Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
Administrative History
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Administrative History:
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
National Historic Site
June 1984

Administrative History
Sharon A. Brown


List of Photographs and Illustrations

Chapter I - 1933-1935

Legislative Efforts
Bond Issue
Legal Problems
The Attorney General's Opinion
The Historic Sites Act

Chapter II - 1936-1939

Opposition Continues
City Bonds Sold
Legal Action
Alleged Election Fraud
Interpretation and Architecture
Court Decision
Advisory Board
Land Acquisition
Park Planning
Court Decision
Lapsed Funds
Demolition Begins
The Old Courthouse
Railroad Negotiations

Chapter III - 1940-1945

Preservation Efforts
Lapsed Funds
Railroad Negotiations
Demolition Continues
Further Railroad Negotiations
Landing Strip Plans

Chapter IV - 1945-1948

Fund Raising
Competition Advisor
Architectural Competition

Chapter V - 1949-1952

Railroad Agreement
Authorization Efforts
Railroad Tunnel Clearance
Further Authorization Efforts
Death of Luther Ely Smith

Chapter VI - 1953-1958

Work On Site
Appropriation Efforts
Continuing Railroad Problems
Increased Authorization

Chapter VII - 1959-1968

Zoning Questions
Museum Planning
Surrounding Development
Appropriation Efforts
Construction Decisions
Awarding of Arch Construction Contract
Beginning Arch Construction
Arch Topping Out
Union Walkout
Bond Issue Election
Peripheral Building Height
Arch Transportation System
Arch Dedication

Chapter VIII - 1968-1980

East St. Louis Planning
Further Construction Concerns
Old Cathedral Controversy
Museum Contract
Museum v. Grounds Controversy
Museum of Westward Expansion Opened
Further Interpretive Development

Selected Bibliography



A. Executive Order
B. U.S. Territorial Expansion Memorial Commission
C. Photographs and Illustrations
D. Chronology


I. President Harry Truman, center, confers with Luther Ely Smith at the memorial's dedication June 1950. William Crowdus of JNEMA is to the president's left.

II. The architectural competition jury of award stand on the Old Courthouse steps. From left: S. Herbert Hare, Roland A. Wank, Charles Nagel, Jr., Louis La Beaume, Fiske Kimball, Richard J. Neutra, George Howe and William Wurster.

III. Eero Saarinen's first stage entry in the architectural competition's second stage.

IV. Eero Saarinen's prize winning entry in the architectural competition's second stage.

V. Eero Saarinen.

VI. The Arch's triangular sections are composed of stainless and plate steel, concrete and steel tendons.

VII. The Gateway Arch is "topped out" as the final section is inserted on October 28, 1965.

VIII. The creeper derricks are slowly backing down the Arch legs in this January 6, 1966 photograph. Arteaga Photos, Limited, St. Louis.

IX. The Old Courthouse and Luther Ely Smith Square as seen from the top of the Arch in 1979. Photo by Joseph L. Matthews.

X. Visitor Center and Museum of Westward Expansion Floor Plan.

All photos courtesy Jefferson National Expansion Memorial unless otherwise credited.

Urban Innovation and Practical Partnerships:
An Administrative History of Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, 1980-1991
Bob Moore
Historian, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
National Park Service
United States Department of the Interior

Gary W. Easton, Superintendent
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial

David N. Given, Associate Regional Director
Planning and Resource Preservation, Midwest Region

William W. Schenk
Acting Regional Director, Midwest Region

Administrative History
Bob Moore


Color photograph of the Gateway Arch by Kurt Hosna

List of Illustrations

List of Abbreviations


Introduction: The National Park Comes Into the Grid

A Visit to Jefferson National Expansion Memorial
Meet Jerry Schober
A Note on the Text

Chapter One - The Arch Parking Garage

Chapter Two - The 70mm World Odyssey Theatre

Rock Removal
Projection System
70mm Film Production

Chapter Three - The Veiled Prophet Fair

History of the Event
Minimizing the Damage
Visitor Protection
"A Gift or a Desecration?"
The Importance of the VP Fair
The Fairs:
The VP Fair and JEFF

Chapter Four - Maintenance

Part I - Building Services and HVAC

Maintenance Management System
Heating and Air Conditioning
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site
Cyclic Maintenance
Old Courthouse Repairs
Physical Improvements and Preventative Maintenance
Entrance Ramps
Water Intrusion

Part II - Grounds

Tree and Ground Cover Replacement
Integrated Pest Management and the Ash Borer
Bermuda Grass and Weed Control
Tree Inventory
Snow Removal
Reflecting Ponds
Parking Garage
The VP Fair
Youth Conservation Corps

Part III - Tram Maintenance

The Unique Arch Transportation System
Repairs and Maintenance
Electrical Systems
Unique Systems and Repairs
Specialized Staffing Problems
Motor Generator Set Replacement

Part IV - Custodial Services


Chapter Five - Old Courthouse Rehabilitation and Restoration

Early Restoration Efforts, 1930-1946
Further Restoration, 1947-1974
Inspection of Conditions, 1975-1977
Lantern Restoration and Fire, 1978-1980
Dome Restoration, 1980-1981
Exterior Restoration, 1982-1986
Interior Restoration 1983-1988

Chapter Six - Accessibility

Video Programs
Further Accessibility Improvements

Chapter Seven - Entrance Fee

Chapter Eight - The Role of the Jefferson National Expansion Historical Association

Enlargement and Modernization of the JNEHA Store
Donation Expense - Funding Provided to the NPS
Sales Items Controversy
Union Station
Interpretation at Union Station
The Future

Chapter Nine - Museum Services and Interpretation

Interpretive Planning at JEFF
The Museum of Westward Expansion
Interpreting the Museum
Visitor Center Rehabilitation
Old Courthouse Exhibit Galleries
The Museum Education Program
Beginnings: 1977-1980
Folklife Program
Education Program, 1981-1985
Education Program Revisions
New Directions
Interpretive Programs in the Late 1980s
JNEHA and Interpretation
Special Interpretive Activities
Folklife Program
Black Heritage Month
Christmas Programs
Scout Programs
Union Station Urban Initiative Project
Victorian 4th of July
Other Programs
Special Events
25th Anniversary Celebration
The 75th Anniversary of the NPS
Volunteers-In-Parks Program
Collections Management
Exhibit Staff and the Temporary Exhibit Program
American Indian Peace Medal Exhibit

Chapter Ten - Division of Law Enforcement and Safety

Emergency Medical System
Hazardous Duty
The VP Fair
Rank Identification at the VP Fair
Arch Parking Garage
The Staff
The Gulf War
Horse Patrol
Bicycle Patrol

Chapter Eleven - Two New Parks Are Created: The Ulysses S. Grant and Harry S Truman National Historic Sites

Harry S Truman National Historic Site
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site
Early Years and Development, 1796-1821
The Dent Family and Ulysses S. Grant at White Haven, 1821-1860
Grant's War Years, 1861-1865
Grant Owns White Haven, 1866-1885
White Haven in the Post-Grant Years, 1885-1979
Creation of a National Historic Site, 1980-1991

Chapter Twelve - East Side Expansion - Taking the Dream Across the River

Chapter Thirteen - Unusual Events and Occurrences at JEFF




A. Chronology of Events, JEFF, 1980-1991
B. Visitation Figures, 1980-1990
C. Chronology, East Side Expansion Effort
D. JEFF Amendments Act of 1984
E. Law Enforcement Statistics, 1981-1991
F. Chronology, U.S. Grant National Historic Site
G. U.S. Grant National Historic Site Legislation
H. Ash Borer Statistics
I. Agreement between JNEHA and NPS

Maps and Diagrams

1. Area Map, Downtown St. Louis

Landscape, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial:
     2. Original Landscape Plan, 1947
     3. Modified Landscape Plan, 1959
     4. Schematic of Landscape, 1980s

Index (omitted from the online edition)

1. The Gateway Arch
2. The Gateway Arch and Old Courthouse
3. Building demolition, Arch in background, 1965
4. Richard Ainsworth touching the Arch
5. The crowded Gateway Arch lobby
6. Jerry Schober
7. Conceptual drawing of the Gateway Arch Parking Garage
8. Parking lot on the grounds of the Gateway Arch
9. Dedication of the Gateway Arch Parking Garage, May 8, 1986
10. The completed Gateway Arch Parking Garage
11. Tucker Theater
12. Excavation on the site of JEFF's second theater project, 1990
13. High-pressure water jet used to excavate second theater
14. The excavation phase of construction nears completion, 1991
15. Carpeting the tiered seating area
16. Installation of the marble facing, exterior of projection booth
17. Completed interior, World Odyssey Theatre
18. Completed Theatre entrance
19. Program title page, Sixth Veiled Prophet Festival, 1883
20. Clean-up from the 1982 VP Fair
21. Patrons of the 1982 VP Fair with liquor they brought onto the grounds
22. Law enforcement rangers at the 1982 VP Fair
23. Enormous crowds at 1982 VP Fair waded in reflecting ponds
24. The Arch grounds, 1982 VP Fair
25. The Arch grounds, 1982 VP Fair
26. Aftermath of the 1982 VP Fair
27. Crowd watching fireworks, VP Fair
28. Food and craft booth, 1981 VP Fair
29. Emergency carts on the Gateway Arch grounds
30. Crowds watch the McDonnell-Douglas Air Show, 1985 VP Fair
31. Crowds wait for a featured performer on the main stage, VP Fair
32. Advertisement by Pet, Incorporated for the 1988 VP Fair
33. NPS information tent with Mark Engler, 1990 VP Fair
34. NPS cannon crew, 1990 VP Fair
35. Kenny Rogers performing at the 1992 VP Fair
36. Bill Cosby performed at the 1991 VP Fair
37. Aerial of people on the grounds, 1990 VP Fair
38. Crowds line the riverfront, 1989
39. Interior of the HVAC equipment room in the Gateway Arch complex
40. Maintenance Mechanic Lonnie Collins, constructing exhibits
41. Skylight Damage, Old Courthouse
42. Signs fabricated by St. Louis Ornamental Stone and Manufacturing Co.
43. The roof of the underground visitor center exposed for repair
44. Earth removal, August 21, 1990
45. Dave Caselli examines exposed pipe, October 5, 1990
46. The exposed visitor center roof, October 24, 1990
47. Installation of Pave-Prep, October 29, 1990
48. Installation of Pave-Prep, November 2, 1990
49. Removal of old waterproofing material, November 7, 1990
50. The finished visitor center roof, November 17, 1990
51. Testing for water-tight qualities, November 26, 1990
52. The exposed visitor center roof, January 9, 1991
53. New installation of waterproofing material, February 2, 1991
54. Replacing soil, visitor center roof, April 1, 1991
55. The re-covered visitor center roof, April 11, 1991
56. Re-sodding, May 1991
57. Asbestos removal, January 9, 1991, entrance ramps
58. Temporary wall erected during asbestos removal, January 9, 1991
59. In 1967, the new Gateway Arch awaited a landscape plan
60. Grounds foreman Jim Jacobs
61. Dan Kiley, original landscape architect for the Arch grounds
62. Superintendent Harry Pfanz and John Ronscavage, 1970
63. The Grand Staircase under construction, 1976
64. Landscaping, 1979
65. Trees are planted by helicopter, 1980
66. Young Rosehill Ash trees, 1980
67. The completed grounds from the top of the Gateway Arch, 1990
68. St. Louis Post-Dispatch Photo of Carl Smith by Gary Bohn, 1987
69. Clearwing borer moths
70. Tractor Operator Bobbie Eakins aerating turf
71. Irrigation system with sprinklers running
72. Damage to a Rosehill Ash tree
73. Gardener Sharron Cudney assesses damage to a tree
74. Youth Conservation Corps crew, 1989
75. Dick Bowser, inventor of the Gateway Arch Transportation System
76. The Gateway Arch Transportation System
77. A completed capsule, 1965
78. The ATS crew working on a tram car, 1978
79. Harry Breitenstein replaces the aircraft warning light atop the Arch
80. Les Doolittle working on a tram car, 1978
81. Bi-State ticket for the Arch Transportation System, 1968
82. Dusting MWE Prisms, 1979
83. Buffing the floors
84. Old Courthouse from the top of the Gateway Arch
85. Investigation and restoration of original murals, 1955
86. Deteriorated cornice, 1978
87. The lantern, 1978
88. Fire investigation, Old Courthouse, 1979
89. Fire damage, Old Courthouse, 1979
90. Exterior Old Courthouse dome and scaffolding, 1980
91. Removing paint with a forced stream of walnut shells
92. Dome restoration, 1981
93. The Old Courthouse sheathed in scaffolding, 1986
94. Interior scaffolding, Old Courthouse
95. Restoration experts at work on the murals, Old Courthouse, 1985
96. Video monitor, with accessibility information, 1984
97. Ticket machine wagon for fee collection, 1988
98. Maintenance Mechanic Lonnie Collins working on a ticket wagon
99. George Baitinger tells visitors about the fee program
100. Bi-State Ticket Center
101. Original JNEHA Museum Shop, 1978
102. The new JNEHA Museum Shop, 1984
103. Visitors in the JNEHA Museum Shop
104. America's National Parks Store at St. Louis Union Station
105. Ray Breun and William Penn Mott at Union Station, 1988
106. Gary Candalaria and Karen Gustin interpreting at Union Station
107. Demonstration of rapelling at Union Station
108. Child touching Jefferson Statue, 1978
109. Interpreter greeting visitors to museum, 1978
110. Temporary exhibits, Gateway Arch visitor center, 1970s
111. Map of the Museum of Westward Expansion
112. Mounted bison specimen, Museum of Westward Expansion, 1976
113. Map of the Old Courthouse Exhibit Galleries
114. New Old Courthouse Exhibit featured the Old Rock House
115. Cathy Pellarin and Eleanor Hall conduct an overlander program
116. Tim Butler conducts an educational program
117. David Uhler conducts the off-site portion of a Partnership Program
118. Contents of a traveling trunk
119. Dred Scott education program
120. Dred Scott education program
121. Diane James conducts a Frontier Classroom Program
122. JNEHA Ranger Kurt Hosna interpreting in the museum
123. Basket weaver at the Frontier Folklife Festival
124. Sheep shearing at the Frontier Folklife Festival
125. Storyteller at the 1985 festival
126. John Toomer portrayed York in 1990 and 1991
127. A 25-foot-tall Christmas tree in the Old Courthouse rotunda
128. Jim Jackson and Andy Kling conduct a Scout program
129. 37-star American flag hangs in the rotunda of the Old Courthouse
130. Logo used for the 25th anniversary of the Gateway Arch, 1990
131. Volunteer Mary Reilly staffs the information desk in the Arch Lobby
132. Annual Volunteer Banquet, 1991
133. Librarian Tom Dewey
134. Dan Swift and David Uhler hang a temporary exhibit
135. American Indian Peace Medal Exhibit
136. Carolyn Buckner conducts a "Mock Trial" program
137. Cortez Holloway speaks to a member of the press from horseback, 1990
138. Chief Ranger Ivan Tolley, 1974
139. Park Rangers issue a warning at the VP Fair
140. Chief Ranger Deryl Stone, Chuck Carlson, Keith Temple, Chris Cessna
141. Rangers at the VP Fair
142. Dispatch Center
143. The Horse Patrol
144. The Bicycle Patrol
145. The Truman Home
146. Tom Richter
147. Repairs to the Truman site
148. White Haven, home of Ulysses S. and Julia Dent Grant
149. Frederick Dent
150. Second Lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant
151. The Grant family at Mount McGregor, N.Y., 1885
152. White Haven during the Wenzlick period
153. Interpretation at Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site
154. East St. Louis from the Top of the Gateway Arch
155. Members of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Commission
156. Public meeting on the steps of the Arch, August 13, 1986
157. A helicopter with nine cameras flies through the Arch, 1974
158. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower
159. H.R.H. Prince Charles of Great Britain
160. A rally for President Gerald Ford on the Arch grounds, 1976
161. An anti-ERA rally, 1983
162. Advertisement for Arch Grounds Seed Mix
163. John Agnew of East St. Louis relaxes on the grounds
164. Skating on the reflecting ponds, 1981

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Last Updated: 15-Jan-2004