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An Acadian Afternoon

Your hike begins in the cool shade of the spruce-fir forest. Ribbons of sunlight drop through the canopy to needle-carpeted ground. The rat-a-tat of a pileated woodpecker shatters the hush of the woods, and a red squirrel darting along a tree trunk chitters as you pass by.

The trail rises; tree roots underfoot give way to lichen-splotched granite. Clumps of sheep laurel and low-bush blueberry grow along the trail. Squat, gnarled pitch pines replace the straight spruce and fir below, and the scent of pine resin baking in the sun fills the air. After a rugged scramble over boulders, you pause in a shady spot to sip from your water bottle, noting the goose-foot-shaped leaves of striped maple glowing emerald in the sun. There are birch here and aspen and oak; this is a much different forest than the one you started in.

Could fire have once swept through here, allowing faster-growing, sun-loving plants to dominate in place of shade-loving spruce? Or is some other process at work? What will become of these younger forests as time passes? Stone steps appear ahead, a slope of loose rock scree magically rearranged. The trail, built over a hundred years ago by a summer resident, is but one of many contributions made by those who sought to preserve parts of the Acadian landscape for others to enjoy.

On a ranger-led walk earlier in the day, you learned to identify the trill of the white-throated sparrow, and now it pierces the air. Like so many other species, the white-throated sparrow visits only for the summer, spending its winters far beyond park borders in the south. As the trail climbs, the forest shrinks away to stunted, weather-beaten trees and barren granite. You step lightly, and on stone, for life here is already tough for the plants that must survive in the severe climates of mountain tops, without a hiking boot crushing them. Three-toothed cinquefoil clusters behind rocks and sinks its roots into what little soil exists in the joints of granite bedrock. One careless kick of a rock could destroy decades of growth and crucial habitat for summit plants, including some rare subalpine species.

A panorama of shore and sea emerges, revealing the landmarks that define Acadia's coast—Sand Beach, Thunder Hole, and Otter Point. Across the bay, Schoodic Peninsula juts into the ocean. Visitors in the 1800s once looked out upon a similar scene, but instead of hearing the mutter of lobster boats, they saw the sails of hundreds of fishing sloops dotting the bay.

To the west more mountains rise up. Their shapes suggest the southward movement of glaciers thousands of years ago pushing into the north ridges of the mountains. Scraping down mountain summits, the glaciers sculpted long, sloping north ridges and created steep cliffs on their southern faces.

At the summit you are encircled by the mountainous and oceanic world of Acadia. In only one mile you have hiked from sea level to the solitude of a mountain summit. Now you are faced with decisions: Explore farther on? Return to your starting point?

Beguiled by the cool ocean breezes and the sun beating on your shoulders, maybe you simply sit back and contemplate the sky and sea, and the scudding clouds, and the fine afternoon that brought you here.

Shaping the Land

A variety of geologic processes have shaped Acadia National Park, leaving tangible evidence of the region's ancient past.

Ellsworth Schist
Five hundred million years ago sedimentary deposits of mud settled on the floor of an ancient sea. High temperatures deep in the Earth and the pressure of burial fused and metamorphosed (transformed) the deposits into distinctive layers. The formation called Ellsworth Schist is the oldest rock exposed on Mount Desert Island.

Cadillac Mountain Granite
This rock began as molten magma that intruded into older, overlying rock. As it cooled, it hardened and crystallized. It is peppered with flecks of black hornblende and glistens with quartz crystal Pink feldspar gives this granite its pink hue.

From the domed summit of Cadillac Mountain to the U-shaped valley of Bubble Pond, Acadia's undulating landscape is the product of thousands of years of sculpting by glacial ice. The ice scoured away older rock, revealing the granite beneath. As the ice melted and retreated, it left behind its burden of boulders and debris, strewn across the landscape.

Shoreline Processes
The geologic processes that began millions of years ago continue today, shaping and reshaping the landscape. Shoreline erosion is an ever-present example of the continuing changes wrought by the forces of the Earth.

People of Mount Desert Island

"[The island] is very high, notched in places, so that there is the appearance to one at sea, as of seven or eight mountains extending along near each other. The summit of most of them is destitute of trees, as there are only rocks on them. The woods consist of pines, firs, and birches only. I name it Isle des Monts Deserts."

—Samuel Champlain, 1604

The earliest indigenous people of Mount Desert Island were hunter-gatherers who plied the sea in dugout canoes in pursuit of sea mammals and fish. Bits of animal bone, pottery shards, and stone tools, discarded in clam shell heaps reveal clues about their daily lives. Some artifacts have been carbon dated to 5,000 years of age.

More recently, the Wabanaki lived on the island all year, hunting, gathering, and trading with the European fishermen and explorers. Explorer Samuel Champlain created the first reliable European record of Mount Desert Island in 1604. There were attempts to settle the island after his visit, but 150 years of war between the French and British made it disputed territory unsafe for habitation until 1761, when English colonists established the first permanent settlement.

Islanders fished, farmed, quarried granite, and engaged in shipping. When the first visitors arrived in the mid-1800s, the tourist trade offered a new income source. Landscape painters of the Hudson River School inspired droves of city dwellers to seek out Mount Desert Island. Huge wooden hotels and extravagant houses—called "cottages"—built by wealthy summer residents soon transformed the quiet farming and fishing villages.

Amid all the bustle and clamor of socials and lawn parties, there were those who still appreciated the natural beauty of the island. In 1901, Harvard President Charles W. Eliot formed the Hancock County Trustees of Public Reservations to help preserve some of the beautiful spots on Mount Desert Island. The Trustees acquired 5,000 acres in donated land and presented it to the federal Government. In 1916 President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed the area Sieur de Monts National Monument. As more land donations expanded the national monument, in 1919 Congress redesignated it as a national park—the first to be established east of the Mississippi River.

A Diversity of Life

Sea meets land at Acadia, and life thrives from shore to summit. The arctic black crowberry grows next to the more temperate bunchberry. Songs of wood warblers fill the forest, and a green snake basks in the sun. Mammals, from the little brown bat to white-tailed deer, also add to Acadia's diversity of life.

Pockets in the rocky shore trap pools of water as the tide recedes. Amazing plants and creatures, including starfish, survive in the inhospitable world between the tides.

Spruce-fir forest dominated the park until 1947, when fire burned 10,000 acres. Sun-loving birch, aspen, and oak grew in its wake. The fire brought more variety to both the woodlands and the wildlife the new growth attracted, like the red fox.

Glacially carved valleys cradle freshwater lakes in Acadia's interior. Here waterfowl, amphibians, reptiles, and numerous invertebrates thrive—and humans may find reflection.

The mountains are not nearly as barren as Samuel Champlain once described. They are home to woodlands and many plant species. Peregrine falcons nest on some precipitous cliff faces.

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Visiting Acadia

Getting Here

By Automobile: Follow Maine 3 to Mount Desert Island. Schoodic Peninsula can be reached by Maine 186.

By Air: Airlines serve Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, 10 miles from the park, and Bangor International Airport, 45 miles from the park. Seasonal shuttles link airports with Mount Desert Island.

By Bus: Concord Trailways and Vermont Transit provide service between Logan Airport (Boston) and Bangor. Seasonal shuttles link bus lines with Mount Desert Island.

By Ferry: Bay Ferries offer seasonal car and passenger service between Bar Harbor and Yarmouth, Nova Scotia. Isle au Haut can be reached by ferry from Stonington, Maine.

Exploring Acadia

Island Explorer Shuttles Parking is limited in Acadia National Park. In summer, fare-free Island Explorer shuttles connect lodging and campgrounds with villages, the park, and ferries. Your park entrance fees support the Island Explorer.

Park Entrance Passes Your park entrance fees support many park programs also. You can buy passes at the Hulls Cove Visitor Center, park headquarters, park campgrounds, entrance station north of Sand Beach, and Bar Harbor Village Green.

Visitor Center Begin your visit at Hulls Cove Visitor Center on Maine 3 for information, a captioned audiovisual program. publications, and activity schedules. In winter, park headquarters, on Maine 233 west of Bar Harbor, provides information.

Ranger-led Programs Rangers lead programs along the shore, on mountains, in forests, and on boat cruises, interpreting wildlife, history, plants, and geology. See the park newspaper Beaver Log for schedules.

Scenic Driving The 27-mile Park Loop Road connects Acadia's lakes, mountains, and seashore. Cadillac Mountain Road offers panoramic views of the coast and island-studded bays. Federal law requires wearing seat belts. Obey all speed limits.

Trails Acadia's many historic trails—from lowland paths to mountain routes—suit the casual walker or avid hiker. Beware of loose stones and poison ivy, stay on trails, wear hiking shoes, and do not hike alone. Trails are for day hiking only; there is no backcountry camping in Acadia.

Carriage Roads Acadia's 45 miles of historic carriage roads are among America's finest remaining examples of broken-stone roads. Bicyclists: remember to yield to all pedestrians and equestrians.

Swimming Echo Lake Beach and Sand Beach are lifeguarded in summer. The ocean is cold! Many lakes supply public drinking water and are closed to swimming and wading.

Bicycling The park has 45 miles of historic carriage roads and over 27 miles of paved roads. Bicycles are prohibited off-road and on hiking trails.

Winter Visits Cross-country skiing and snowshoeing are popular when conditions permit, icy conditions can make winter hiking treacherous.

Accommodations There are two park campgrounds: Blackwoods, open all year (reservations suggested May-October; walk-in camping by permit only December-March), and Seawall, open late May-September (first-come, first-served). Do not feed wild animals! Store and dispose of food correctly. Nearby towns offer private campgrounds and lodging.

Accessibility Ask at information centers or park campgrounds for a guidebook of accessible services and facilities. Also ask about captioned and audio description programs and schedules of the accessible ranger-led programs and carriage rides.

Acadia's Seasons Be prepared for changeable weather. Summer highs average 70-80°F, with fog common. Spring and fall highs are 50-60°F. Winter lasts from November to April, and temperatures range from below 0°F to 30°F. Annual snowfall averages 60 inches.

For Your Safety Use caution near cliff edges; dangerous footing can cause serious falls. Trails and rocks may be slippery. Waves can knock you down and sweep you out to sea. Never turn your back on the ocean.

Regulations Pets must be attended and leashed at all times. Parking, camping, and fires are permitted only in designated areas. Firearms are prohibited in the park unless cased, broken down, or otherwise packed against use. To protect the park's scenic, natural, and cultural resources, please Leave No Trace (visit Removing plants, animals, rocks, or other natural or historic features is prohibited. Observe wildlife at a distance. Feeding wildlife is prohibited. Carry out anything you carried in. Stay on trails; hike and rest on durable surfaces, like rock, when possible.

Source: NPS Brochure (2011)


Acadia National Park — January 19, 1929
Lafayette National Park — February 26, 1919
Sieur de Monts National Monument — July 8, 1916

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Brochures ◆ Site Bulletins ◆ Trading Cards expand section


A Century of National Park Conflict: Class, Geography, and the Changing Values of Conservation Discourse in Maine (©Adam Auerbach, Thesis Bates College, March 28, 2016)

A Guide's Guide to Acadia National Park (2009)

A List of the Birds of Mount Desert Island, Maine (James Bond, undated)

A Preliminary List of Birds on Mount Desert and Adjacent Islands (M.J. Pellew, 1927)

An Analysis of Lafayette National Park (Robert Sterling Yard, ©National Parks Association, February 1924)

An Evaluation of the Technical Report for Management: Water Resource Baseline Data and Assessment of Impacts from Acidic Precipitation, Acadia National Park, Maine (Jeffrey S. Kahl, Janet L. Andersen and Stephen A. Norton, June 1985)

Acadia National Park: How might future warming alter visitation? (June 18, 2015)

Acadia National Park in Peril: The Threats of Climate Disruption (Stephen Saunders and Tom Easley, ©The Rocky Mountain Climate Organization and Natural Resources Defense Council, November 2010, all rights reserved)

Acadia Nature Notes (1932-1939)

Acadia Trails Treatment Plan: Cultural Landscape Report for the Historic Hiking Trail System of Acadia National Park Olmsted Center for Historic Preservation (Christian S. Barter, Margaret Coffin Brown, J. Tracy Stakely and Gary J. Stellpflug, 2006)

Analysis of factors affecting population viability and reintroduction attempts of native mammals in Acadia National Park NPS Technical Report NPS/NESO-RNR/NRTR/98-06 (MaryEllen Chilelli, James R. Gilbert, Brad Griffith and Allan F. O'Connell, Jr., Draft April 25, 1994)

Anticipated effects of development on habitat fragmentation and movement of mammals into and out of the Schoodic District, Acadia National Park, Maine USGS Scientific Investigations Report: 2012-5149 (Jason J. Rohweder, Nathan R. De Jager and Glenn R. Guntenspergen, 2012)

Application of a Watershed-Wide Nonpoint Source Pollutant Loading Model at Acadia National Park (Maine) (Igor Runge, Raymond M. Wright, Daniel W. Urish and Gregory S. Fine, April 1992)

Archeological Investigations at Fabbri Memorial (Diane Lee Rhodes, 1983)

Assessment of natural resource conditions in and adjacent to Acadia National Park, Maine NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/WRD/NRR-2008/069 (Peter D. Vaux, Sarah J. Nelson, Nishi Rajakaruna, Glen Mittelhauser, Kathleen Bell, Blaine Kopp, John Peckenham and Gordon Longsworth, November 2008)

Asticou's Island Domain: Wabanaki Peoples at Mount Desert Island 1500-2000: Acadia National Park Ethnographic Overview and Assessment, Vol. 1 (H.E. Prins and B. McBride, 2007)

Asticou's Island Domain: Wabanaki Peoples at Mount Desert Island 1500-2000: Acadia National Park Ethnographic Overview and Assessment, Vol. 2 (H.E. Prins and B. McBride, 2007)

Biodiversity of the Schoodic Peninsula: Results of the Insect and Arachnid Bioblitzes at the Schoodic District of Acadia National Park, Maine Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 206 (Donald S. Chandler, David Manski, Charlene Donahue and Andrei Alyokhin, September 2012)

Cadillac Mountain Road: Written Historical and Descriptive Data, Photographs, Xerographic Copies of Color Transparencies HAER No. ME-58 (Richard H. Quin, 1994)

Centennial Junior Ranger, Acadia National Park (2016)

Climate Change in Acadia National Park (Samantha Mary Evans, Victoria Cunningham and Yueqing Wang, June 27, 2019)

Conserving a Vision: Acadia, Katahdin, and the Pathway from Private Lands to Park Lands (Sean Flaherty and Anthony Moffa, extract from Maine Law Review, Vol. 71 No. 1, 2018)

Cultural Landscape Report for the Historic Motor Road System, Acadia National Park: The History, Existing Conditions, Analysis, and Treatment (Jeffrey Killion and H. Eliot Foulds, 2007)

Cultural Landscape Report for Blackwoods and Seawall Campground: Acadia National Park: History, Existing Conditions, Analysis Olmsted Center for Landscape Preservation Cultural Landscape Publication No. 11 (H. Eliot Foulds, 1996)

Cultural Landscape Report for the Carriage Road System: Acadia National Park, Mount Desert Island, Maine (Rieley & Associates, September 1993)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Historic Hiking Trail System - Bar Harbor District, Acadia National Park (2017)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Isle au Haut Unit, Acadia National Park (2018)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Sieur de Monts Spring, Acadia National Park (2009)

Determining Critical Nitrogen Loads to Boreal Lake Ecosystems: The Response of Phytoplankton at Acadia and Isle Royale National Parks NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/ACAD/NRTR—2014/862 (Jasmine E. Saros, April 2014)

Dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) of Acadia National Park and vicinity, Maine (Harold B. White III, 1989)

Draft Finding Aid: Acadia National Park Resource Management Records (1993-2007) (September 2011)

Echo Lake Beach Facilities Rehabilitation Environmental Assessment (January 13, 2004)

Effects of invasive plant species on pollinator service and reproduction in native plants at Acadia National Park NPS Technical Report NPS/NER/NRTR--2007/096 (C. J. Stubbs, F. Drummond and H. Ginsberg, 2007)

Estimates of future inundation of salt marshes in response to sea-level rise in and around Acadia National Park, Maine USGS Scientific Investigations Report: 2012-5290 (Martha G. Nielsen and Robert W. Dudley, 2013)

Exotic Plant Management in Acadia National Park, Maine: 2018 Annual Report ACAD NR Report# 2019-01 (Alexander Fetgatter, Jesse Wheeler and Nicholas Stevenson, April 2019)

Fire Regimes of the Coastal Maine Forests of Acadia National Park (William A. Patterson III, Karen E. Saunders an L.J. Horton, ca. 1983)

Forest Vegetation Monitoring in Acadia National Park Maine Agricultural and Forest Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 187 (J.D. Eckhoff, G.B. Wiersma and J.A. Elvir, August 2003)

Foundation Document, Acadia National Park, Maine (September 2016)

General Management Plan / Environmental Assessment, Acadia National Park (August 1991)

General Management Plan, Acadia National Park (October 1992)

Geologic Resources Inventory Report, Acadia National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/GRD/NRR-2010/232 (J. Graham, August 2010)

Ground water availability in Acadia National Park and vicinity, Hancock and Knox counties, Maine USGS Open-File Report: 80-1050 (Bruce P. Hansen, 1980)

Guidelines on Information Deliverables for Research Projects at Acadia National Park (June 2, 2006)

Hiking Trails Management Plan, Acadia National Park, Maine (February 2002)

Historic Motor Road System, Acadia National Park Cultural Landscape Publication No. 9 (H. Eliot Foulds, 1993, reprinted 1996)

Historic Structure Report: Baker Island Light Station, Acadia National Park, Maine (Barbara A. Yocum, 2013)

Historic Structure Report: Bass Harbor Head Light Station, Acadia National Park (Rebecca Cybularz, February 2020)

Hydrogeomorphic Classification of Wetlands on Mt. Desert Island, Maine, Including Hydrologic Susceptibility Factors for Wetlands in Acadia National Park USGS Scientific Investigations Report: 2006-5162 (Martha G. Nielsen, 2006)

Hydrologic Data Summary for the Northeast Creek/Fresh Meadow Estuary, Acadia National Park, Maine, 2000-2001 USGS Open-File Report: 2007-1035 (James M. Caldwell and Charles W. Culbertson, 2007)

Inventory and protection of salt marshes from risks of sea-level rise at Acadia National Park, Maine USGS Fact Sheet: 2011-3015 (Robert W. Dudley and Martha G. Nielsen, 2011)

Long-term monitoring of vegetation cover changes by remote sensing, Cadillac Mountain summit, Acadia National Park (Min-Kook Kim and John J. Daigle, extract from Parks Stewardship Forum, Vol. 38 No. 1, 2022)

Maine's Great Coast Resort, Bar Harbor: The Gateway of the Lafayette National Park (Bar Harbor Publicity Committee, 1919)

Management Plans for Invasive Plant Species of Acadia National Park NPS Natural Resources Report NPS/NER/NRR-2008/018 (Jill E. Weber and Sally C. Rooney, December 2007)

Map: Sieur de Monts National Monument, Mount Desert Island, Maine (1916)

Map: Lafayette National Park (1928)

Migration of the Acadian Orogen and foreland basin across the Northern Appalachians of Maine and adjacent areas USGS Professional Paper 1624 (Dwight C. Bradley, Robert D. Tucker, Daniel R. Lux, Anita G. Harris and D. Colin McGregor, 2000)

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms

Baker Island Light Station (Kirk F. Mohney, October 1987)

Bear Island Light Station (Kirk F. Mohney, October 1987)

Blackwoods Campground (Jennifer Morvan and Virginia H. Adams, April 1999, revised March 2004)

The Carriage Paths, Bridges and Gatehouses (Bronwyn Krog, March 7, 1979)

Islesford Historical Museum and Blue Duck Ships Store (Bronwyn Krog, February 14, 1978)

Schoodic Peninsula Historic District (Lee Terzis and Nancy J. Brown, September 27, 2001, revised July 2005)

Seawall Campground (Jennifer Morvan and Virginia H. Adams, April 1999, revised March 2004)

Nutrient budgets, marsh inundation under sea-level rise scenarios, and sediment chronologies for the Bass Harbor Marsh estuary at Acadia National Park USGS Open-File Report: 2014-1031 (Thomas G. Huntington, Charles W. Culbertson, Christopher Fuller, Patricia Gilbert and Luke Sturtevant, 2014)

Pathmakers: Cultural Landscape Report for the Historic Hiking Trail System of Mount Desert Island — History, Existing Conditions & Analysis (Margaret Coffin Brown, 2006)

Park Newspaper (Beaver Log)

2004: July-AugustSeptember-OctoberWinter

2005: JuneJuly-AugustSeptember-October

2006: JuneJuly-AugustSeptember-October

2007: JuneJuly-AugustSeptember-October

2008: JuneJuly-AugustSeptember-October

2009: JuneJuly-AugustSeptember-October



Park Stories (2005-2006)

Population and habitat assessment for spruce grouse in Acadia National Park and on Mount Desert Island, Maine NPS Technical Report NPS/NAROSS/NRTR-94/23 (Scott D. Whitcomb, Frederick A. Servello and Allan F. O'Connell, Jr., August 1994)

Preserving Historic Trails: Conference Proceedings, October 17-20, 2000, Acadia National Park Olmsted Center for Historic Preservation (2000)

Proceedings of the Acadia National Park Science Symposium. October 20th, 2018, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, Maine (Emma Albee and Abraham Miller-Rushing, eds., December 10, 2018)

Real and Imagined France in Acadia National Park (Tim Garrity, extract from Chebacco, Vol. XVIII, 2017)

Recent Climate Change Exposure of Acadia National Park (July 31, 2014)

Resource Brief: Dragonflies & Damselflies, Acadia National Park (July 2009)

Rockefeller Carriage Roads (Acadia Carriage Roads): Written Historical and Descriptive Data, Photographs, Measured and Interpretive Drawings, Xerographic Copies of Color Transparencies HAER No. ME-13 (Richard H. Quin, 1994-97)

Scoping Report: Acadia National Park Water Resources Management Plan NPS Technical Report NPS/NRWRD/NRTR-91/04 (September 1991)

Sieur de Monts Publications

Survey of flying squirrels and their association with vegetation communities on Mount Desert Island (Acadia National Park), Maine NPS Technical Report NPS/NESO-RNR/NRTR/98-08 (Jennifer Higgins, Allan F. O'Connell, Jr. and Frederick A. Servello, August 1998)

Survey of Freshwater Aquatic Vegetation of Acadia National Park NPS Technical Report NPS/BSO-RNR/NRTR-00-3 (Craig W. Greene, C. Barre Hellquist and Linda Gregory, October 1999)

The Civilian Conservation Corps at Acadia National Park Final Draft (James Moreira, Pamela Dean, Anu Dudley and Kevin Champney, May 12, 2009)

The Coastal Setting, Rocks, and Woods of the Sieur de Monts National Monument (1917)

The Geology of Mount Desert Island: A Visitor's Guide to the Geology of Acadia National Park (Richard A. Gilman, Carleton A. Chapman, Thomas V. Lowell and Harold W. Borns, Jr., 1988, ©Maine Geological Survey)

The Jones Cove Shell-Heap at West Gouldsboro, Maine Lafayette National Park Museum Bulletin 1 (Walter B. Smith, 1929)

The National Park on Mount Desert Island (Beatrix Farrand, extract from Scribner's Magazine, Vol. LXI No. 4, April 1917)

The relative importance of oceanic nutrient inputs for Bass Harbor Marsh Estuary at Acadia National Park, Maine USGS Scientific Investigations Report: 2014-5123 (Thomas G. Huntington, Charles W. Culbertson, Christopher Fuller, Patricia Gilbert and Luke Sturtevant, 2014)

The Wetlands of Acadia National Park and Vicinity (Aram J.K. Calhoun, Janet E. Cormier, Ray B. Owen Jr., Allan F. O'Connell Jr., Charles T. Roman and Ralph W. Tiner Jr., 1994)

Traditional Use of Fish Houses in Otter Cove (Charles W. Smythe, November 2008)

Trip Planner: 2005-20062007-2008

U.S. Naval Radio Station — Apartment Building (Bldg 1), Historic Structure Report, Acadia National Park (James J. Lee III, 2009)

Water Quality and Habitat Evaluation of Bass Harbor Marsh, Acadia National Park, Maine (Peter H. Doering, Lynn L. Beatty, Aimee A. Keller, Candace A. Oviatt and Charles T. Roman, August 1995)

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Last Updated: 24-Jun-2022