North Cascades
National Park

Lake Chelan
National Recreation Area

Ross Lake
National Recreation Area
Washington

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Park Photo
NPS photo



Nature is not a place to visit. It is home.

—Gary Snyder, poet, 1952

Mounting Effects of Incremental Change

North Cascades is studded by glaciers and lakes, blanketed by forests, and threaded by rivers. Steep, nearly vertical slopes converge in narrow river valleys that offer ways into the wilderness. You may think it is an immutable place, outside time. But in the remote reaches of the park and its inhabited areas, ecosystems and the species at home in them now show effects of human intervention or actions.

By altering Earth's atmosphere, we are physically and biologically transforming our world. Viewed in the continuum of the planet's 4.5-billion-year history, the changes of the last few decades are sudden and extreme.

How trees and plants respond to changes in climate will vary depending on elevation, direction of exposure, and other factors. At lower elevations, warmer and drier summers may result in increased tree mortality. Smaller trees are likely to succumb first.

At higher elevations, warmer temperatures will melt snow earlier. The longer growing season will allow trees like subalpine fir to establish up-slope. The tree islands characteristic of subalpine parkland will expand, displacing flower fields and changing animal habitats. As snowfields melt, some shrubs and herbaceous plants may also move up in elevation—if they can find enough soil.

Drought and higher temperatures will stress many trees, allowing diseases, native insects, and non-native pests to spread more quickly. For example, almost two-thirds of the park's whitebark pine, an important tree in subalpine meadows, now suffer from a non-native blister rust.

While some changes may be hard to see, one looms large. The glaciers of the North Cascades range are shrinking. As less ice and snow build up in winter, more melting occurs in summer. This leads to less water in the Skagit and Stehekin rivers in summer and to further local and regional repercussions.

Stakes are high. Rivers, lakes, forests, and wildlife depend on snow and glacial melt, as do people. In the Pacific Northwest, snow and ice are critical resources that contribute water for drinking, irrigation, hydropower, recreation, and life.

The Pulse of Two Rivers

Skagit River

WEST SIDE Over 370 glaciers now feed the Skagit River in late summer, when little other runoff occurs. The glacial melt helps fills Gorge, Diablo, and Ross Lakes. All three lakes are dammed, with hydroelectricity generating stations that power the city of Seattle. But the dams block the downriver movement of sediment and large debris, like tree roots and limbs, which contribute to salmon habitat.

FISHERIES The Skagit River supports all five Pacific salmon species—Chinook, coho, sockeye, chum, and pink. The salmon runs—when the fish leave the Salish Sea and swim upriver to spawn—have declined, in part because of shifts in river temperatures and volumes. Other factors are tide gates that block passage by young salmon and dikes that prevent salt water from overwashing former marshlands, which are prime salmon habitat.

The culture, economy, and community life of the Upper Skagit, Sauk-Suiattle, Swinomish, and other Pacific Northwest tribes are closely linked to the periodic salmon runs, which bring rhythm and a sense of plenitude to people's lives. To help stabilize the salmon populations, sport, tribal, and non-tribal commercial fisheries have reduced their catches. More measures may be needed before the populations return to healthy levels.

Stehekin River

EAST SIDE East of the Pacific Crest, snowfields and 19 named glaciers, which cover 4,875 acres, feed the Stehekin River, which rushes into Lake Chelan. With a depth of 1,459 feet, the lake is 359 feet below sea level. As storms become more frequent and intense, increases in the Stehekin's volume can cause severe spring floods in the river valley.

The availability and timing of water affect delicate cycles of growth for trees, herbaceous plants, and pollinators in the Stehekin valley. Apple farming is a mainstay of central Washington's economy. When fruit trees blossom, mature insects must be available to pollinate them, or the trees will not set fruit. Flooding can interrupt these cycles.

Stehekin is home to Buckner Orchard, planted in 1912 and managed as a family business into the 1950s. It continues to produce Common Delicious apples and two other original varieties: Red Rome Beauty and Jonathan. The National Park Service manages the 50-acre orchard with the Buckner Homestead Heritage Foundation and the Stehekin community. The orchard's gravity flow irrigation system, fed by snowpack, is still in use today. Drought may become a bigger threat to Buckner Orchard as climate change leads to a reduced volume of water.

Power in Wilderness

park map

topo map

topo map (1972)
(click for larger maps)

In the last century, civil engineers realized the potential of the Skagit River to generate power for the region. They yoked the wild river to technology, damming the river in three places along State Route 20 and created Gorge, Diablo, and Ross lakes (1924, 1930, and 1949). The original Gorge Dam was small, built from rocks and logs; the present dam dates from the 1960s. The Diablo generators (built 1930), had the greatest capacity of any in the world. The publicly owned Seattle City Light hydropower project continues to operate today.

As you step off the paved highway, the infrastructure and technology that link North Cascades to nearby urban areas quickly recede from sight and mind. You enter a spectacular landscape, its terrain ever more difficult as you hike deeper into the Stephen Mather Wilderness. Its more than 680,000 acres, with nearly limitless opportunities for solitude, discovery, and exploration, are part of everyone's legacy.

In the exhilarating wilderness of North Cascades, you can also find evidence of the interdependent nature of species. Here and elsewhere, dramatic, human-induced changes in Earth's atmosphere have led species, including our own, to respond in a chorus of adaptations.

For decades scientists have inventoried and monitored species and their habitats in the North Cascades range. The compiled record of change shows that some will adapt and survive, others may die—and that the outcome is uncertain.

Stephen Mather Wilderness

Wilderness Congress has protected over 94 percent of North Cascades National Park Service Complex as wilderness under the 1964 Wilderness Act. For information about the National Wilderness Preservation System, visit www.wilderness.net.

Alpine and Subalpine Species

Pikas, marmots, and wolverines are mammals that require higher elevation habitats with mild, short summers and long winters with deep snowpack. Pikas live in subalpine zones, on slopes covered with loose rock (talus) that gives them shelter from summer heat. They forage in surrounding meadows and gather 'haypiles' to eat in winter. Rising temperatures may prevent pikas from seeking and collecting food they need to survive the winter.

To survive long winters in hibernation, the marmot, a subalpine species, needs deep snowpack to insulate its den. One of its alpine predators, the wolverine, relies on the marmot as its main food source. Climate changes that alter the marmot's habitat could mean that its predators too must adapt, or die.

Plan Your Visit

To learn about National Park Service facilities, activities, and trails, visit park headquarters in Sedro-Woolley or visitor and information centers in Newhalem, Marblemount, Stehekin, and Glacier. Books, maps, and gift items are sold at these locations.

Trails and Hiking Trails at lower elevations are usually free of snow from April to mid-October. Most trails at higher elevations are clear by mid-July.

Camping Vehicle-access campgrounds are at Goodell Creek, Newhalem Creek, Colonial Creek, Gorge Lake, and Hozomeen. Some sites may be reserved in advance, while others are first-come, first-served. For additional information check recreation.gov. • For all boat-in campsites on Diablo and Ross lakes, backcountry permits are required year-round. See the park website for additional information.

Accommodations Lodging is available on Ross Lake, in Stehekin, and in nearby communities.

Boating Find boat launches for Gorge Lake near the town of Diablo, for Diablo Lake at Colonial Creek Campground, and for Ross Lake at Hozomeen (accessible only from Canada, not from State Route 20). • Ross Lake Resort rents canoes, kayaks, and small motorboats, and offers portage service between Diablo and Ross lakes. • Chelan, Manson, and Lake Chelan and Twenty-five Mile State Parks offer boat access to Lake Chelan. • Summer boaters on Lake Chelan must purchase dock passes to use US Forest Service or National Park Service docks.

Fishing and Hunting Washington state fishing and hunting licenses are required; state laws apply. • Hunting is allowed only in Lake Chelan and Ross Lake National Recreation Areas. • Trapping is prohibited.

Safety In all seasons, weather can change quickly and lake water temperatures are extremely cold. • Treat all water from creeks, rivers, and lakes before drinking. • Use caution when crossing streams, especially in spring and during rainfall. • For firearms regulations check the park website.

Food storage Food and other odorous items (including toothpaste and fuel) will attract bears and other wildlife. Store items in park-provided containers or hard-sided vehicles. • If you plan to camp in backcountry sites, borrow a bear-resistant canister from a park information center, or hang items. • Do not feed wildlife.

Accessibility Park staff strive to make facilities, services, and programs accessible to all; call or check park website.

Emergencies call 911

Source: NPS Brochure (2018)


Heinrich Berann Panorama
Heinrich Berann

Establishment

North Cascades National Park — Oct. 2, 1968
Lake Chelan National Recreation Area — Oct. 2, 1968
Ross Lake National Recreation Area — Oct. 2, 1968


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Brochures ◆ Site Bulletins ◆ Trading Cards expand section

Documents

40th Anniversary Program and Activities (2008)

A Survey of Bat Species Composition, Distribution and Relative Abundance in North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington NPS Technical Report NPS/NOCA/NRTR-2003/01 (Roger G. Christophersen and Robert C. Kuntz II, July 2003)

A Survey of Forest Carnivore Species Composition and Distribution in North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington NPS Technical Report NPS/PWR-NCCN/NOCA/NRTR-2005-01 (Roger G. Christophersen, Robert C. Kuntz II and John F. McLaughlin, February 2005)

A Survey of Northern Spotted Owls in North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington NPS Technical Report NPS/CCSONOCA/NRTR-96/05 (Robert C. Kuntz II and Roger G. Christophersen, December 1996)

A Survey of Stream Amphibian Species Composition and Distribution in the North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington State (2005) NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR—2009/169 (Ashley K. Rawhouser, Ronald E. Holmes and Reed S. Glesne, February 2009)

A Synthesis of Historical and Recent Reports of Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in the North Cascades Region NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NOCA/NRR-2018/1662 (Kristin M. Rine, Anne M. Braaten, Jack G. Oelfke and Jason I. Ransom, June 2018)

A Terrestrial Vertebrate Inventory of the Stehekin Valley, Lake Chelan National Recreational Area (NPS Technical Report NPS/PNRNOCA/NRTR-93/010 (Robert C. Kuntz II and Reed S. Glesne, February 1993)

An archaeological investigation of the Galene Lakes area in the Skagit Range of the North Cascade Mountains, Skagit Valley Park, British Columbia (©Ian Chrisstian Franck, Simon Fraser University, April 2000)

An Archeological Site Survey and Evaluation in the Upper Skagit River Valley, Whatcom County, Washington NPS Technical Report NPS/CCCNOCA/CRTR-98/01 (Robert R. Mierendorf, David J. Harry and Gregg M. Sullivan, 1998)

An Ethnographic Overview and Assessment of North Cascades National Park Service Complex (Daniel L. Boxberger, 1996)

An Updated Summary Statement of the Archeology of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex Draft (Robert R. Mierendorf, October 30, 1996)

An Updated Summary Statement of the Archeology of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex (Robert R. Mierendorf, May 1998)

Accessible Recreation Opportunities (c2000)

Aeromagnetic map of part of the North Cascades National Park, Washington USGS Open-File Report 84-511 (1984)

America's Best Idea (2009)

Archeology of the Little Beaver Watershed, North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Whatcom County, Washington (Robert R. Mierendorf, 2004)

Arthropod Investigations of the North Cascades National Park Service Complex: hemiptera: heteroptera, 1, 1997-1998 NPS Technical Report NPS/NRNOCA/NRTR/99-01 (John D. Lattin, May 1999)

Assessing trends and vulnerabilities in the mutualism between whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) and Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga columbiana) in national parks of the Sierra-Cascade region (Chris Ray, Regina M. Rochefort, Jason I. Ransom, Jonathan C.B. Nesmith, Sylvia A. Haultain, Taza D. Schaming, John R. Boetsch, Mandy L. Holmgren, Robert L. Wilkerson and Rodney B. Siegel, extract from PLoS ONE, 15(10), October 14, 2020)

Backcountry Management Plan, North Cascades National Park Service Complex (March 14, 1974)

Balancing Energy Options in Stehekin, Washington (Jessica G. Kirchhoffer and Philip C. Malte, June 2003)

Baseline Water Quality Data Inventory and Analysis, North Cascades National Park Technical Report NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-95/50 (May 1995)

Bear Management Plan, North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Sedro Woolley, Washington (1975)

Bird Finding Guide (James Alt, March 2000)

Buckner Homestead Heritage Foundation Annual Reports: 200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020

Cascade Mountains Study (Washington State Planning Council, 1940)

Cascades Fisher Reintroduction Project: Progress Report for December 2015 to March 2017 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/PWR/NRR-2017/1486 (Jeffrey C. Lewis, Tara Chestnut, Jason I. Ransom and David O. Werntz, July 2017)

Cascades Fisher Reintroduction Project: Progress Report for March 2017 to February 2018 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/PWR/NRR-2018/1667 (Jeffrey C. Lewis, Tara Chestnut, Jason L. Ransom and David O. Werntz, June 2018)

Cascades Fisher Reintroduction Project: Progress Report for March 2018 to March 2019 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/PWR/NRR-2019/1982 (Jeffrey C. Lewis, Jason I. Ransom, Tara Chestnut, David O. Werntz, Sandie Black, Jose Luis Postigo and Axel Moehrenschlager, August 2019)

Cascades Fisher Reintroduction Project: Progress Report for April 2019 to June 2020 NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/PWR/NRR-2020/2211 (Jeffrey C. Lewis, Jason L. Ransom, Tara Chestnut, David O. Werntz, Sandie Black, Jose Luis Postigo and Axel Moehrenschlager, December 2020)

Chert Procurement in the Upper Skagit River Valley of the Northern Cascade Range, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, Washington NPS Technical Report NPS/PNRNOCA/CRTR-93-001 (Robert R. Mierendorf, July 1993)

Climate Change Implications for Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos) in the North Cascades Ecosystem NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NOCA/NRR-2018/1814 (Jason I. Ransom, Meade Krosby and Andrea L. Lyons, November 2018)

Climate Change, North Cascades National Park Complex (February 1, 2017)

Climate Change Trends, North Cascades National Park, Ross Lake National Recreation Area, and Lake Chelan National Recreation Area (Patrick Gonzalez, April 19, 2015)

Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation in the North Cascades Region, Washington U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-892 (Crystal L. Raymond, David L. Peterson and Regina M. Rochefort, eds., September 2014)

Climbing Notes: 199519961996 (HTML edition)19971997 (HTML edition)19981998 (HTML edition)19991999 (HTML edition)20002000 (HTML edition)20012001 (HTML edition)20022002(HTML edition)20032004 2004(HTML edition)

Combined Ice and Water Balances of Gulkana and Wolverine Glaciers, Alaska, and South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 1965 and 1996 Hydrologic Years USGS Professional Paper 715-A (Mark F. Meier, Wendell V. Tangborn, Lawrence R. Mayo and Austin Post, 1971)

Combined Ice and Water Balances of Maclure Glacier, California, South Cascade Glacier, Washington, and Wolverine and Gulkana Glaciers, Alaska, 1967 Hydrologic Year USGS Professional Paper 715-B (Wendell V. Tangborn, Lawrence R. Mayo, David R. Scully and Robert M. Krimmel, 1977)

Contested Terrain: An Administrative History of the North Cascades Complex (HTML edition) (David Louter, 1998)

Distribution and Abundance of Hoary Marmots in North Cascades National Park Complex, Washington, 2007-2008 Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NOCA/NRTR—2012/593 (Roger G. Christophersen, June 2012)

Ecological Effects of Stock Trout in Naturally Fishless High Mountain Lakes, North Cascades National Park Service Complex, WA, USA NPS Technical Report NPS/PNROSU/NRTR-95-03 (William J. Liss, Gary L. Larson, Elisabeth K. Deimling, Lisa Ganio, Robert Gresswell, Robert Hoffman, Mihaly Kiss, Gregg Lomnicky, C. David McIntire, Robert Truitt and Torrey Tyler, March 1995)

Ecological Effects of Stocked Trout in Naturally Fishless High-Elevation Lakes, North Cascades National Park Service Complex, WA, USA: Phase II NPS Technical Report NPS/CCSOOSU/NRTR-98/01 (William J. Liss, Gary L. Larson, Torrey J. Tyler, Lisa Ganio, Robert Hoffman, Elisabeth K. Deimling, Gregg Lomnicky, C. David McIntire and Robert Truitt, April 1999)

Ethnography of the North Cascades (Allan H. Smith, 1988)

Fisher Restoration Plan / Environmental Assessment, Mount Rainier National Park and North Cascades National Park Service Complex (Fall 2014)

Forest fire history of Desolation Peak, Washington (James K. Agee, Mark Finney and Roland de Gouvenain, extract from Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 20 No. 3, 1990)

Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network USGS Techniques and Methods 2-A8, Chapter 8 of Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data, Section A, Biological Science (Andrea Woodward, Karen M. Hutten, John R. Boetsch, Steven A. Acker, Regina M. Rochefort, Mignonne M. Bivin and Laurie L. Kurth, 2009)

Foundation Document, North Cascades National Park Complex, Washington (June 2012)

Foundation Document Overview, North Cascades National Park Complex, Washington (June 2014)

Fuel and Fire Behavior Predictions in Subalpine Forests of Pacific Northwest National Parks CPSU/UW 89-4 (Mark H. Huff, James K. Agee, Michael Gracz and Mark Finney, Summer 1989)

Geological Points of Interest in the Stehekin Valley (David Bean, c2001)

Geology and mineral resources of the northern part of the North Cascades National Park, Washington (PDF) USGS Bulletin 1359 (Mortimer Hay Staatz, Rowland W. Tabor, Paul L. Weis, Jacques F. Robertson, Ronald M. Van Noy and Eldon C. Pattee, 1972)

Geomorphology of the Bacon Creek Watershed: Landform Mapping at North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/ NCCN/NRTR—2012/564 (Jon Riedel, Michael Larrabee, Jeanna Wenger and Stephen Dorschm April 2012)

Geomorphology of the Chilliwack River Watershed: Landform Mapping at North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR—2012/565 (John Riedel, Sharon Brady, Stephen Dorsch and Jeanna Wenger, April 2012)

Geomorphology of the Stehekin River Watershed: Landform Mapping at North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR—2012/566 (John Riedel, Stephen Dorsch and Jeanna Wenger, April 2012)

Geomorphology of the Thunder Creek Watershed: Landform Mapping at North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR—2012/567 (John Riedel, Sharon Brady, Stephen Dorsch and Jeanna Wenger, April 2012)

Geomorphology of the Upper Skagit Watershed: Landform Mapping at North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR—2012/568 (John Riedel, Sharon Brady, Stephen Dorsch, Nicole Bowerman and Jeanna Wenger, April 2012)

Glacier Monitoring Program: Progress Report (Jon L. Riedel, Andrew Fountain and Bob Krimmel, 2002)

Historic Resource Study, North Cascades National Park Service Complex (HTML edition) (Gretchen A. Luxenberg, 1986)

History Basic Data: North Cascades N.P. & Ross Lake N.R.A. & Lake Chelan N.R.A. (HTML edition) (Erwin N. Thompson, 1970)

Impressions of the North Cascades: Essays about a Northwest Landscape (John C. Miles, ed., 1996)

Inventory of Crosscountry Recreational Impacts in the Ross Lake Watershed of North Cascades National Park (Jeff Miller, 1997)

Junior Ranger Program (Ages 3-5), North Cascades National Park / Lake Chelan National Recreation Area / Ross Lake National Recreation Area (2011)

Junior Ranger Program (Ages 5-8), North Cascades National Park / Lake Chelan National Recreation Area / Ross Lake National Recreation Area (2011)

Junior Ranger Program (Ages 8-11), North Cascades National Park / Lake Chelan National Recreation Area / Ross Lake National Recreation Area (2011)

Junior Ranger Program (Ages 12 and up), North Cascades National Park / Lake Chelan National Recreation Area / Ross Lake National Recreation Area (2011)

Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Workshop, North Cascades National Park Service Complex (March 10-12, 1998)

On Batholiths and Volcanoes—Intrusion and Eruption of Late Cenozoic Magmas in the Glacier Peak Area, North Cascades, Washington (HTML edition) USGS Professional Paper 604 (R.W. Tabor and D.F. Crowder, 1969)

Inventory of Glaciers in the North Cascades, Washington USGS Professional Paper 705-A (Austin Post, Don Richardson, Wendell V. Tangborn and F.L. Rosselot, 1971)

Lake Chelan Kokanee Spawning Grounds Surveys 2012: Final Report (Barry G. Keesee and Lance M. Keller, January 2013)

Landbird Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 2-A6 (Rodney B. Siegel, Robert L. Wilkerson, Kurt J. Jenkins, Robert C. Kuntz II, John R. Boetsch, James P. Schaberl and Patricia J. Happe, 2007)

Landbird Inventory for North Cascades National Park Service Complex (2001-2002) Final Report Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR—2009/152 (Rodney B. Siegel, Robert L. Wilkerson, Robert C. Kuntz II and John McLaughlin, January 2009)

Long Term Monitoring of Small Glaciers at North Cascades National Park: A Prototype Park Model for the North Coast and Cascades Network Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR—2008/066 (John L. Riedel, Robert A. Burrows and Jeanna M. Wenger, August 2008)

Lower Stehekin River cutthroat and rainbow trout spawning surveys, 2009 NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NOCA/NRDS-2010/111 (Hugh Anthony and Reed Glesne, November 2010)

Museum Management Plan: North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Ebey's Landing National Historical Preserve (Jonathan Bayless, Robert Applegate, Kelly Cahill, Kirstie Haertel and Diane Nicholson, 2005)

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms

Black Warrior Mine (Erwin N. Thompson and Laurin C. Huffman II, 1972)

Buckner Cabin (E.N. Thompson and Laurin C. Huffman II, 1972)

Courtney Cabin (Erwin N. Thompson and Laurin C. Huffman II, 1972)

Devil's Corner Cliff Walk (E.N. Thompson and Laurin C. Huffman II, 1972)

Gilbert's Cabin (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Golden West Lodge Historic District (Gretchen A. Luxenberg, November 1988)

High Bridge Ranger Station Historic District (Gretchen A. Luxenberg, November 1988)

Stehekin School (Laurin C. Huffman II, June 19, 1970)

Natural Notes: 2002-200320052007-2008

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, North Cascades National Park Service Complex NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NOCA/NRR-2015/901 (Robert L. Hoffman, Andrea Woodward, Patricia Haggarty, Kurt Jenkins, Paul Griffin, Michael J. Adams, Joan Hagar, Tonnie Cummings, Dan Duriscoe, Karen Kopper, Jon Riedel, Lelaina Marin, Guillaume S. Mauger, Karen Bumbaco and Jeremy S. Littell, January 2015)

Nature's Recyclers: Coloring and Activity Book, North Cascades National Park Service Complex (Renée Hudak, 1997)

NOCA NRPP Amphibian Inventory, Bridge Creek Watershed: 1997 - Progress Report (Ronald E. Holmes and Reed S. Glesne, February 1998)

NOCA NRPP Amphibian Inventory, North Cascades National Park Service Complex: 1998 - Progress Report (Ronald E. Holmes and Reed S. Glesne, May 1999)

North Cascades National Park Service Complex Northern Spotted Owl Inventory and Monitoring Program: 1995 Progress Report (Roger G. Christophersen and Robert C. Kuntz II, October 1, 1995)

North Cascade Glacier Climate Project (Mauri S. Pelto)

Change in longitudinal profile on three North Cascade glaciers during the last 100 years (Mauri S. Pelto and Paula Hartzell, undated)

How Unusual Was 2015 in the 1984–2015 Period of the North Cascade Glacier Annual Mass Balance? (Mauri S. Pelto, extract from Water, Vol. 10 No. 5, 2018)

Introduction to North Cascade Glaciers

Mass Balance loss on Mount Baker 1990-2010 (Mauri Pelto and Courtenay Brown, extract from Hydrological Processes, Vol. 26, 2012; ©John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.)

Spatial and Temporal Variations in Annual Balance of North Cascade Glaciers, Washington 1984-2000 (Mauri S. Pelto and Jon Riedel, 2001)

Research Reports: Field Season c1992, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018

North Cascades Ecosystem (NCE) Grizzly Bear Restoration

A Preliminary Study of Historic and Recent Reports of Grizzly Bears, Ursus arctos, in the North Cascades Area of Washington (Paul T. Sullivan, November 26, 1983)

Draft Grizzly Bear Restoration Plan / Environmental Impact Statement, North Cascades Ecosystem (January 2017)

Grizzly Bear Carrying Capacity in the North Cascades Ecosystem: Final Report (Andrea L. Lyons, William L. Gaines, James Begley and Peter Singleton, April 2016)

Grizzly Bear Recovery in the North Cascades: Questions & Answers (November 1993)

Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan (Christopher Servheen, ed., January 29, 1982)

Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan, Supplement: North Cascades Ecosystem Recovery Plan Chapter (Christopher Servheen, ed., January 29, 1982)

Historical and Recent Grizzly Bear Sightings in the North Cascades (Jonathan Björklund, November 14, 1980)

Newsletters: Feb. 2015Feb. 2016Sep. 2016Jan. 2017

North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem Evaluation: Final Report (Jon A. Almack, William L. Gaines, Robert H. Naney, Peter H. Morrison, James R. Eby, George F. Wooten, Michelle C. Snyder, Scott H. Fitkin and Ernesto R. Garcia, September 1993)

Presentation: Grizzly Bear, North Cascades Ecosystem (undated)

Posters: North Cascades Ecosystem Grizzly Public Scoping (2017)

North Cascades National Park Complex Glacier Mass Balance Monitoring Annual Reports

North Cascades National Park Complex Glacier Mass Balance Monitoring Annual Report, Water Year 2009 Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR—2011/483 (John Riedel and Michael Larrabee, August 2011)

North Cascades National Park Complex Glacier Mass Balance Monitoring Annual Report, Water Year 2010 Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NCCN/NRDS—2013/453 (John Riedel and Michael Larrabee, March 2013)

North Cascades National Park Complex Glacier Mass Balance Monitoring Annual Report, Water Year 2011 Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NCCN/NRDS—2013/483 (John Riedel and Michael Larrabee, May 2013)

North Cascades National Park Complex Glacier Mass Balance Monitoring Annual Report, Water Year 2012 Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NCCN/NRDS—2017/483 (John Riedel and Michael A. Larrabee, November 2017)

North Cascades National Park Complex Glacier Mass Balance Monitoring Annual Report, Water Year 2013 Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NCCN/NRDS—2018/1142 (John Riedel and Michael A. Larrabee, January 2018)

North Cascade National Park's Response to Climate Change (2009-2010)

North Cascades Study Report (HTML edition) (1965)

North Coast and Cascades Network Climate Monitoring Reports

North Coast and Cascades Network Climate Monitoring Report: North Cascades National Park Service Complex; Water Year 2010 NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NCCN/NRDS-2012/261 (Michael Larrabee, Bill Baccus, Rebecca Lofgren and Mark Huff, March 2012)

North Coast and Cascades Network Climate Monitoring Report: North Cascades National Park Service Complex; Water Year 2011 NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NCCN/NRDS-2014/633 (Michael Larrabee, Bill Baccus, Rebecca Lofgren and Mark Huff, March 2014)

North Coast and Cascades Network Climate Monitoring Report: North Cascades National Park Service Complex; Water Year 2016 NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NCCN/NRDS-2018/1152 (Michael A. Larrabee, March 2018)

North Coast and Cascades Network Climate Monitoring Report: North Cascades National Park Service Complex; Water Year 2017 NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/NCCN/NRDS-2018/1176 (Michael A. Larrabee, July 2018)

North Coast and Cascades Network Landbird Monitoring Reports

North Coast and Cascades Network Landbird Monitoring: Report for the 2013 field season NPS Natural Resource Data Series. NPS/NCCN/NRDS-2014/691 (Amanda L. Holmgren, Robert L. Wilkerson, Rodney B. Siegel and Patricia J. Happe, August 2014)

North Coast and Cascades Network Landbird Monitoring: Report for the 2015 field season NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR-2016/1128 (Amanda L. Holmgren, Robert L. Wilkerson, Rodney B. Siegel and Jason I. Ransom, June 2016)

North Coast and Cascades Network Landbird Monitoring: Report for the 2019 field season NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR-2020/1284 (Amanda L. Holmgren, Robert L. Wilkerson, Rodney B. Siegel and Jason I. Ransom, July 2020)

North Coast and Cascades Network Landbird Monitoring: Report for the 2020 field season NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR-2021/1337 (Amanda L. Holmgren, Robert L. Wilkerson, Rodney B. Siegel and Jason I. Ransom, November 2021)

Park Newspaper (Focus on Stehekin):
19982000-200120012002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-2007

Park Newspaper (North Cascades Challenger):
198819911992199419951996199719981999-20002000-20012001-20022002-20032003-20042004-20052005-20062006-20072007-200820082011201220162017

People of the North Cascades (1986)

PNRO Inventory

Backus/Marblemount Ranger Station Residence #1009 (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Backus Ranger Station/Marblemount Ranger Station Residence #1010 (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Beaver Pass Shelter (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Bridge Creek Cabin/Ranger Station (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Bridge Creek Shelter (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Copper Mountain Fire Lookout/Copper Ridge Lookout (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Deer Lick Cabin (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Desolation Peak Lookout (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Fish and Game Cabin/Hozomeen Cabin (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Flick Creek Shelter (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

George Miller House/NPS Employee Housing (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

High Bridge Shelter (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

International Boundary: U.S./Canada (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Perry Creek Shelter (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Purple Point/Stehekin Ranger Station Residence (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Rock Cabin (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Sourdough Mountain Lookout (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Sulphide Cabin/Frisco Cabin (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Swamp Cabin/Meadow Cabin (East) (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Swamp Cabin/Meadow Cabin (West) (Gretchen Luxenberg, Summer 1984)

Preserving Nature through Film: Wilderness Alps of Stehekin and the North Cascades, 1956-1968 (Nicolas Timothy Bergmann, June 20, 2013)

Preserving Washington Parklands and Wilderness (interview with Polly Dyer) and Protecting the North Cascades, 1954-1983 (interview with Patrick D. Goldsworthy) (interviewed by Susan R. Schrepfer and Ann Lage in 1983, The Bancroft Library, 1986)

Reanalysis of the US Geological Survey Benchmark Glaciers: Long-term insight into climate forcing of glacier mass balance (Shad O'Neel, Christopher McNeil, Louis C. Sass, Caitlyn Florentine, Emily H. Baker, Erich Peitzch, Daniel McGrath, Andrew G. Fountain and Daniel Fagre, extract from Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 65 Issue 253, October 2019)

Reconnaissances over the routes in the Cascade Mountains in the vicinity of the 49th parallel (Henry Custer, 1859)

Regional Glacier Mass Balance Variation in the North Cascades: Study Plan (Jon L. Riedel, Andrew Fountain and Bob Krimmel, undated)

Research Catalog: A comprehensive manual of natural and cultural study opportunities within Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks (September 2000)

Resource Briefs:

Buckner Homestead Historic District (2011)

Carnivores and Highways (2012)

Cascade Pass Archeology (2011)

Cascades Butterfly Project (2013)

Cutthroat Trout Restoration (2011)

Fire-dependent Ecosystems (2011)

Fire Effects Monitoring (2011)

Fuels Management (2011)

Glaciers (2011)

Grizzly Bears (2011)

Historic Photograph Collection (2011)

Landbirds (2011)

Mountain Lakes Monitoring (2011)

Mountain Lakes Restoration (2011)

Pika (2011)

Redside Shiners (2011)

Soils (2011)

Surficial Geology — Landform Mapping (2011)

Water Quality (2011)

Whitebark Pine (2011)

Wolverines (2012)

Wolves (2011)

Resource Management and Science Updates: 1998, 2001, May 2002, August 2002

Revised Vegetation Classification for Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks Project Summary Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR-2021/2225 (Tynan Ramm-Granberg, F. Joseph Rocchio, Catharine Copass, Rachel Brunner and Eric Nielson, February 2021)

Salmon of the Skagit River Watershed (Paula Ogden, December 1997)

Sampling Protocol for Monitoring Abiotic and Biotic Characteristics of Mountains Ponds and Lakes USGS Techniques and Methods 2-A2, Chapter 2 of Book 2, Laboratory Analysis, Section A, Water Analysis (Robert L. Hoffman, Torrey J. Tyler, Gary L. Larson, Michael J. Adams, Wendy Wente and Stephanie Galvan, 2005)

Sand, Rock, and Gravel Plan: Lake Chelan National Recreation Area, Washington (June 1995)

Seasonal Distribution and Aerial Surveys of Mountain Goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington USGS Open-File Report 2011-1107 (Kurt Jenkins, Katherine Beirne, Patricia Happe, Roger Hoffman, Cliff Rice and Jim Schaberl, 2011)

State of the Wilderness, 1993 (Hugh Dougher, January 1994)

State of the Stephen Mather Wilderness, 1994 (Hugh Dougher, c1995)

Statistical Summary, 1995: Stephen Mather Wilderness (Hugh Dougher, January 1996)

Stehekin: A Wilderness Journey into the North Cascades (William A. Bake, 1977)

Stehekin Valley Community Wildfire Protection Plan Final (April 2008)

Stehekin Valley Vertebrate Inventory NPS Technical Report NPS/PNRNOCA/NRTR-93/010 (Robert C. Kuntz II and Reed S. Glesne, February 1993)

Stephen Mather Wilderness, Statistical Summaries: 19931994199519971998199920001993-2000

Supplemental Forest Carnivore Surveys in North Cascades National Park Service Complex, Washington NPS/PWR-NCCN/INV-2006/01 (Roger G. Christophersen, January 2006)

Surveying for Spotted Owls on the east slope of North Cascades National Park Service Complex, 2007-2008 NPS Natural Resource Technical Report. NPS/NCCN/NRTR-2009/184 (Rodney B. Siegel, Kevin E. Jablonski, Micah N. Scholer, and Robert L. Wilkerson and Robert C. Kuntz II, March 2009)

Surveying for Spotted Owls in the northeastern portion of North Cascades National Park Service Complex, 2009-2010: Report for the 2009 field season NPS Natural Resource Technical Report. NPS/NCCN/NRTR-2010/334 (Rodney B. Siegel, Robert L. Wilkerson, and Kara D. Kuhlman and Robert C. Kuntz II, May 2010)

Surveying for spotted owls in the Upper Skagit watershed of North Cascades National Park Complex, 2009-2010 NPS Natural Resource Technical Report. NPS/NOCA/NRTR-2012/597 (Rodney B. Siegel, Robert C. Kuntz II, Robert L. Wilkerson, Kara D. Kuhlman and Michelle C. Toshack, June 2012)

Terrestrial Riparian Arthropod Investigations In The Big Creek Research Natural Area, North Cascades National Park Service Complex, 1995-1996: Part I, Hemiptera:Heteroptera NPS Technical Report NPS/NRNOCA/NRTR/98-01 (John D. Lattin, November 1997)

Terrestrial Riparian Arthropod Investigations In The Big Creek Research Natural Area, North Cascades National Park Service Complex, 1995-1996: Part II, Coleoptera NPS Technical Report NPS/NRNOCA/NRTR/98-02 (James LaBonte, November 1998)

Terrestrial Riparian Arthropod Investigations In The Big Creek Research Natural Area, North Cascades National Park Service Complex, 1995-1996: Part III, Arachnida:Araneae NPS Technical Report NPS/NRNOCA/NRTR/98-03 (Reed S. Glesne, November 1998)

The North Cascades: A Report to the Secretary of the Interior and to the Secretary of Agriculture by the North Cascades Study Team (1965)

The Wild Cascades: Journal of the North Cascades Conservation Council (1957-2022, ©North Cascades Conservation Council, all right reserved)

Threatened and Endangered Species (c1998)

Topographic Map: The North Cascades, WA Scale: 1:250,000 (USGS, 1979)

Vegetation Classification and Mapping Project Report: North Cascades National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NCCN/NRR—2021/2254 (Eric M. Nielsen, Catharine Copass, Rachel L. Brunner and Lindsey K. Wise, May 2021)

Vegetation Classification of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks: Plant Association Descriptions and Identification Keys NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/NCCN/NRTR—2009/211 (Rex C. Crawford, Christopher B. Chappell, Catharine C. Thompson and F. Joseph Rocchio, April 2009)

Wilderness Character Baseline Assessment: The Stephen Mather Wilderness NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NOCA/NRR-2020/2164 (Ben Riegel and Jack Oelfke, August 2020)

Wilderness Management Plan, North Cascades National Park Service Complex (March 1989)



Handbooks ◆ Books expand section

Videos

North Cascades National Park

Wilderness Alps of Stehekin (David Brower, Sierra Club, 1957)



noca/index.htm
Last Updated: 28-Jun-2022