MAN AND THE BIOSPHERE PROGRAM
Biosphere reserves are internationally recognized terrestrial and coastal or
marine areas where management seeks to achieve sustainable use of natural
resources while ensuring conservation of the biological diversity of the areas.
The first biosphere reserves were designated in 1976 as part of the United
Nation's Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) Man and
the Biosphere Program (MAB). Biosphere reserves are nominated by national
governments for inclusion in the world network of biosphere reserves. Each
nation's sites remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the nominating
Mission Statement of the United States Man and the Biosphere Program
"The mission of the United States Man and the Biosphere Program (U.S. MAB)
is to foster harmonious relationships between humans and the biosphere through an international
program of policy-relevant research which integrates social, physical and biological sciences to
address actual problems. These activities broadly interpreted include catalytic
conferences and meetings, education and training, and the establishment and use of biosphere
reserves as research and monitoring sites."
Forty-seven biosphere reserves are recognized in the United States, with 23
involving 30 units of the national park system. For example, Channel Islands
National Park was designated an International Biosphere Reserve in recognition
of its genetic diversity and importance as an environmental baseline for
research and monitoring. The following is a list of units of the U.S. National
Park Service and associated biosphere reserves.
UNITS OF THE U.S. NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM AND ASSOCIATED BIOSPHERE RESERVES
|PARK UNIT||BIOSPHERE RESERVE||YEAR DESIGNATED,|
|Big Bend National Park (TX)||Big Bend||1976|
|Channel Islands National Park (CA)||Channel Islands||1976|
|Denali National Park and Preserve (AK)||Denali||1976|
|Everglades and Dry Tortugas National Parks (FL)||Everglades & Dry Tortugas||1976|
|Glacier National Park (MT)||Glacier||1976|
|Noatak National Preserve (AK) and Gates of the Arctic National Park (AK) (part)||Noatak||1976, 1984|
|Olympic National Park (WA)||Olympic||1976|
|Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (AZ)||Organ Pipe Cactus||1976|
|Rocky Mountain National Park (CO)||Rocky Mountain||1976|
|Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (CA)||Sequoia and Kings Canyon||1976|
|Virgin Islands National Park (VI)||Virgin Islands||1976|
|Yellowstone National Park (WY, MT, ID)||Yellowstone||1976|
|Haleakala and Hawaii Volcanoes National Parks (HI)||Hawaiian Islands||1980|
|Isle Royale National Park (MI)||Isle Royale||1980|
|Big Thicket National Preserve (TX)||Big Thicket||1981|
|Redwood NP (CA)||California Coast Ranges||1983|
|Congaree Swamp National Monument (SC)||South Atlantic Coastal Plain||1983|
|Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks (CA)||Mojave and Colorado Deserts||1984|
|Cape Lookout National Seashore (NC) and Cumberland Island National Seashore (GA)||Carolinian-South Atlantic||1986|
|Glacier Bay National Park (AK)||Glacier Bay-Admiralty Island||1986|
|Golden Gate National Recreation Area and Point Reyes National Seashore (CA)||Central California Coast||1988|
|Great Smoky Mountains National Park (TN, NC)||Southern Appalachian||1988|
|Mammoth Cave National Park (KY)||Mammoth Cave Area||1990, 1996|
(from Park Science, Fall/Winter 2001)
The booklet The United States Man and the Biosphere Program
provides a useful overview of the program. Below is a collection of more
detailed documents pertaining the United States National Committee for Man and
the Biosphere. Additional information can be obtained at:
U.S. MAB Bulletin
BRIM Bulletin (Biosphere Reserve Integrated Monitoring)
UNESCO MAB Reports
1. International Co-ordinating Council of the Programme on
Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Final Report. First Session. Paris, 9-19 November 1971.
2. Expert panel on the rôle of systems
analysis and modelling approaches in the Man and the Biosphere
Programme (MAB). Paris, 18-20 April, 1972.
3. Expert panel on Project 1 : Ecological
effects of increasing human activities on tropical and subtropical
forest ecosystems. Paris, 16-18 May, 1972.
4. Expert panel on Project 12 :
Interactions between environmental transformations and genetic and
demographic changes. Paris, 27-25 May, 1972.
5. Expert panel on Project 5 : Ecological
effects of human activities on the valve and resources of lakes,
marshes, rivers, deltas, estuaries and coastal zones. London, 19-22 September, 1972.
6. Expert panel on Project 3 : Impact of
human activities and land use practices on grazing lands : savanna,
grassland (from temperate to arid areas), tundra. Montpellier, 2-7 October, 1972.
7. Expert panel on educational activities
under the Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB). Paris, 5-8
8. Expert panel on Project 6 : Impact of
human activities on mountain ecosystems. Salzburg, 29
January-4 February, 1973.
9. Expert panel on Project 13 :
Perception of environmental quality. Paris, 26-29 March,
10. International Co-ordinating Council of the
Programme on Man and the Biosphere. Second session. Paris, 10-19 April, 1973.
11. Expert panel on Project 7 : Ecology and
rational use of island ecosystems. Paris, 26-28 June,
12. Expert panel on Project 8 : Conservation of
natural areas and of the genetic material they contain. Morges, 25-27 September, 1973.
13. Expert panel on Project 11 : Ecological
aspects of energy utilization in urban and industrial systems. Bad Nauheim, 16-19 October, 1973.
14. Working group on Project 6 : Impact of
human activities on mountain and tundra ecosystems. Lillehammer, 20-23 November 1973.
15. Consultative group on Project 9 :
Ecological assessment of pest management and fertilizer use on
terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Part on Fertilizers. Rome, 7-9 January, 1974.
16. Working group on Project 1 : Ecological
effects of increasing human activities on tropical and subtropical
forest ecosystems. Rio de Janeiro, 11-15 February,
17. Task force on the contribution of the
Social Sciences to the MAB Programme. Paris, 28
February-2 March 1974.
18. Regional meeting on integrated ecological
research and training needs in the Sahelian region. Niamey, 9-15 March, 1974.
19. Expert panel on Project 2 : Ecological
effects of different land uses and management practices on temperate and
mediterranean forest landscapes. Paris, 16-19 April,
20. Task force on pollution monitoring and
research in the framework of the MAB programme. Moscow,
23-26 April, 1974.
21. Working group on Project 5 : Ecological
effects of human activities on the value and resources of lakes,
marshes, rivers, deltas, estuaries and coastal zones. Paris, 13-17 May, 1974.
22. Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB); Task Force on:
Criteria and guidelines for the choice and establishment of biosphere
reserves Final Report. Paris, 20-24 May
23. Regional meeting on integrated ecological research
and training needs in the Andean region. La Paz, 10-15 June,
24. Expert consultations on Project 9: Ecological
assessment of pest management and fertilizer use on terrestrial and aquatic
ecosystems (Part on pesticides).
27. International Co-ordinating Council of the
Programme on Man and the Biosphere. Third session. Washington,
D.C., 17-29 September, 1974.
28. Regional meeting on integrated ecological research
and training needs in Latin America, with emphasis on tropical and subtropical
forest ecosystems. Mexico City, 30 September-October,
30. Regional meeting on the establishment of
co-operative programmes of interdisciplinary ecological research, training and
rangeland management for arid and semi-arid zones of Northern Africa. Sfax, 3-12 April, 1975.
32. Task force on Project 14: Research on environmental
pollution and its effects on the biosphere. Ottawa, 5-8 August,
33. Regional meeting on integrated ecological research
and training needs in the humid tropics of West and Central Africa. Kinshasa, 29 August-5 September, 1975.
34. Regional meeting on integrated ecological research
and training needs in the southern Asian mountain systems, particularly the
Hindu Kush-Himalayas. Kathmandu, 26 September-2 October, 1975.
35. Regional meeting on integrated ecological research
and training needs in tropical deciduous and semi-deciduous forest ecosystems of
South Asia. Varanasi, 5-11 October, 1975.
36. Regional meeting on integrated ecological research
and conservation activities in the northern Mediterranean countries. Potenza, 27-31 October, 1975.
37. Expert consultations on Project 10: Effects on man
and his environment of major engineering works.
38. International Co-ordinating Council of the
Programme on Man and the Biosphere. Fourth session. Paris, 18-26
39. Regional planning meeting of the MAB National
Committees of Andean countries, with particular attention to Project 6. Lima, 2-5 December, 1975.
40. Regional meeting on integrated ecological research
and training needs in North East Africa and in the Near and Middle East, with
emphasis on the ecological effects of irrigation derived from large river
41. Regional meeting on integrated ecological research
in temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, in the framework of Project 2.
Brnö, 24-29 April, 1976.
42. Planning meeting for Project 11, with emphasis on
industrialized settlements. Amsterdam, 3-12 June, 1976.
43. MAB Mediterranean Scientific Conference. Regional
meeting for MAB National Committees of countries bordering the Mediterranean
Sea. Montpellier, 26 September-2 October, 1976.
44. International workshop on tropical rainforest
ecosystems. Hamburg-Reinbek, 12-17 May, 1977.
45. Workshop on biosphere reserves in the Mediterranean
region: development of a conceptual basis and a plan for the establishment of a
regional network. Side, 6-11 June, 1977.
46. International Co-ordinating Council of the
Programme on Man and the Biosphere. Fifth session. Vienna, 24
October-1 November, 1977.
47. Expert consultations on Project 7: Ecology and
rational use of island ecosystems. Khabarovsk, 24 August
48. International Co-ordinating Council of the
Programme on Man and the Biosphere. Sixth session. Paris, 19-28
58. International Coordinating Council of the Programme on
Man and the Biosphere (ICC/MAB). Eighth Session. Paris, 3-8 Dec., 1984.
60.International Coordinating Council on the Programme Man
and the Biosphere (ICC/MAB). Ninth Session. Paris, 20-25 October, 1986.
61. Report of the Scientific Advisory Panel for Biosphere
Reserves. Paris, 1989.
U.S. Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Reports (U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program)
1. Guidelines for Identification, Evaluation and Selection of Biosphere Reserves in the United States. First Revision. 1983.
1. Guidelines for the Selection of Biosphere Reserves: An Interim Report And Key. March 30, 1979.
1. Proposed Guidelines for the Selection of Biosphere Reserves in the United States. January 1996.
2. Understanding Marine Ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico.
3. Training and Technology Transfer for Man and the Biosphere. Reports from a Session Sponsored by the U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program at the XIV International Grassland Congress, Lexington, Kentucky, U.S.A. June, 1981.
4. Great Smoky Mountains Biosphere Reserve: A Bibliography of Scientific Studies. March 1982.
5. Great Smoky Mountains Biosphere Reserve: History of Scientific Study. March 1982.
6. Interim Guidelines for Identification and Selection of Coastal Biosphere Reserves. 1981.
7. Forestry in the Caribbean. Proceedings of the First Workshop of Caribbean Foresters held in Castries, Saint Lucia, May 24-28, 1982.
8. Communication to the Public in U.S. Biosphere Reserves: Report of a Workshop, Arlington, Virginia, July 14-15, 1981. 1984.
9. Glacier National Park Biosphere Reserve: A History of Scientific Studies. Volume I: A Narrative Description of Scientific Studies. September 1984.
9. Glacier National Park Biosphere Reserve: A History of Scientific Studies. Volume II: Bibliography, Subject Annotations, Tabular Data Summaries, and Appendices. September 1984.
10. Big Bend National Park Biosphere Reserve: Volume I: A History of Scientific Study. 1985.
10. Big Bend National Park Biosphere Reserve. Volume II: A History of Scientific Study, Bibliography. March 1985.
10. Big Bend National Park Biosphere Reserve. Volume II-A: A History of Scientific Study, Bibliography Spanish Citations. March 1985.
11. Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve. Volume I: A History of Scientific Studies. March 1985.
11. Isle Royale Biosphere Reserve. Volume II: A Bibliography of Scientific Studies. March 1985.
12. Guidelines for Environmental Specimen Banking with Special Reference to the Federal Republic of Germany: Ecological and Managerial Aspects. 1987.
Bibliography on the International Network of Biosphere Reserves. July 1990.
Directory of Biosphere Reserves in the United States. June 1991.
1995 Biosphere Reserve Managers' Workshop. October 29-31, 1995. Hyatt Dulles, Washington, DC. (1995)
Access 1996: A Directory of Permanent Plots Which Monitor Flora, Fauna, Climate, Hydrology, Soil, Geology, and the Effects of Anthropogenic Changes at 132 Biosphere Reserves in 27 Countries (July 1996)
Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves (reprint from Nature and Resources, Vol. XX, No. 4 Oct.-Dec. 1984)
Addition of Sites to Existing Biosphere Reserves (Draft, July 1991)
A Practical Guide to MAB (June 1987)
Assessment of Scientific Information and Activities at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Biosphere Reserve (Peter S. Bennett, R. Roy Johnson, and Michael M. McCarthy, July 1990)
Biosphere Reserves and the Conservation of Traditional Land Use Systems (William P. Gregg, Jr.,, Mar. 29-Apr. 2, 1988)
Biosphere Reserves and Sovereignty: A Story for the United States Man and Biosphere (MAB) Community (Vernon (Tom) Gilbert, January 2016)
Biosphere Reserves: Expanding the Functional Area for Conservation Through Cooperation (William P. Gregg, Jr., 1992)
Biosphere Reserves in Action: Case Studies of the American Experience (June 1995)
Biosphere Reserves of The World: Principles & Practices (Philip J. Nyhus and Michael S. Adams, 1995)
Biosphere Reserve Managers' Survey (1995)
Building Resource Inventories on a Global Scale (William P. Gregg, Jr., Erica Serabian and Michael A. Ruggiero, George Wright Forum, Vol. 10 No. 1, 1993)
Building Science Programs to Support the Multiple Roles of Biosphere Reserves (William P. Gregg, Jr., Sep. 26-Oct. 2, 1983)
Classification of Coastal and Marine Environments for Identification of Biosphere Reserves (Final Report, December 1986)
Constable Commission (Final Report, March 1995)
Designation of U.S. MAB Areas and Recognition of Entities Contributing to the U.S. Biosphere Reserve Program (February 1996)
Development of the Biosphere Reserve Network Under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program (Vernon C. Gilbert and William P. Gregg, Jr., August 1981)
For life, for the future. Biosphere reserves and climate change: A collection of good practice case studies (Lutz Möller, ed., German Commission for UNESCO, 2011)
Future Development of the MAB Programme (2000)
Great Smoky Mountains National Park as a Biosphere Reserve: A Research/Monitoring Perspective (Raymon Hermann and Susan Bratton, National Park Service, 1977)
Guidance for Regional MAB Organizational Efforts (1990)
Guidelines for the Selection and Coordination of Biosphere Reserves in the United States (Draft, March 1989)
Interview Notes: Feasibility Study for an Ozark Man and the Biosphere Cooperative
Long-Term Ecological Monitoring in Biosphere Reserves (August 1979)
Long-Term Ecological Research Sites: Value and Experience in the Man and the Biosphere Program (William P. Gregg, Jr., 1988)
Man and the Biosphere Program Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agriculture Research and Environment of the Committee on Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eight Congress, First Session, April 5, 1983
Managers' responses to questionnaire on biosphere reserves (1992)
Managing Coastal Biome Interfaces: A Discussion Paper (Robert Dolan, Bruce Hayden and Jeffrey Heywood, 1975)
Members of the U.S. National Committee for the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program and Program Directorates
Minutes of Biosphere Reserve Coordinating Committee (Second Meeting, October 10-12, 1990)
National Committee Meeting, Provisional Annotated Agenda, 21 September 1998 (1998)
On Environmental Policy, Sustainable Societies, and Biosphere Reserves (William P. Gregg, Jr., 1999)
People and the Temperate Region: A Summary of Research from the United States Man and the Biosphere Program, 1991 (Peter F. Ffolliott and Wayne T. Swank, eds., June 1991)
Potential Impacts of Climate Change and Adaptive Strategies for Natural Areas (William P. Gregg, Jr., 1991)
Proceedings: Conference on the Management of Biosphere Reserves Great Smoky Mountains National Park Biosphere Reserve, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, November 27-29, 1984 (John Peine, ed., 1985)
Proceedings of the Symposium on Biosphere Reserves Fourth World Wilderness Congress Worldwide Conservation, YMCA of the Rockies, Estes Park, Colorado, September 14-17, 1987 (William P. Gregg, Jr., Stanley L. Krugman and James D. Wood, Jr., eds. 1989)
Proceedings of the Workshop on Biosphere Reserves and Other Protected Areas for Sustainable Development of Small Caribbean Islands Caneel Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands, May 10-12, 1983 (Jim Wood, ed., 1984)
Proposed UNESCO survey on the implementation of the Seville Strategy MAB Circular Letter No.1/2000 (10 July 2000)
Putting the biosphere reserve concept into practice:the United States experience (William P. Gregg, Jr. and Monica M. Goigel, in Ecology in Practice, Part I: Ecosystem Management, Tycooly Publishing & UNESCO, 1984)
Remarks of William Gregg to Biosphere Reserve Managers' Workshop (William P. Gregg, Jr., Dec. 6-10, 1993)
Report of U.S. Participants in the EuroMAB 2013 Conference Brockville, Ontario, Canada, 15-17 October 2013 (William P. Gregg, Vernon C. Gilbert and Jack Ranney, 2013)
Statement on Biosphere Reserves for the Ad Hoc Commission on the United States Man and the Biosphere Program (Hubert H. Hinote and William P. Gregg, January 6, 1995)
Status of Regional Biosphere Reserve Programs (January 1991)
Strategic Plan for the U.S. Biosphere Reserve Program (December 1994)
Survey of National Park Biosphere Reserves (Alison Mack, August 1980)
Terrestrial Plant Ecology in Great Smoky Mountains National Park Biosphere Reserve: A Fifteen-Year Review and a Program for Future Research National Park Service Research/Resources Management Report Ser-84 (Peter S. White, April 1987)
Survey of USBRs (1997)
The "20 in 2000 Campaign": A Proposal for the Functional Development of U.S. Biosphere Reserves (February 1996)
The Ozark Highlands Man and the Biosphere Reserve: A Study of a Failed Nomination Effort (Theresa L. Goedeke and J. Sanford Rikoon, September 1998)
The role of U.S. National Parks in global change research (Peter L. Comanor and William P. Gregg, Jr., The George Wright Forum, 9(3/4): 67-74)
The Status of Biosphere Reserves: A Preliminary Assessment (William Gregg and John Wargo, 1988)
The Unique Role of Biosphere Reserves in Conserving Biological Diversity (William P. Gregg, Jr., May 28, 1987)
Toward a Crown of the Continent Biosphere Reserve (William P. Gregg, Jr., Aug. 6, 1990)
Toward a U.S. Modality of Biosphere Reserves: The Southern Appalachian Biosphere Reserve (William P. Gregg, Jr. and Hubert H. Hinote, Mar. 20-25, 1995)
U.S. Biosphere Reserve Action Plan (Draft) (Robert Woodmansee, Laurie Wayburn, William Greg and Caroline Bledsow, October 1991)
U.S. Biosphere Reserve Survey Results: 2003 and 1995 (February 2004)
U.S. Biosphere Reserves
Wilderness and Biosphere Reserves: Complementary Systems of Landscape Conservation (William P. Gregg, Jr., Mar. 29-30, 1985)