondratieff, January 2004)

An Environmental History of the Kawuneeche Valley and the Headwaters of the Colorado River, Rocky Mountain National Park (Thomas G. Andrews, October 3, 2011)

Aspen Ecology in Rocky Mountain National Park: Age Distribution, Genetics, and the Effects of Elk Herbivory U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1337 (Linda C. Zeigenfuss, Dan Binkley, Gerald A. Tuskan, William H. Romme, Tongming Yin, Stephen DiFazio and Francis J. Singer, 2008)

Assessment of Methods for Redistributing Elk to Benefit Vegetation in Rocky Mountain National Park Final Report (W. David Walter, Charles W. Anderson, Michael J. Lavelle, Justin W. Fischer, Scott E. Hygnstrom and Kurt C. Vercauteren, 2010)

Atmospheric deposition of nutrients, pesticides, and mercury in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, 2002 USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report 2003-4241 (M. Alisa Mast, Donald H. Campbell, George P. Ingersoll, William T. Foreman and David P. Krabbenhoft, 2003)

Backcountry Management Plan, Rocky Mountain National Park (1975)

Bark Beetle Management Plan Environmental Assessment (February 2005)

Birds of Rocky Mountain National Park Rocky Mountain Nature Association Publication No. 4 (H.R. Gregg, March 1938)

Board of Review Report for Ouzel Fire (November 8-9, 1978)

Camping Location and Intensity of Park Use at Rocky Mountain National Park (Richard K. Ormrod and Richard G. Trahan, 1988)

Checking Rocky's Vital Signs Information Brief (April 27, 2021)

Claimed Identities, Personal Projects, and Relationship to Place: A Hermeneutic Interpretation of the Backcountry/Wilderness Experience at Rocky Mountain National Park Dissertation (Jeffrey J. Brooks, Fall 2003)

Climate Change in Rocky Mountain National Park: Frequently Asked Questions (January 2014)

Climate Change in Rocky Mountain National Park: Preservation in the Face of Uncertainty (c2008)

Constraints On, and Opportunities for, Riparian Willow Establishment, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado Final Research Report (David J. Cooper, Joyce Dickens and Edward Gage, January 2003)

Continental Divide Research Learning Center (undated)

Creating Stewardship through Discovery: A Comparison among Visitors that Participated in three National Park / National Geographic BioBlitzes NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/BRD/NRR—2016/1270 (Gerard T. Kyle, Jee In Yoon, Carena J. van Riper and Jinhee Jun, August 2016)

Creating Stewardship through Discovery: Visitor Participation in the Rocky Mountain National Park / National Geographic BioBlitz NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/ROMO/NRR—2016/1278 (Gerard T. Kyle, Jee In Yoon, Carena J. van Riper and Jinhee Jun, August 2016)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Moraine Park Museum and Amphitheater (2010)

Day-Use Limitation in National Parks: Visitor and Park Personnel Attitudes Toward Day-Use Limitation Systems for Rocky Mountain National Park (Richard G. Trahan, November 1977)

Declining Beaver Populations in Rocky Mountain National Park Final Report NRPP 99-04 (Bruce W. Baker, David Cooper, Cherie Westbrook, Ken Czarnowski, Therese Johnson, Ryan Monoello, H. Raul Peinetti, Tom Stanley and David Mitchel, January 10, 2005)

Design Guidelines: Rocky Mountain National Park (Joe Arnold, Wm. Bryce Lloyd and Amanda Jeter, 2010)

Development Concept Plan: Bear Lake, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (January 1982)

Development Concept: Eagle Cliff, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (June 1973)

Development Concept Plan/Environmental Assessment: Fall River Entrance, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (September 1987)

Ecological Effects of the Lawn Lake Flood of 1982, Rocky Mountain National Park Scientific Monograph NPS/NRROMO/NRSM-93/21 (Henry E. McCutchen, Raymond, Herrmann and David R. Stevens, eds., 1993)

Ecological Evaluation of the Abundance and Effects of Elk Herbivory in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, 1994-1999 U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-208 (Francis J. Singer and Linda C. Zeigenfuss, 2002)

Ecology of Wetlands in Big Meadows, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Report 90(15) (David J. Cooper, October 1990)

Elk and Vegetation Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement, Rocky Mountain National Park (December 2007)

Elk and Vegetation Management Plan/Final Environmental Impact Statement: Executive Summary, Rocky Mountain National Park (December 2007)

Estes Park Museum Oral History Transcripts

Jim Deterline, Longs Peak Supervisory Climbing Ranger, Rocky Mountain National Park (interviewed by Brian Brown, 2012)

Tom Hornbein, Park Naturalist, Rocky Mountain National Park (interviewed by Kelly Kordis, November 16, 2012)

Douglas Snively (interviewed by Amos Patrick, December 3, 2012)

Harry Kent (interviewed by Alicia Mittleman, March 7, 2013)

Scott Kimball (interviewed by Alicia Mittleman, November 12, 2013)

Bernard Gillette (interviewed by Alicia Mittleman, January 8, 2014)

Tommy Caldwell (interviewed by Alicia Mittleman, March 21, 2014)

Mike Caldwell (interviewed by Bronson McDonald, November 1, 2012)

Kelly Cordes (interviewed by Alicia Mittleman, February 18, 2014)

Paige Claassen (interviewed by Alicia Mittleman, April 2, 2014)

Topher Donahue (interviewed by Bryon Hoerner, February 25, 2014)

Chris Reveley (interviewed by Amos Patrick, November 30, 2012)

Ethnographic Assessment and Documentation of Rocky Mountain National Park (John A. Brett, 2003)

Ethnology of Rocky Mountain National Park: The Ute and Arapaho (Ralph L. Beals, 1936)

Field Survey of Giardia in Streams and Wildlife of the Glacier Gorge and Loch Vale Basins, Rocky Mountain National Park Natural Resource Report No. 85-3 (Sam Kunle and Nancy Cowdin, September 1985)

Final Land Protection Plan, Rocky Mountain National Park (1985)

Final Report for "Glacier and perennial snowfield mass balance of Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO): Past, Present, and Future" (Daniel McGrath, June 28, 2019)

Finding Aid: Ferrel Atkins Collection, Rocky Mountain National Park (March 2012)

Finding Aid: Non-Extant Structures, 1928-2006, Rocky Mountain National Park (December 2007)

Forest Health of High-Elevation, Five-Needle Pines at Glacier National Park, Rocky Mountain National Park, and Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve: 2013 Data Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/ROMN/NRDS-2017/1112 (Erin Borgman, August 2017)

Foundation Document, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (May 2013)

Foundation Document Overview, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (May 2013)

General Geologic Discussion: Rocky Mountain National Park — Materials Survey (Eastern Slope Area) (R.G. Burdick, January 1965 revised August 1966)

Geologic Resource Evaluation Report, Rocky Mountain National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/GRD/NRR-2004/004 (K. KellerLynn, September 2004)

Geology of the Pontiac Pit archeological site, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado USGS Open-File Report 84-223 (R.F. Madole, 1984)

Ground-water reconnaissance of selected sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and Shadow Mountain National Recreation area, Colorado USGS Open-File Report 71-320 (F.A. Welder, 1971)

Guide to Sustainable Mountain Trails: MacGregor Falls Trail, Rocky Mountain National Park, June 16-17, 2012 Advanced Trail Assessment, Planning & Design Sketchbook Training Workbook (c2012)

Historic Resource Study: Dutchtown and Lulu City, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (Susan B. Baldwin, January 1980)

Historic Structures (Determination of Eligibility Forms)

Bluebird Dam (Jack W. Neckels, July 18, 1984)

Deerhaven Lodge Historic District (S. Mehls, November 9, 1990)

Lily Lake Ranch (C.D. Mehls, October 20, 1989)

Longs Peak Seasonal Cabin/Ranger Station (S Mehls, March 3, 1991)

Reichardt Place Historic District (S. Mehls, March 3, 1991)

Reichardt Place Tea House/Mine (S. Mehls, March 3, 1991)

Twin Owls Ranger Station (Darcy Schlichting, 2000)

Wild Basin Ranger Station Historic District (S. Mehls, March 3, 1991)

Historic Structures Report/Architectural Section: William A. White Cabins, Rocky Mountain National Park (Thomas B. Muths, October 1976)

Historical Background Data, Rocky Mountain National Park (F. Ross Holland, Jr., March 1971)

Historical Background for Rocky Mountain National Park (H.E. Rensch, February 1935)

History of Boundary Adjustments, Rocky Mountain National Park (Louis P. Croft, February 1935)

Holocene Fire History an Climate Change in Rocky Mountain National Park: Pollen and Charcoal Evidence from Bear Lake (James P. Doerner, February 2008)

Impact of Horse Traffic on Trails in Rocky Mountain National Park (Rebecca Summer and Karen Otte, 1978)

Impacts of Visitor Spending on the Local Economy: Rocky Mountain National Park, 2010 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/EQD/NRR—2012/510 (Philip S. Cook, April 2012)

Indians of the Park Region Rocky Mountain Nature Association Publication No. 2 (Betty Yelm and Ralph L. Beals, July 1934)

Interpretive Prospectus, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (September 1985)

Investigation into relationships between disturbance history and mountain pine beetle outbreak severity and consequences in the lodgepole pine forest type of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (Jason Sibold, 2010)

Invasive Plant Management Plan and Environmental Assessment, Rocky Mountain National Park (August 2003)

Libreto Oficial De Actividades Para Guardabosques Juveniles (para edades de 5 ânos y menores), Parque Nacional de las Montañas Rocosas (Date Unknown)

Libreto Oficial De Actividades Para Guardabosques Juveniles (para edades 6-8), Parque Nacional de las Montañas Rocosas (Date Unknown)

Libreto Oficial De Actividades Para Guardabosques Juveniles (para edades 9-12), Parque Nacional de las Montañas Rocosas (Date Unknown)

Limnological Notes about Bear Lake (Edward B. Reed, Colorado State University)

Long Range Fishery Management Plan, Rocky Mountain National Park, 1965-1974 (Neil Guse and O.L. Wallis, 1965)

Master Plan, Rocky Mountain National Park (Final, January 1976)

Master Plan for the Preservation and Use of Rocky Mountain National Park: Mission 66 Edition (1961)

McGraw Ranch: Photographs, Written Historical and Descriptive Data, Reduced Copies of Measured Drawings HABS No. CO-175 (1998)

Mining in Rocky Mountain National Park (William B. Butler, 2006)

Model-Based Assessment of Aspen Responses to Elk Herbivory in Rocky Mountain National Park (Peter J. Weisberg, February 8, 2000)

Monitoring and Tracking Wet Nitrogen Deposition at Rocky Mountain National Park

2009 Monitoring and Tracking Wet Nitrogen Deposition at Rocky Mountain National Park: September 2011 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ ARD/NRR-2011/ 442 (Kristi Morris, Alisa Mast, Dave Clow, Greg Wetherbee, Jill Baron, Curt Taipale, Tamara Blett, David Gay and Eric Richer, September 2011)

2010 Monitoring and Tracking Wet Nitrogen Deposition at Rocky Mountain National Park: August 2012 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR—2012/562 (Kristi Morris, Alisa Mast, Dave Clow, Greg Wetherbee, Jill Baron, Curt Taipale, Tamara Blett, David Gay and Eric Richer, August 2012)

2011 Monitoring and Tracking Wet Nitrogen Deposition at Rocky Mountain National Park: August 2013 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR—2013/701 (Kristi Morris, Alisa Mast, Dave Clow, Greg Wetherbee, Jill Baron, Curt Taipale, Tamara Blett, David Gay and Jared Heath, August 2013)

2012 Monitoring and Tracking Wet Nitrogen Deposition at Rocky Mountain National Park: January 2014 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR—2014/757 (Kristi Morris, Alisa Mast, Dave Clow, Greg Wetherbee, Jill Baron, Curt Taipale, Tamara Blett, David Gay and Jared Heath, January 2014)

2013 Monitoring and Tracking Wet Nitrogen Deposition at Rocky Mountain National Park: July 2015 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR—2015/997 (Kristi Morris, Alisa Mast, Dave Clow, Greg Wetherbee, Jill Baron, Curt Taipale, Tamara Blett, David Gay and Daniel Bowker, 2015)

2014 Data Summary of Wet Nitrogen Deposition at Rocky Mountain National Park NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRDS—2016/1036 (Kristi Morris, July 2016)

2015 Data Summary of Wet Nitrogen Deposition at Rocky Mountain National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR—2017/1454 (Kristi Morris, May 2017)

2017 Monitoring and Tracking Wet Nitrogen Deposition at Rocky Mountain National Park: February 2019 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/ARD/NRR—2019/1905 (Kristi Morris, Alisa Mast, Dave Clow, Greg Wetherbee, Jill Baron, Jim Cheatham, Jim Bromberg, Lisa Devore, James Hou, Kristi Gebhart, Mike Bell, David Gay, Michael Olson, Tim Weinmann and Daniel Bowker, April 2019)

Monitoring of Vegetation Response to Elk Population and Habitat Management in Rocky Mountain National Park, 2008-14 U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2015-1216 (Linda C. Zeigenfuss and Therese L. Johnson, 2015)

Monitoring Plan for Vegetation Responses to Elk Management in Rocky Mountain National Park U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1013 (Linda C. Zeigenfuss, Therese Johnson and Zachary Wiebe, 2011)

Mountain Pine Beetle, Wayside Exhibit, Rocky Mountain National Park (undated)

Mountaineering in the Rocky Mountain National Park (Roger W. Toll, 1919)

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms

Agnes Vaille Shelter (HS-204) (Steven F. Mehls, August 4, 1991)

Bear Lake Comfort Station (D. Ferrel Atkins, July 28, 1981)

Dutchtown (D. Ferrel Atkins, August 5, 1975)

East Inlet Trail (Sierra Standish, September 27, 2004)

East Longs Peak Trail (Sierra Standish, October 24, 2006)

Enos Mills Homestead Cabin (F. Ross Holland, Jr. and Perry Eberhart, December 19, 1972)

Fall River Entrance Historic District (Employee's Residence, Storage Building, Office and Garage, Willow Park Stable, Alpine Visitor Center, Willows Park Patrol Cabin, Kiosk, Generator House, Pumphouse) (Carl and Karen McWilliams, 1985)

Fall River Pass Ranger Station, Store, Alpine Visitor Center, Generator House (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Fall River Pump House and Catchment Basin (Cheri Yost, October 2005)

Fall River Road (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Fern Lake Patrol Cabin (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Fern Lake Trail (Sierra Standish, September 22, 2004)

Flattop Mountain Trail (Sierra Standish, November 10, 2006)

Gem Lake Trail (Sierra Standish, November 14, 2006)

Glacier Basin Campground Ranger Station (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 1, 1985)

Grand River Ditch (D. Ferrel Atkins, August 12, 1975)

Holzwarth Historic District (D. Ferrel Atkins, August 1, 1975)

Lake Haiyaha Trail (Sierra Standish, November 14, 2006)

Leiffer House (D. Ferrel Atkins, August 14, 1977)

Little Buckaroo Ranch Barn (Sarah Eaton, December 15, 2008)

Lost Lake Trail (Sierra Standish, November 14, 2006)

Lulu City (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

McGraw Ranch (R. Laurie Simmons and Thomas H. Simmons, August 7, 1998)

Milner Pass Road Camp Mess Hall and Residence (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Moraine Lodge (D. Ferrel Atkins, July 9, 1975)

Moraine Park Museum and Amphitheater (Cheri Yost, March 14, 2005)

North Inlet Trail (Sierra Standish, November 10, 2006)

Rocky Mountain National Park Administration Building (Sarah Allaback and Ethan Carr, September 1, 2000)

Rocky Mountain National Park Utility Area Historic District (Rodd L. Wheaton and Mary Shivers Culpin, August 22, 1975 and November 16, 1981)

Sandbeach Lake Trail (Sierra Standish, August 15, 2006)

Shadow Mountain Lookout (D. Ferrel Atkins and James Muhn, August 8, 1977)

Shadow Mountain Trail (Sierra Standish, November 10, 2006)

Snogo Snow Plow (Bill Butler, August 18, 2005)

Thunder Lake Patrol Cabin (Lance R. Williams, June 30, 1976)

Thunder Lake Trail/Bluebird Lake Trail (Sierra Standish, August 15, 2006)

Timber Creek Campground Comfort Station #245 (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Timber Creek Campground Comfort Station #246 (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Timber Creek Campground Comfort Station #247 (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Timber Creek Road Camp Barn (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Timberline Cabin (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 1, 1985)

Tonahutu Creek Trail (Sierra Standish, November 10, 2006)

Trail Ridge Road (D. Ferrel Atkins, July 25, 1983)

Twin Sisters Lookout (Steven F. Mehle, August 4, 1991)

Willard, Beatrice, Alpine Tundra Research Plots (Cheri Yost and Chase Davies, June 2007)

William Allen White Cabins (F. Ross Holland, Jr. and Donald F. Dosch, December 15, 1972)

Wild Basin Residence (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Wild Basin Ranger Station and Residence (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Willow Park Patrol Cabin (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Willow Park Stable (Carl and Karen McWilliams, August 20, 1985)

Ypsilon Lake Trail (Sierra Standish, November 14, 2006)

Native American Oral History and Cultural Interpretation in Rocky Mountain National Park (Sally McBeth, 2007)

Natural Resource Vital Signs at Rocky Mountain National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/ROMO/NRR—2015/946 (Mary Ann Franke, Therese Johnson*, Isabel Ashton and Ben Bobowski, April 2015)

Naturalist Guide to the Gem Lake Trail, Rocky Mountain National Park (Richard G. Beidleman, 1955, Rocky Mountain Nature Association)

Nature Notes — Rocky Mountain National Park (1932)

Nitrogen Deposition: Issues and Effects in Rocky Mountain National Park (March 2005)

Official Junior Ranger Activities Booklet (Ages 5 and under), Rocky Mountain National Park (Date Unknown)

Official Junior Ranger Activities Booklet (Ages 6-8), Rocky Mountain National Park (Date Unknown)

Official Junior Ranger Activities Booklet (Ages 9 and up), Rocky Mountain National Park (Date Unknown)

Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03 USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5119 (M. Alisa Mast, William T. Foreman and Serena V. Skaates, 2006)

Park Newspaper

1987: September

1992: Winter/SpringSummer/Fall

1996: Summer

2003: Winter

2004: Winter

2005: Winter

2006: SpringSummerWinter

2008: Winter

2009: SpringSummer (2nd ed.)Winter

2010: SpringSummerSpanish

2011: Summer (2nd ed.)

2012: Summer (2nd ed.)Winter

2013: Summer (1st ed.)Summer (2nd ed.)FallWinter

2014: SpringSummerFallWinter

2015: SpringSummerFall

2016: SpringSummerFallWinter

2017: SpringSummerFallWinter

2018: SpringSummerFallWinter

2019: SpringSummerFallWinter

2020: Winter

2021: Summer/Fall

Peneplains of the Front Range and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado USGS Bulletin 730-A (Willis T. Lee, 1922)

People and Nature on the Mountaintop: A Resource and Impact Study of Longs Peak in Rocky Mountain National Park (Ruth M. Alexander and Catherine Moore, 2010)

People of the Kawuneeche Valley (Dave Lively, extract from The Denver Westerners Roundup, Vol. 71 No. 6, November-December 2015; ©Denver Posse of Westerners, all rights reserved)

Perry Cabin: Historic American Building Survey State Level III Documentation, Rocky Mountain National Park Building 0573 (5LR.1859) (Tyler Welch, 2010)

Planning document of water, energy, and biogeochemical-budget (WEBB) research project, Loch Vale watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado USGS Open-File Report 92-628 (J.T. Turk, N.E. Spahr and D.H. Campbell, 1993)

Prehistoric, Protohistoric, and Early Historic Native American Archeology of Rocky Mountain National Park: Volume 1—Final Report on Systemwide Archeological Inventory Program Investigations by the University of Northern Colorado (1998-2002) (Robert H. Brunswig, 2005)

Preliminary Master Plan, Rocky Mountain National Park (1973)

Prioritization of Riparian Restoration Projects in the Kawunechee Valley at Rocky Mountain National Park Using Wildlife Exclusion Fencing (David J. Cooper, June 2008)

Problems of Revegetation of Alpine Tundra/a> Rocky Mountain National Park (David R. Stevens, 1976)

Public Perceptions of Elk and Vegetation Management in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (Susan C. Stewart, Peter J. Fix and Michael J. Manfredo, June 2004)

Raising the Roof of the Rockies: A Geologic History of the Mountains and of the Ice Age in Rocky Mountain National Park (Gerald M. Richmond, ©Rocky Mountain Nature Association, 1974)

Report of the Acting Supervisor of the Rocky Mountain National Park: 1915 (HTML edition) (C.R. Trowbridge, 1915)

Resources Rendezvous: May 2003December 2004winter 2004

Rocky intertidal resources monitoring handbook, Cabrillo National Monument, Point Loma, San Diego, California USGS Open-File Report 2000-202 (John M. Engle and Gary E. Davis, 2000)

Rocky Mountain Forests at Risk (Jason Funk and Stephen Saunders, ©The Rocky Mountain Climate Organization and Union of Concerned Scientists, September 2014, all rights reserved)

Rocky Mountain National Park (United States Railroad Administration, 1919)

Rocky Mountain National Park: A Descriptive Guide (Raymond Gregg, ©Rocky Mountain Nature Association, undated)

Rocky Mountain National Park: A History (HTML edition) (C.W. Buchholtz, 1983)

Rocky Mountain National Park: Natural History Handbook No. 3 (Edwin C. Alberts, 1954)

Roger Wolcott Toll and Rocky Mountain National Park (Giles Toll, extract from The Denver Westerners Roundup, Vol. 61 No. 5, September-October 2005; ©Denver Posse of Westerners, all rights reserved)

Rocky Mountain National Park: Natural History Handbook No. 3 (Edwin C. Alberts, 1963)

Shared Birds and Migratory Connectivity — Raptor Migration Project (Bird Conservancy of the Rockies, November 2015)

Shared Birds and Migratory Connectivity — Western Tanager (Rocky Mountain Bird Conservancy, December 2014)

State of the Alpine Report for Rocky Mountain National Park: 2010 Summary Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/ROMN/NRDS—2013/535 (Isabel W. Ashton, E. William Schweiger, Judy Visty, Ben Bobowski, ed. and Jason R. Janke, August 2013)

State of the Park Report, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado State of the Park Series No. 50 (December 2017)

Statement for Management, Rocky Mountain National Park (September 1988)

Statement for Management, Rocky Mountain National Park (June 1992)

Systemwide Archeological Inventory Program: Rocky Mountain Cluster Plan YCR-CR-98-1 (James A. Truesdale, 1998)

The Archeology of the Civilian Conservation Corps in Rocky Mountain National Park (William B. Butler, 2006)

The Ecological Role of Elk in Rocky Mountain National Park Final Report (Ryan J. Monello, Therese L. Johnson and R.G. Wright, June 2006)

The Geologic Story of Rocky Mountain National Park (Willis T. Lee, 1917)

The McGraw Ranch Research Center in Rocky Mountain National Park (©National Trust for Historic Preservation, 1999, all rights reserved)

The Mission 66 Program at Rocky Mountain National Park: 1947-1973 (Maren Thompson Bzdek and Janet Ore, 2010)

The Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado Memorial Edition (Enos A. Mills, 1924)

The Rocky Mountain Wonderland (Enos A. Mills, 1915)

The Zoology of Rocky Mountain National Park (Baxter L. Smith, 1935)

Topographic Map: Rocky Mountain National Park, CO Scale: 1:50,000 (USGS, 1987)

Tragedy on Longs Peak (Carl A. Blaurock, extract from The Denver Westerners Roundup, Vol. 37 No. 5, September-October 1981; ©Denver Posse of Westerners, all rights reserved)

Trip Planner: 2016

Vegetation Restoration Management Plan (Version 2), Rocky Mountain National Park (July 2006)

Visitor Use on Longs Peak: A Preliminary Assessment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, Report of Findings (Abigail Kidd, Robin Graham and Christopher Monz, July 18, 2016)

Visitor Use Survey, Rocky Mountain National Park (Ken Hornback, 1997)

Vistas: Spring 2005Spring 2006Fall 2006Early Winter 2006May 2010January 2011May 2011November 2011May 2012November 2012May 2013December 2013June 2014November 2014May 2015

Wild Basin Self-Discovery Guide, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (1978)

Wilderness experience in Rocky Mountain National Park 2002; report to RMNP USGS Open-File Report 2003-445 (Elke Schuster, S. Shea Johnson and Jonathan G. Taylor, 2004)

Wind and Mountain Climatology in Severe Environments: Rocky Mountain National Park

Alpine Visitors Center, RMNP: Selected Semi-Permanent Snowbed Comparison for 2006-2018 (D.E. Glidden, 2018)

Alpine Visitors' Center Daily Temperature and Humidity Regimes for Summer, 1980 (D.E. Glidden, 2011, rev. 2016)

Daily Pressure Regime for Lower Hidden Valley (TR 6), Rocky Mountain National Park: Jan-May-1974 (D.E. Glidden, September 2018)

Daily Temperature and Humidity Regimes for Lower Hidden Valley (TR 6), Rocky Mountain National Park: Feb-May-1974 (D.E. Glidden, September 2018)

Fact Sheet: Wind Research, Rocky Mountain National Park (Judy Visty, November 2004, updated January 2008)

Gust Factors and Characteristics of Upslope vs Downslope Winds at the Alpine Visitors Center, Rocky Mountain National Park (D.E. Glidden, 2020)

Historical Wind and Mountain Climatology in Severe Environments: Rocky Mountain National Park NPS Wind Research near Rock Cabin, 1973-74 Selected Excerpts from a Journal at Rock Cabin, Trail Ridge Road, Rocky Mountain National Park (Dave Glidden, October 2016)

Historical Wind Research in Rocky Mountain National Park, Interviews with David Glidden (Leanne Benton, extracts from Resources Rendezvous, Winter 2004 and December 2006)

Periodic Semi-Permanent Snow Bed Variability at Alpine Visitors Center and Lava Cliffs, Rocky Mountain National Park: Selected Seasons and Years (D.E. Glidden, updated September 2020)

Periodic Semi-Permanent Snowbed Comparisons, Alpine Visitors Center and Lava Cliffs, Rocky Mountain National Park (D.E. Glidden, 2019)

Periodic Semi-Permanent Snow Bed Variability at Lava Cliffs and Alpine Visitors Center, Rocky Mountain National Park: Selected Years (D.E. Glidden, updated July 2021)

Selected Alpine and Subalpine Wind Research Summaries, 1973-1974, Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park, CO (D.E. Glidden, except from Winter Wind Studies in Rocky Mountain National Park, 1982, ©Rocky Mountain Nature Association)

Summer Wind Studies Near the Alpine Visitors' Center, Rocky Mountain National Park (D.E. Glidden, ©Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Inc., digital edition permission granted by the Rocky Mountain Conservancy/Rocky Mountain Nature Association, 1981, all rights reserved)

Superhurricane Winds and Extreme Gust Factors at Longs Peak and Rocky Mountain National Park (D.E. Glidden, August 2018)

Wind and Mountain Climatology in Severe Environments: Significant Disturbance Patterns of 12-13 November 2011 Wind Storm in Rocky Mountain National Park (D.E. Glidden, 2011)

Winter Wind Studies in Rocky Mountain National Park (D.E. Glidden, ©Rocky Mountain Nature Association, Inc., digital edition permission granted by the Rocky Mountain Conservancy/Rocky Mountain Nature Association, 1982, all rights reserved)

The Women of Wind Research in Rocky Mountain National Park (D.E. Glidden, 2015)



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Last Updated: 08-Apr-2022