Great Smoky Mountains
National Park
North Carolina-Tennessee
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No place this size in a temperate climate can match Great Smoky Mountains National Park's variety of plant and animal species. Here are more tree species than in northern Europe, 1,500 flowering plants, dozens of native fish, and over 200 species of birds and 60 of mammals. International Biosphere Reserve and World Heritage Site designations have recognized this remarkable biological diversity and the cultures humans wrested from its abundance. The National Park Service mission is to preserve this natural and cultural heritage unimpaired for this and future generations. Most of the park is now managed as wilderness.

The Cherokee described these mountains as shaconage, meaning "blue, like smoke." They farmed the land and built log homes. The Cherokee tried to adapt to the Europeans, but the newcomers took their land. During the 1790s white settlement began in the lowlands and climbed the hills as eastern farmland became scarce and commercial agriculture migrated to the Midwest. The Eastern Band of Cherokee now lives on its reservation next to the national park. Most tribe members are descendants of those not forcibly removed in the 1830s.

Alarmed at commercial logging threats to the forests. Congress authorized the park in 1926. Established in 1934, this was among the first national parks assembled from private lands. The states of North Carolina and Tennessee, private citizens and groups, and schools contributed money to purchase these lands for donation to the federal government.

Smokies Forest Types

Spruce-Fir Forest

Growing on the highest park peaks, this evergreen forest is predominantly Fraser fir and red spruce. You can see it along the Spruce-Fir Nature Trail off the road to Clingmans Dome. Some high peaks bear treeless balds. Grassy balds may need human disturbances to stay grassy, so the park maintains the historic look of two. Heath balds of rhododendron, mountain laurel, azalea, and other evergreen heath shrubs can maintain themselves. Air pollution reduces visibility and causes damage to the trees from ground-level ozone.

Precipitation: 85 inches yearly
Elevation: 4,500 up to 6,600 feet

Glaciation's Diverse Legacy
Continental glaciers did not get this far south, but cold ice age climates pushed northern plants and animals far south of their former ranges. When the climate warmed, these boreal species persisted in the cooler mountains on the spine of the Smokies. This ice age legacy adds remarkable biological diversity to the park.

Balsam Woolly Adelgid
An exotic insect from Europe, the balsam woolly adelgid came to North America on nursery stock. In 45 years it has killed most mature Fraser firs in the park—once the home to 75 percent of all Fraser firs in the world. Organisms adapted to this tree and forest type have also declined.

Northern Hardwood Forest

Broadleaved trees well adapted for high elevations make up this forest type. Predominantly beech and yellow birch, it includes mountain and striped maples, white basswood, and yellow buckeye. Northern hardwood forest interrupts spruce-fir forests at intervals along the road to Clingmans Dome—growing at higher elevations than any other deciduous forests in the East. Deer, bears, grouse, turkeys, and squirrels eat beechnuts for vital protein but now must compete with non-native European wild hogs for this food.

Elevation: above 4,500 feet

Beech Gaps: Islands of Vegetation
Beech gaps are pure stands of American beech trees that grow in low spots on the south-facing slopes of high ridges. Set into a spruce-fir forest, these distinct gaps look like islands. The gaps are damaged by beech bark disease and the rooting of wild hogs.

Wild Hogs
Brought to a private North Carolina game preserve in 1912, European wild hogs escaped in 1920. By the 1940s they had spread into the park. Where they have rooted the soil looks tilled. They damage native plants, historic landscapes, and cemeteries and compete with native animals for oak and hickory nuts. Wild hogs also eat other animals, including a species of salamander found only in the Smokies.

Cove Hardwood Forest

A cove is a sheltered valley with deep, rich soils. If sacred groves exist they are these old-growth cove hardwood forests loggers missed. This most diverse park forest type includes yellow birch, beech, buckeye, basswood, Carolina silverbell, yellow-poplar, sugar maple, magnolia, hickory, and eastern hemlock. Record-size trees and contenders abound. See this forest type, one of the world's most diverse plant communities, along the Cove Hardwood Nature Trail off Newfound Gap Road at Chimneys Picnic Area.

Elevation: In coves and on sheltered slopes up to 4,500 feet

Successional Growth and Forest Recovery
Plant species tend to replace each other in a roughly predictable sequence after natural or cultural disturbance. Fields once farmed here recover to forests via shrub, sapling, and forest stages that grow increasingly rich over long periods of time.

Poaching
While animal poaching has declined in the past few years, the illegal gathering of plants and other natural materials is a recurring problem. Ginseng roots are dug and sold for their supposed vital nature. Mosses, lichens, galax, and even rocks are taken illegally for ornamental use. These actions carry criminal penalties.

Hemlock Forest

Evergreen hemlock trees dominate stream sides and the shaded, moist slopes at lower elevations. They also may grow in drier settings at somewhat higher elevations. These trees were cut in pre-park days for their tannin-rich bark used in tanning leather. Hemlocks in the park have been infested by a non-native insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid.

Elevation: along streams up to 3,000 feet; on dry, exposed slopes and ridges up to about 4,000 feet

Water Dependence
Mountains push air up until cold temperatures force it to release its moisture. Some 2,000 miles of park streams include beautiful waterfalls. Native brook trout largely have been diseased by stocked rainbow and brown trout. Some native brook trout waters are being restored, but higher-elevation habitat is being lost to stream acidification.

Hemlock Woolly Adelgid
Native to China and Japan, the hemlock woolly adelgid has infested hemlocks throughout the park. By killing hemlocks, this alien insect disrupts the habitat of songbirds, squirrels, and trout. The park is actively treating trees along roadsides, popular trails, and developed areas like campgrounds. The release of a natural predator beetle that feeds only on the adelgid will hopefully help save a portion of the forest.

Pine-and-Oak Forest

Where dry slopes are heavily exposed to direct sunlight, oak or pine-and-oak forests predominate. Both forest types include rhododendron and mountain laurel thickets and yellow-poplar, hickory, and flowering dogwood trees. Dogwoods are springtime attractions of the forest understory, but they are dying from the non-native dogwood anthracnose fungus. The park has 11 species of oak trees and five species of pines.

Precipitation: 55 inches yearly
Elevation: On dry, exposed slopes and ridges up to about 4.500 feet

Fire Dependence
The Cherokee used fire to create farmland and to improve wildlife browse for hunting. White settlers followed their lead. But vast fires after logging led to decades of fire suppression. We now know some plant communities need fire. To reproduce pine-and-oak forests require the light and bare soil fire provides.

Southern Pine Beetle
Orange needles on pine trees may indicate infestation by native southern pine beetles. If fire is suppressed, the pine beetles increase, and impacts of their predation multiply. Without periodic fire, hardwoods replace the pine forest, which means more beetles prey on fewer pines. This double squeeze on pine forests affects species adapted to live in them, like the threatened red-cockaded woodpecker that nests in the pines.

Discovering Diversity in the Smokies

Many people come to Great Smoky Mountains National Park to discover how their forebears lived. Punctuating its phenomenal biodiversity is the park's collection of vernacular and rustic architecture. Here is one of the nation's largest collections of log structures along with many buildings constructed during the Depression-era Civilian Conservation Corps work program. You can experience Oconaluftee Cherokee Indian culture and traditions at programs and museums on their reservation, Qualla Boundary, south of the park. Less visible are vestiges of early commercial routes and mining operations. These linked many people to markets abroad and lent diversity to the farm life of most Indians and newcomers. Enjoy the park and discover the heritage of natural and cultural diversity it preserves for all time.

Late 18th-century European naturalists found a botanically rich world new to them in the mountainous homelands of the Cherokee Indians. New organisms continue to be discovered.

Cherokees adapted very quickly to great changes that newcomers brought. Even before the Revolutionary War they were deeply involved in the fur trade with Europe, via Charleston, South Carolina. Long after the Trail of Tears, ethnologist James Mooney came to study the Eastern Cherokee who had managed to stay.

When the park was created in the 1920s and 1930s largely from private lands, many buildings of varied construction stood here. In the 1930s the National Park Service decided to save mostly the log buildings. Only a few frame dwellings, mills, and churches remain.

Travel and local-color writers stereotyped mountain people as backward and geographically isolated. In fact, pre-park residents took part in the immense changes of the larger society of that time, and they actively engaged in the cash-based market economy.

Endlessly attractive, even magical, waterfalls inspire reverie amidst the park's greatly diverse tapestry of life. Whether mid-mountain habitat for the native brook trout or motive power to drive lowland mill wheels, falling water reveals new meanings in our Southern Appalachian heritage.

You are connected to these resources. Waterfalls symbolize the flow of natural processes we take part in daily. Mill wheels turned by wild mountain streams . . . nature and culture proclaim our unity here.

Essentials for Seeing the Smokies

park map

topo map (east)

topo map (west)

shaded relief map
(click for larger maps)

Season-by-season tips for seeing Great Smoky Mountains National Park are found in the Smokies Guide, the official park newspaper. Read its important information on safety and regulations to protect you and the park's natural and cultural features. Free copies are found at visitor centers and other park locations.

Please ask at a visitor center for accessibility information.

Visitor centers—at Sugarlands, Cades Cove, and Oconaluftee—are great information sources. See their exhibits, talk with a ranger or volunteer to find out how to use your time here. Browse their bookshops for guidebooks, maps, and videos.

Check the park's website for current events and programs, park information, and links to sites about nature and culture in the park, www.nps.gov/grsm.

From your car you can see much of what the Smokies offer, including wildflowers, flowering trees, colorful fall foliage, mountain vistas, and historic buddings. Newfound Gap Road (U.S. 441), the main road across the mountains, is a famous scenic drive.

Other park roads offer glimpses of the park's natural and cultural heritage and also link you to self-guiding trails and short footpaths to other park attractions for more intimate insights into this great public treasure.

Walking a park trail can be the best way to sense how directly you are related to the world of nature. Walking even short distances can put you in a totally different world. The lack of human-generated noise opens up the world of natural sounds.

Simply being inside the magnificent forests can be a multi-sensory experience rich with sights, sounds, smells, and that special skin warmth felt as light rays penetrate the deep shade cast by a forest canopy. Dwarfed by the trees, your sense of scale may even be altered.

The Appalachian Trail threads nearly the length of the national park (some 70 miles) along the Smokies' crest and the Tennessee-North Carolina border. You can take this national scenic trail north to Maine's Mount Katahdin or south to Georgia's Springer Mountain. Volunteers coordinated by the nonprofit Appalachian Trail Conservancy maintain it. On the two-mile stretch heading south from Newfound Gap, accessible near the Newfound Gap parking lot, you can see wildflowers in spring or colorful foliage in fall. Then you can say: "I walked a part of the 2,174-mile-long Appalachian Trail."

Bicycling is especially popular on the Cades Cove Loop Road. Ask about special bicyclist and pedestrian-only hours on the loop road in summer. At Cades Cove you cycle on the 11-mile road through open fields encircled by mountains. You can stop at the historic buildings preserved there. Bicycles are allowed on park roads, but many are winding, steep, or narrow and shared by many motorists new to mountain driving. Bicycles are prohibited on nearly all park trails; ask at visitor centers about exceptions.

Horseback riding also offers a good pace for seeing the park. Auto-access horse camps provide access to backcountry trails, but space is limited. Horses can be hired by the hour at several park locations for guided trail rides. Horse camps and rentals are not available for parts of the winter. Check schedules at a visitor center, in the Smokies Guide, or on the park website.

Backcountry hiking can immerse you in these Southern Appalachian mountain wildlands. Any overnight backcountry use requires a backcountry use permit. You also need proper equipment, adequate preparation, specific use information, and, for some areas, reservations. Please learn and use the techniques of the Leave No Trace outdoor ethic. For the information you need, check the park website or the Smokies Guide.

This is bear country. To protect you and the American black bears here, federal law requires proper food storage. Store all food in the trunk of your vehicle and place ail garbage entirely within bearproof trash cans or dumpsters. Clean up food scraps in and near camp and on grills and table tops, so bears do not become habituated to human food and garbage. Such bears eventually lose their natural fear of humans and become aggressive problem bears that are killed by automobiles, are easy targets for poachers, or must be destroyed. Please don't be bear careless!

Feeding wildlife or picking plants is subject to a $5,000 fine and six months imprisonment.

Have fun learning more about the park's nature and history in programs offered by the Great Smoky Mountains Institute at Tremont and by the Smoky Mountain Field School. Programs vary from one day to a week or more and are offered for ages nine to 17 and for adults, including elderhostel participants.

Check the Smokies Guide to find out how you can participate in learning experiences like overnights, hiking weeks, summer camp, canoeing, wildlife seminars, elderhostels, teacher weekends, and landscape photography. These and other programs cover many topics—backpacking, geology, spring wildflowers, park history, and birds and other wildlife of the park area.

Great ways to support the park include joining the nonprofit Great Smoky Mountains Association and the Friends of Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Both groups exist to help the park and to help you care for, learn about, and support the park, including opportunities to volunteer. Find details in the Smokies Guide or ask at a visitor center.

Pets are permitted in the park on a leash only; they are prohibited on trails or cross-country hikes.

Air pollution from outside the park plagues its views, visitors, forests, wildlife, and waters. Since 1948 haze from air pollution has reduced average visibility 40 percent in winter and 80 percent in summer. Ground-level ozone, a respiratory irritant for humans, also damages plants, especially at higher elevations. Acidic precipitation and nitrogen overloads block plant nutrients and release toxic aluminum that can harm plants and streamlife.

Source: NPS Brochure (2012)


Establishment

World Heritage Site — December 6, 1983
International Biosphere Reserve — 1976
Great Smoky Mountains National Park — June 15, 1934


For More Information
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Brochures ◆ Site Bulletins ◆ Trading Cards expand section

Documents

A Comparison of Surface Impact by Hiking and Horseback Riding on Four Trail Surfaces in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Paul Whittaker and Susan Bratton, c1979)

A Gift For All Time: Great Smoky Mountains National Park Administrative History (Theodore Catton, October 10, 2008)

A Sketch of Mountain Life, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (C.S. Crosman, undated)

Acoustic Monitoring Report 2016: Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRSM/NRR-2021/2267 (Grace Carpenter and J.A. Beeco, June 2021)

Air Quality Issues at Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks (1993)

All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Other National Parks: Prospectus (c1999)

An Assessment of Aquatic Macroinvertebrates in a High-elevation Stream, Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GRSM/NRTR—2012/660 (Becky J. Nichols, January 2013)

An Assessment of Trail Conditions in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Jeffrey L. Marion, July 1994)

ATBI Quarterly: Autumn 2000Winter 2001Spring 2001Summer 2001, Vol. 2 No. 3Fall 2001, Vol. 2 No. 4Winter 2002, Vol. 3 No. 1Spring 2002, Vol. 3 No. 2Spring 2003, Vol. 4 No. 2Summer 2003, Vol. 4 No. 3Winter 2004, Vol. 5 No. 1Fall 2009, Vol. 10 No. 4

Backcountry Management Plan, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (November 1985)

Beaver Reoccupation and an Analysis of the Otter Niche in Great Smoky Mountains National Park Research/Resources Management Report No. 40 (Francis J. Singer, David LaBrode and Lorrie Sprague, 1981)

Biological Effects of Stream Water Quality on Aquatic Macroinvertebrates and Fish Communities within Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRSM/NRR—2014/778 (John S. Schwartz, Meijun Cai, Matt A. Kulp, Stephen E. Moore, Becky Nichols and Charles Parker, February 2014)

Black Bear Management Guideline, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Kim DeLozier, February 1993)

Briefing Statements:

Air Quality Issues (April 26, 2010)

All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (January 25, 2005)

Cades Cove Transportation and Development Planning (February 10, 2004)

Consideration of Proposed Cell Phone Towers (January 27, 2010)

Experimental Elk Release (September 25, 2007)

Future Management of Elkmont Historic District (July 26, 2005)

Future Management of Elkmont Historic District (January 27, 2010)

Non-native Wild Hog Control (February 2003)

North Shore Road Monetary Settlement (March 15, 2010)

Response to Exotic Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Infestation (January 28, 2004)

Summary of Forest Insect and Disease Impacts (August 2010)

Cades Cove in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (A. Randolph Shields, extract from Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. XXIV No. 3, Summer 1965)

Cades Cove Planning:

Cades Cove Planning Project News Issue No. 2 (July 2002)

Cades Cove Planning Project News Issue No. 4 (March/April 2003)

Cades Cove Planning Newsletter (Vol. 1 Issue 1, Spring 2005)

Characterization of secondary minerals formed as the result of weathering of the Anakeesta Formation, Alum Cave, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee USGS Open-File Report 95-477 (Marta J. Flohr, Roberta G. Dillenburg, and Geoffrey S. Plumlee, 1995)

Checklist of Fungi of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Management Report No. 29 (Ronald H. Petersen, ed., 1979)

Cherokee Orchard Road-Roaring Fork Motor Nature Trail Roadway Improvements/Environmental Impact Statement Newsletter (December 2006)

Comprehensive Resource Education Plan, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (January 2001)

Cultural Landscape Assessment: Newfound Gap Road (Milepost 0.0 to Milepost 14.5), Sevier County, Tennessee (February 2009)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Cable Mill, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Cades Cove Landscape, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Cades Cove Valley Floor, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Carter Shields Homestead, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Elijah Oliver Homestead, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Henry Whitehead Homestead, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, John and Lucretia Oliver Homestead, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Methodist Church and Cemetery, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Methodist Baptist Church and Cemetery, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Peter Cable and Dan Lawson Homestead, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Primitive Baptist Church and Cemetery, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Tipton-Oliver Homestead, Great Smoky Mountains NP - Cades Cove Subdistrict (1998)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory, Voorheis Estate (Twin Creeks), Great Smoky Mountains NP - North District (1998)

Developing Critical Loads of Nitrate and Sulfate Deposition to Watersheds of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, United States NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/GRSM/NRTR—2014/896 (Qingtao Zhou, Charles T. Driscoll, Stephen E. Moore, Matt A. Kulp, James R. Renfro, John S. Schwartz and Meijun Cai, August 2014)

Digital Geologic Map of Parts of the Cades Cove and Calderwood Quadrangles, Tennessee and North Carolina, Great Smoky Mountains National Park USGS Open-File Report 99-0175 (1999)

Economic Impacts of Great Smoky Mountains National Park Visitors on the Local Region, 1997-2000 (Daniel J. Stynes, February 2002)

Environmental Assessment for the Establishment of Elk (Cervus elaphus) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (2010)

Environmental Assessment of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Control Strategies in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Dana Soehn, Glenn Taylor, Tom Remaley and Kristine Johnson, October 4, 2005)

Elkmont Historic District:

Cultural Reported Selected Figures, Elkmont Historic District (undated)

Cultural Resources of the Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Sevier County, Tennessee (Todd Cleveland, Larry McKee and Paul Webb, TRC Garrow Associates, Inc., September 2002)

Elkmont Historic District Final Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan Amendment: Volume 1 (February 2009)

Elkmont Historic District Final Environmental Impact Statement and General Management Plan Amendment: Volume 2 (February 2009)

Elkmont Historic District Map/Site Location (undated)

Elkmont Historic District Project News Issue No. 1 (May 2002)

Elkmont Historic District Project News Issue No. 2 (September 2002)

Elkmont Historic District Project News Issue No. 3 (February 2003)

Elkmont Historic District Project News Issue No. 4 (March 2004)

Elkmont Historic District Project News Issue No. 5 (February 2006)

Infrastructure Inventory, Elkmont GMP Amendment/Environmental Assessment (TN & Associates, Inc., November 8, 2002)

Inventory of Natural Resources, Elkmont Historic District (November 8, 2002)

Visitor Experience and Recreational Use Report, Elkmont Historic District Draft (TN & Associates, Inc., November 8, 2002)

Environmental Monitoring and Baseline Data Management Strategies and the Focus of Future Research in Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Southeast Region Research/Resources Management Report SER-76 (John D. Peine, Charlotte Pyle and Peter S. White, May 1985)

European Wild Hogs in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (May 1, 1985)

Evaluating Communications with Visitors to Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Research/Resources Management Report SER-75 (John D. Peine, Craig A. Walker, Paul H. Motts and William E. Hammitt, December 1984)

Evaluation of Electrofishing as a Management Technique for Restoring Brook Trout in Great Smoky Mountains National Park Research/Resources Management Report SER-90/01 (Jerry L. West, Stephen E. Moore and M. Randall Turner, 1990)

Field Guide to the Capture, Drug Immobilization and Transportation of Wildlife (William J. Cook, April 1, 1979)

Fire History of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park: 1940-1979 NPS Research/Resources Management Report No. 46 (Mark E. Harmon, March 1981)

Forest Health Monitoring Summary, Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/APHN/NRDS—2012/378 (Glenn Taylor, October 2012)

Foundation Document, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina-Tennessee (October 2016)

Foundation Document Overview, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina-Tennessee (October 2016)

Generalized geologic map of bedrock lithologies and surficial deposits in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina USGS Open-File Report 2004-1410 (Scott Southworth, Art Schultz and Danielle Denenny, 2005)

Geological Cross-Section of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Robert H. Griffin, 1937)

Geologic map of Cades Cove and Calderwood quadrangles, Tennessee and North Carolina, Great Smoky Mountains National Park USGS Open-File Report 99-175 (Scott Southworth, Peter G. Chirico and Trevor Putbrese, 2000)

Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina (HTML edition) USGS Open-File Report 2005-1225 (Scott Southworth, Art Schultz and Danielle Denenny, 2005)

Geologic maps of the Mount Guyot, Luftee Knob, and Cove Creek Gap 7.5-minute quadrangles, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina USGS Open-File Report 99-536 (A.P. Schultz, 1999)

Geologic Resource Evaluation Report, Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/GRD/NRR-2008/048 (T.L. Thornberry-Ehrlich, September 2008)

Geology and Geologic History of Great Smoky Mountains National Park; a simple guide for the interpretive program USGS Open-File Report 97-510 (A.P. Schultz and R.R. Seal II, 1997)

Geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina USGS Bulletin 587 (Philip B. King, Robert B. Neuman and Jarvis B. Hadley, 1968)

Geology of the Mount Le Conte 7.5-minute quadrangle, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina USGS Open-File Report 2000-261 (Arthur P. Schultz, Scott Southworth, Carrie Fingeret and Tom Weik, 2000)

Great Smoky Mountains National Park 2014 Water Quality Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRSM/NRR—2016/1130 (John S. Schwartz, Adrian Gonzalez, Andrew Veeneman and Matt A. Kulp, February 2016)

Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Photos From the American Forests Photograph Collection (James G. Lewis, extract from Forest History Today, Spring/Fall 2016)

Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Natural History Handbook No. 5 (Arthur Stupka, 1960)

Great Smoky Mountains National Park: White-tailed Deer Population Monitoring Protocols (Kim DeLozier, 1993)

Highland Homeland: The People of the Great Smokies National Park Service History Series (Wilma Dykeman and Jim Stokely, 1978)

Historic Furnishing Plan (Sections A through F): Gregg-Cable House, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (September 1980)

Historic Resource Study, Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Volume 1 (April 2016)

Historic Resource Study, Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Volume 2 (April 2016)

Historic Structure Report: Addicks Cabin and Adamless Eden, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, September 2010)

Historic Structure Report: Appalachian Clubhouse, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, February 17, 2009)

Historic Structure Report: Baumann Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (The Jaeger Company, March 2016)

Historic Structure Report: Cain Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, September 2014)

Historic Structure Report: Chapman-Byers Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, February 17, 2009)

Historic Structure Report: Cook Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (The Jaeger Company, March 2016)

Historic Structure Report: Creekmore Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, September 2014)

Historic Structure Report: Galyon Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (The Jaeger Company, March 2016)

Historic Structure Report: Hale Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (The Jaeger Company, March 2016)

Historic Structure Report: Higdon Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, August 2015)

Historic Structure Report: May Cabin and Mayo Servants' Quarters, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, September 2010)

Historic Structure Report: Scruggs-Briscoe Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (The Jaeger Company, March 2016)

Historic Structure Report: Smith Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, September 2014)

Historic Structure Report: Sneed Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, August 2015)

Historic Structure Report: Spence Cabin, Elkmont Historic District, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Joseph K. Oppermann-Architect, February 17, 2009)

Historic Structure Report: Sugarlands Headquarters, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Gatlinburg, Tennessee (Quinn Evans, December 2019)

Historic Structures Report: Alfred Reagan House and Tub Mill, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (HTML edition) (Robert R. Madden and T. Russell Jones, October 12, 1969)

Historic Structures Report: Jim Hannah Cabin/Will Messer Barn/Dan Cook Cabin and Apple House, Little Cataloochee, North Carolina, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Roy Carroll and Raymond H. Pulley, June 1976)

Historic Structures Report, Part II & Furnishing Study: Walker Sisters Home, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (HTML edition) (Robert R. Madden and T. Russell Jones, March 3, 1969)

Historical Overview (undated)

Historical Overview of Fisheries Studies and Sport Fisheries Monitoring Plan for Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Research/Resources Management Report SER-78 (Mark Alston, Jerry West, Mark MacKenzie and Norbert McKinney, December 1984)

History of the Grassy Balds in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (HTML edition) NPS Research/Resources Management Report No. 4 (Mary Lindsay, April 1976)

Inventory and Monitoring Program Annual Administrative Report, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (1992)

Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Plan, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (February 1993)

Monitoring Amphibians in Great Smoky Mountains National Park USGS Circular 1258 (C. Kenneth Dodd, Jr., 2003)

Mountain Home: The Walker Family Farmstead, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Robert R. Madden and T. Russell Jones, 1977)

National Park Service Geologic Type Section Inventory, Appalachian Highlands Inventory & Monitoring Network NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/APHN/NRR-2021/2278 (Tim Henderson, Vincent L. Santucci, Tim Connors and Justin S. Tweet, July 2021)

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms

Alex Cole Cabin (Paul Gordon, April 17, 1974)

Clingmans Dome Observation Tower (Cynthia Walton, October 26, 2009)

Cades Cove Historic District (Paul Gordon, Sam Easterby and George Richardson, June 19, 1973)

Elkmont Historic District (Phillip Tomason, Michaell Ann Williams, revised by L. Brown, April and July 1993)

Hiking Club Barn (Messer Barn) (Paul R. Gordon, September 24, 1973)

Historic Resources of Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Stephen Olausen, John Daly and Laura Kline, April 2016)

J.H. Kress Cabin (Hall Cabin) (Paul Gordon, August 7, 1973)

John Ownby Cabin (Paul Gordon, August 2, 1973)

Junglebrook Historic District (Bud Ogle Farm) (Edward L. Trout, January 4, 1977)

Little Greenbrier School (Paul R. Gordon, July 31, 1973)

Mayna Treanor Avent Studio (Avent Cabin) (Douglas J. Harnsberger, May 1, 1993)

Mingus Mill (John J. Daly, April 2016)

Oconaluftee Ranger Station (Laura Kline, April 2016)

Roaring Fork Historic District (Paul Gordon and Sam Easterby, July 9, 1973)

Smokemont Baptist Church (Oconaluftee Baptist Church) (Paul Gordon, July 27, 1973)

Tyson McCarter Place (Paul Gordon, July 30, 1973)

Walker Sisters' Place (Paul R. Gordon, April 16, 1974)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRSM/NRR-2018/1626 (Peter C. Bates, Jerry R. Miller, Diane M. Styers, Keith Langdon, Carey Burda, Ron Davis, Thomas Martin, Brian D. Kloeppel and Scott McFarland, April 2018)

North Carolina's Role in the Establishment of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Willard Badgette Gatewood, Jr., extract from North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. XXXVII No. 2, April 1960)

North Shore Road:

Agreement of Transfer Between Tennessee Valley Authority and United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service Relating To Lands in Swain County, North Carolina: Exhibit B (July 30, 1943)

Major Management Issues/Decisions (April 9, 2002)

Cultural Resources Existing Conditions Report, North Shore Road Environment Impact Statement, Swan and Graham Counties, North Carolina Final Report (Paul A. Webb, TRC Garrow Associates, Inc., January 2004)

North Shore Road, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Updates to the November 2005 Document (undated)

North Shore Road, Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Volume 1 (November 2005)

Existing Conditions Report, North Shore Road Environmental Impact Statement, Swain County, North Carolina (January 2004)

Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the North Shore Road in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Federal Register, Vol. 68 No. 79, Thursday, April 24, 2003)

Memorandum of Agreement of July 30, 1943

Memorandum of Agreement Relating to Non-Construction of North Shore Road (2010)

Paleozoic fossils in Cades Cove, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina USGS Open-File Report 97-747 (J.E. Repetski, 1997)

Park Newspaper (Guide to: Great Smoky Mountains National Park): Summer 1983

Park Newspaper (Smokies Guide)

2009: Spring

2013: SummerFallWinter

2014: SpringSummerLate SummerFallWinter

2015: SpringSummerLate SummerFallWinter

2016: SpringSummerLate SummerFallWinter

2017: SpringSummerFallWinter

2018: SpringSummerLate SummerFallWinter

2019: SpringSummerFallWinter

2020: SpringSummerFallWinter

2021: SpringSummerFallWinter

2022: Spring

Park Service does Not Release Asian Lady Beetles, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (undated)

Preliminary geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park within the Fontana Dam and Tuskeegee quadrangles, Swain County, North Carolina USGS Open-File Report 95-264 (Scott Southworth, 1995)

Preliminary report on water quality associated with the abandoned Fontana and Hazel Creek Mines, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee USGS Open-File Report 98-476 (R.R. Seal II, J.M. Hammarstrom, C.S. Southworth, A.L. Meier, D.P. Haffner, A.P. Schultz, G.S. Plumlee, M.J. Flohr, J.C. Jackson, S.M. Smith and P.L. Hageman, 1998)

Reclamation of Indian and Abrams Creeks in Great Smoky Mountains National Park Special Scientific Report-Fisheries No. 306 (Robert E. Lennon and Phillip S. Parker, May 1959)

Recommendations for Trail Location and Recommendations for Trail Construction For All Trails Within the Park Area, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (April 12, 1935)

Restoration of Sams Creek and an Assessment of Brook Trout Restoration Methods, Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Technical Report NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-2005/342 (Stephen E. Moore, Matt A. Kulp, John Hammonds and Bruce Rosenlund, September 2005)

Review of Long-Term Monitoring Program at Great Smoky Mountains National Park (1995)

Rifle Making in the Great Smoky Mountains (1941)

Search and Rescue Plan, Great Smoky Mountains National Park Chief Ranger's Directive 78-3 (March 1979)

Shaded Relief Map: Great Smoky Mountains National Park & Vicinity, TN Page Two, Great Smoky Mountains National Park Scale: 1:125,000 (USGS, 1974)

Smokies Trip Planner: 20062007200820092010201120122013201420152016

Status and History of the Mountain Lion in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Management Report No. 15 (Nicole Culbertson, 1977)

Status of the European Wild Boar Project, Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Project Management Report No. 6 (Francis J. Singer, 1976)

Strategic Plan, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2008)

Strategic Plan, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (October 1, 2008 - September 30, 2012)

Superintendent's Monthly Report, 1931-33 (1931-1933)

Surficial Geologic Map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina USGS Open-File Report 2003-381 (Scott Southworth, Art Schultz, Danielle Denenny and James Triplett, 2004)

The All Taxa Biological Inventory of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Michael J. Sharkey, extract from Florida Entomologist, 84(4), December 2001)

The Appalachian National Park Movement, 1885-1901 (Charles Dennis Smith, extract from North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. XXXVII No. 1, January 1960)

The Effect of Balsam Woolly Aphid Infestation on Fuel Levels in spruce-Fir Forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Research/Resources Management Report SER-74 (N.S. Nicholas and P.S. White, January 1975)

The Effect of the Southern Pine Beetle on Fuel Loading in Yellow Pine Forests of Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Research/Resources Management Report SER-73 (N.S. Nicholas and P.S. White, December 1974)

The Flora of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: An Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants and a Review of Previous Floristic Work NPS Research/Resources Management Report SER-55 (Peter S. White, February 1982)

The Foothills Parkway: Completing the "Missing Link" (2013)

The Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Land of Everlasting Hills (1928)

The Mother Lode (Kurt Repanshek, extract from Audubon, July-August 2010)

The Oconaluftee Valley, 1800-1860: A Study of the Sources for Mountain History (Robert S. Lambert, extract from North Carolina Historical Review, Vol. XXXV No. 4, October 1958)

Topographic Map: Great Smoky Mountains National Park (East Half), TN Scale: 1:62,500 (USGS, 1978)

Topographic Map: Great Smoky Mountains National Park (West Half), TN Scale: 1:62,500 (USGS, 1978)

Trails Rehabilitation Guide for 1994, Environmental Assessment, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee-North Carolina (1999)

Vegetation Mapping Project: Great Smoky Mountains National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRSM/NRR-2021/2285 (Kevin Hop, Andrew Strassman, Stephanie Sattler, Rickie White, Milo Pyne, Tom Govus and Jennifer Dieck, July 2021)

Visitor Experience Stewardship Newsletter, Great Smoky Mountains National Park (January 2021)

Visitor Studies, Great Smoky Mountains National Park: Summer and Fall 1996 Visitor Services Project Report 92 (July 1997)

Vital Signs Monitoring in Great Smoky Mountains National Park—Freshwater Communities: 2014 Annual Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/GRSM/NRR—2015/1024 (Becky Nichols and Matt Kulp,, September 2015)

Water quality and inorganic chemistry of Icewater Spring and Mount Le Conte Spring, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee and North Carolina USGS Open-File Report 99-375 (R.R. Seal II, A.P. Schultz, D.P. Haffner and A.L. Meier, 1999)

Watersheds of Great Smoky Mountains National Park: A Geographical Information System Analysis Research/Resources Management Report SER-91/01 (Charles R. Parker and David W. Pipes, November 1990)

Written Historical and Descriptive Data, Photographs, Measured and Interpretive Drawings: Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges HAER No. TN-35 (undated)



Handbooks ◆ Books expand section

Videos

Cataloochee - The Center of the World (1993)

Secrets of Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Ken Burns)



grsm/index.htm
Last Updated: 14-Apr-2022