Crater Lake
National Park
Oregon
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How did a mountain become a lake? A massive volcanic eruption 7,700 years ago left a deep basin in the place where a mountain peak once stood. Centuries of rain and snow filled the basin, forming a deep blue lake whose waters are of unmatched color and clarity. It's the deepest lake in the United States. Your trip to the rim to view the lake is a climb up the flank of this transformed volcano.

A Long Line of Cascade Range Volcanoes

Mount Mazama is one of a line of volcanoes ranging from northern California into British Columbia. Along this zone, two of the Earth's crustal plates collide. As the denser plate of oceanic crust is forced deep into the Earth's interior beneath the continental plate, it encounters high temperatures and pressures that partially melt solid rock. About 7 million years ago the Cascades began to rise, where the molten rock surfaced as volcanic vents. This process continues. Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helens have erupted within the last century. Future eruptions may destroy the lake and fill the caldera with new rock.

FORMATION

1 GREW For 400,000 years, repeated volcanic eruptions built 12,000-foot Mount Mazama. Thick lava oozed from vents on the mountain. Thinner lava burst to the surface in more spectacular displays of volcanic power. Glaciers formed and receded more than once.

2 BLEW The most violent eruption began 7,700 years ago. A huge column of pumice and ash erupted skyward from a vent northeast of the summit, powered by expanding gas released from rising magma under great pressure in a chamber beneath the mountain.

3 FELL New vents encircling the subsiding peak brought hot flows of pumice, ash, and gas down its flanks. As the magma chamber emptied, the mountain could not support its own weight and collapsed, forming a deep caldera where the snow-capped volcano once stood.

4 FILLED The deep basin filled with centuries of rain and snowfall. No streams run into the lake, so very little sediment clouds its pure waters. Precipitation, balanced with evaporation and seepage, keeps the lake level consistent. Wizard Island erupted after the lake began to fill.

5 FUTURE? It may now be asleep, but Mazama is not an extinct volcano. It may awaken with a new eruptive phase some day as the geologic processes that built the Cascade Range continue. Perhaps the violence of its past will return to once again transform this peaceful landscape.

JUST THE FACTS

How big is Crater Lake?

• 6.02 miles across (maximum)
• 4.54 miles across (minimum)
• 1,943 feet deep at deepest point
• Holds 4.9 trillion gallons of water
• Tallest point on rim 1,978 feet above lake
• Lowest point on rim 507 feet above lake

Did a meteor form the crater?

• No. This deep basin is the belly of an erupted volcano
• Its geologic name is a caldera

Why is the lake so blue?

• Other colors of the spectrum are absorbed. Blue wavelengths are scattered and seen by human eyes

EXPLORATION

Surprising Secrets of the Nation's Deepest Lake

Research on the lake floor in Deep Rover, the submersible, found thick mats of bacteria thriving in the absence of light. Hydrothermal pools, unknown before, indicate the volcanic heat source beneath the lake. Thick bands of moss ring the walls at depths over 400 feet. Much remains to be learned; only two percent of the lake bottom has been explored.

A PRISTINE BENCHMARK FOR CHANGE

park map

topo map
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Crater Lake's purity makes it an indicator of human-induced change. Studies here show possible impacts of air pollution, climate change, and invasive species.

After his first visit here in 1885 William Gladstone Steel campaigned to protect Crater Lake, which he first heard about as a schoolboy. Steel's work met success with the park's creation in 1902.

The first attempt to determine lake depth, in 1886, was surprisingly accurate. Headed by Clarence Dutton of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Cleetwood Expedition was named for its boat.

A finding of 1,996 feet was taken that used a simple wooden sounding device to lower a section of pipe attached to piano wire. Sonar equipment now records the lake's depth as 1,943 feet.

Park aquatic biologists explored the lake floor in Deep Rover, in the research tradition that the Cleetwood Expedition launched. Moss beds discovered to encircle the lake and Wizard Island may weigh 50 times more than the rest of the lake's living matter.

A Science and Learning Center supports research and education efforts, connecting students, artists, scientists, and the public to share the results of recent investigations. The scientists share their findings and contribute to the education work. An Artists-in-Residence program enables participants to offer the artistic expression of their encounter with Crater Lake.

INSPIRATION

A Place of Power

Local tribes' oral traditions of the cataclysmic eruption closely parallel known geologic details, indicating tribal ancestors witnessed the event. After the eruption, the area became a prominent ritual site to the tribes in this region. The tribes perceive that spirits and particular powers inhabit the volcanic terrain. Private ceremonial activities, including vision quests, take place here today as they have for countless generations.

Archaeologists uncovered 75 sagebrush sandals from a cave near Fort Rock, Oregon, buried beneath a layer of Mount Mazama's ash. This find suggests that ancestral peoples witnessed the great eruption.

Taking in the Beauty of Crater Lake

Rim Village provides information, ranger programs, lodging, and meals from early June through September. A small cafe and gift store is open there year-round. Mazama Village is the summer season center for food, gifts, gasoline, lodging, camping, groceries, and supplies. Park Headquarters offers visitor services like information, first aid, backcountry permits, and map and book sales. Service animals are welcome. See your free Crater Lake Reflections Visitor Guide for details on these services.

Pullouts, viewpoints, and trails along 33-mile Rim Drive offer changing views of the sweeping curve of the caldera wall, massive cliffs overhanging the lake, and the extravagant beauty of the lake itself. Annual snowfall averaging 44 feet closes Rim Drive from mid-October to late June. In summer allow two to three hours to travel around the lake and enjoy its features. Stop at beautiful Vidae Falls along East Rim Drive. View the mysterious island named Phantom Ship. A side trip down Pinnacles Road leads to the wheelchair-accessible Plaikni Falls Trail and the Pinnacles, eerie spires of volcanic ash sculpted by erosion. Other viewpoints offer expansive landscape vistas. Look for Pumice Castle, a narrow tower of reddish rock on the eastern caldera wall. It survives after centuries of erosion. Enjoy a strenuous hike to the lake on the Cleetwood Cove Trail, access point for Crater Lake Boat Tours (advance ticket purchase required). Back at Rim Village, climb the Garfield Peak Trail near historic Crater Lake Lodge.

Safety and Regulations Park roads are often steep and winding. Drive safely, using common sense. Read other safety tips and regulations found in your free visitor guide. Please do not feed or disturb wildlife. For firearms regulations see the park website or ask a ranger. With your help we can preserve this national park unimpaired for future generations to enjoy. In an emergency call 911.

Source: NPS Brochure (2018)


Establishment

Crater Lake National Park — May 22, 1902


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Brochures ◆ Site Bulletins ◆ Trading Cards expand section

Documents

A Chronology of Planning, Development, and Controversy in the Upper Rogue River Basin (undated)

A Comparison of Cinder Cones in the Crater Lake National Park Area With Those in the Lassen National Park Area (K.R. Cranson, June 7, 1967)

A Study of the Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Pumice from Glacier Peak, Washington and Mt. Mazama (Crater Lake), Oregon: Report of Progress, June 16-September 7, 1963 WSU Department of Anthropology Reports of Investigations 24 (Virginia C. Steen, 1963)

Administrative History: Volume I of II, Crater Lake National Park (Harlan D. Unrau, March 1988)

Administrative History: Volume II of II, Crater Lake National Park (Harlan D. Unrau, 1988)

Administrative History — Chapter 17: Planning and Development at Rim Village, Crater Lake National Park (Stephen R. Mark, 1991)

Administrative History — Chapter 18: Research, Crater Lake National Park (Stephen R. Mark, 2003)

Administrative History — Chapter 19: Trails at Crater Lake National Park (Stephen R. Mark, 2013)

Administrative History, Crater Lake National Park (HTML edition) (Harlan D. Unrau and Stephen R. Mark, 1988, 1991, 2003, 2013)

Annie Creek Vegetation Action Plan (undated)

Archaeological and Ethnological Studies of Southwest Oregon and Crater Lake National Park: An Overview and Assessment (John Mairs, Kathryn R. Winthrop and Robert H. Winthrop, May 1, 1994)

Backcountry Permit System (undated)

Backcountry Water (undated)

Boy Scouts at Crater Lake (Walter Prichard Eaton, 1922)

Cattle Trespass (undated)

Checking Crater Lake's Vital Signs Information Brief (May 19, 2021)

Chemical analyses of rocks and glass separates from Crater Lake National Park and vicinity, Oregon USGS Open-File Report 87-57 (P.E. Bruggman, C.R. Bacon, P. J. Aruscavage, R.W. Lerner, L.J. Schwarz and K.C. Stewart, 1987)

Code-A-Site (1977)

Crater Lake (Howel Williams, undated)

Crater Lake: An Ecosystem Study (Ellen T. Drake, Gary L. Larson, Jack Dymon and Robert Collier, eds., 1990, ©Pacific Division of the American Association for the Advancement of Science)

Crater Lake Digital Research Collection (Oregon Tech Libraries)

Crater Lake Legends (William Gladstone Steel, Steel Points Junior, Vol. 1 No. 3, May 1927)

Crater Lake Limnological Studies: 1986 Annual Report (August 1987)

Crater Lake Limnological Studies Final Report Technical Report NPS/PNROSU/NRTR-93/03 (G.L. Larson, C.D. McIntire and R.W. Jacobs, eds., 1993)

Crater Lake Lodge Historic Structure Report, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (David Arbogast, Linda W. Greene, Catherine H. Blee and James M. Ellis, April 1984)

Crater Lake National Park (United States Railroad Administration, 1919)

Crater Lake National Park: Scenic Values Study (Rebecca L. Johnson, David B. Rolloff and Yeon Su Kim, April 1999)

Crater Lake Research Library (Crater Lake Institute)

Crater Lake: Seventeen Years to Success Stephen R. Mark, undated)

Crater Lake: The Campaign to Establish a National Park in Oregon Steve Mark, undated)

Crater Lake, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow (William Gladstone Steel, Steel Points Junior, Vol. 1 No. 2, August 1925)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Castle Crest Wildflower Trail (2001)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Rim Village (2004)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: Superintendent's Residence, Crater Lake National Park (2000)

Cultural Landscapes Inventory: The Watchman (2001)

Cultural Landscape Recommendations: Park Headquarters at Munson Valley Crater Lake National Park (Summer 1991)

Decisions of the United States Geographic Board: Crater Lake National Park, Oregon No. 32 — January 4, 1933 (1934)

Development Concept Plan Environmental Assessment, Amendment to the General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park (1984)

Draft General Management Plan / Environmental Impact Statement, Crater Lake National Park (May 2004)

Ecology Of Elk Inhabiting Crater Lake National Park And Vicinity (HTML edition) CPSU/OSU 88-2 (Kurt Jenkins, Kevin Cooper and Edward Starkey, 1988)

Ecology of the Pumice Desert, Crater Lake National Park (Elizabeth Mueller Horn, extract from Northwest Science, Vol. 42 No. 4, November 1968)

Effects of Prescribed Fire in Mixed Conifer Forest, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (R.J. and J.D. Mastrogiuseppe, 1999)

Enabling Legislation: H.R. 4393 (April 29, 1902)

Feeding of Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrels By Park Visitors at Crater Lake National Park NPS Cooperative Park Studies Unit CPSU/OSU 84-9 (S. Kent Schwarzkopf, May 1984)

Final Development Concept Plan/ Amendment to the General Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement - Crater Lake National Park (June 1995)

Final General Management Plan / Environmental Impact Statement, Crater Lake National Park (May 2005)

Fire History of the Northeastern Portion of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (R.J. and J.D. Mastrogiuseppe, undated)

Fire Ring Eradication (Evangelina Rubalcava, 1979)

Fish Liberations in Crater Lake (undated)

Forests of Crater Lake National Park (J.F. Pernot, 1916)

Foundation Document, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (August 2015)

Foundation Document Overview, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (January 2015)

General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park (December 1977)

General Volcanology (Paul W. Rose, undated)

Geologic History of Crater Lake (HTML edition) (J.S. Diller, 1912)

Geologic Resources Inventory Report, Crater Lake National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/GRD/NRR-2013/719 (K. KellerLynn, November 2013)

Geology Synopsis (undated)

Geology Training Manual, Crater Lake National Park (Bob Lillie, June 9, 1995)

Historic Resource Study, Crater Lake National Park (Linda Greene, June 1984)

Historical Background and Fact Sheet of the Watchman (L. Smith, undated)

History of Rim Drive (undated)

Horse Regulations, Crater Lake National Park (July 13, 1981)

Impacted Site Reclamation (1977)

Impacts of Visitor Spending on the Local Economy: Crater Lake National Park, 2001 (Daniel J. Stynes and Ya-Yen Sun, November 2002)

In the Footprints of Gmukamps: A Traditional Use Study of Crater Lake National Park and Lava Beds National Monument (Douglas Deur, 2008)

Information Sheets

Backcountry Hiking and Camping (undated)

Camping Outside Park (undated)

Crater Lake Ski Routes (December 1983)

Entrance Fees and General Information (November 1978)

Entrance Fees and General Information (March 1983)

Fish of Crater Lake National Park (undated)

Fishing (undated)

General Information (German) (undated)

Headquarters Map (undated)

Snow Depth (undated)

The Origin of Crater Lake (undated)

The World's Deepest Lakes (undated)

Weather Summary (1930-1976) (c1977)

Integrated Aquatic Community and Water Quality Monitoring of Mountain Ponds and Lakes in the Klamath Network — Annual Data Report: 2013 results from Lassen Volcanic National Park, Crater Lake National Park, and Redwood National Park NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/KLMN/NRDS—2016/1055 (Eric C. Dinger, September 2016)

Interim Development Concept Plan / Amendment to the General Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park (April 1985)

Invasive Vegetation Management: 2019 Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park (Delacey R.A. Randall, Elena L. Olsen, Jennifer S. Hooke, Hamilton L. Hasty, Sarah E. Hogan, Vance J. McNees and Matthew W. Jelinske, April 2020)

Invasive Vegetation Management: 2020 Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park (Hamilton L. Hasty, Jennifer S. Hooke and Scott E. Heisler, April 2021)

Junior Ranger Activity Book (Ages 6-12), Crater Lake National Park (2017)

Klamath Network Landbird Monitoring Annual Report: 2010 Results from Crater Lake National Park, Lassen Volcanic National Park, and Oregon Caves National Monument NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/KLMN/NRDS—2011//175 (Jaime L. Stephens, John D. Alexander and Sean R. Mohren, June 2011)

Klamath Network Landbird Monitoring Annual Report: 2013 results from Crater Lake National Park and Oregon Caves National Monument NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/KLMN/NRDS—2014/689 (Jaime L. Stephens, August 2014)

Lady of the Woods (William Gladstone Steel, Steel Points Junior, Vol. 1 No. 1, July 1925)

Legislation: Southern Extension (Panhandle) (M1y 14, 1932)

Limnology Synopsis (1974)

Limnology Synopsis (1974)

Lodgepole Pine at Crater Lake: History and Management of the Forest Structure (HTML edition) (Donald B. Zobel and Robert S. Zeigler, undated)

Long-Range Aquatic Resources Management Plan, Crater Lake National Park: 1969-1978 (Larry L. Hakel and Glen Kaye, 1969)

Mabel Hedgpeth Crater Lake National Park Oral History Program Monograph No. 1 (Royal G. Jackson, CPSU/OSU 87-4, Fall 1987)

Mixed Severity Fire Regimes & Forest Structure at Crater Lake National Park (Alison Forrestel and Scott Stephens, February 2012)

Mount Mazama and Crater Lake: Growth and Destruction of a Cascade Volcano USGS Fact Sheet 092-02 (Ed Klimasauskas, Charles Bacon and Jim Alexander, August 2002)

Mount Mazama: Explosion versus Collapse (Warren D. Smith and Carl R. Swartzlow, December 1936)

Munson Valley's Designed Landscape Historic American Buildings Survey No. OR-144 (Stephen R. Mark, January 24, 1990)

Museum Management Plan (Mary Benterou, Kent Bush, Kelly Cahill, Rock Cronenberger and Scott E. Foss, 2007)

National Park in the State of Oregon (HTML edition) House of Representatives Report No. 613, 55th Congress, 2d session. (March 3, 1898)

National Register of Historic Places Nomination Forms

Administration Building #1 (James A. Miller and A.P. DiBenedetto, August 24, 1984)

Comfort Station #68 (Patricia C. Erigero, July 27, 1984)

Comfort Station #72 (Patricia C. Erigero, July 27, 1984)

Crater Lake Lodge (Henry G. Law, November 12, 1980)

Munson Valley Historic District (Boundary Decrease) (Stephen R. Mark, May 12, 1997)

Rim Drive Historic District (Stephen R. Mark, July 31, 2007)

Rim Village Historic District (Stephen R. Mark, May 12, 1997)

Sinnott Memorial Building #67 (Patricia C. Erigero, July 27, 1984)

Superintendent's Residence (Laura Soulliere Harrison, 1985)

The Watchman Lookout Station #168 (Patricia C. Erigero, July 27, 1984)

Natural and Cultural Resources Management Plan and Environmental Assessment - Crater Lake National Park (1986)

Natural Resource Condition Assessment, Crater Lake National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/WRS/NRR-2013/724 (Paul R. Adamus, Dennis C. Odion, Gregory V. Jones, Lorin Groshong and Ryan Reid, November 2013)

Nature Notes: Crater Lake National Park (1928-2002)

North Junction Overlook Revegetation Project: 2019 Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park (Carolyn S. Wyler, Scott E. Heisler and Jennifer S. Hooke, April 2020)

Notes on Revegetation (Phil Barnes, 1978)

Observation on Black Bears at the Munson Dump, Crater Lake National Park (Stephen Herrero, 1969)

Pacific Crest Well Pipeline Revegetation Project: 2019 Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park (Scott E. Heisler, Carolyn S. Wyler and Jennifer S. Hooke, April 2020)

Park Newspaper (Reflections) (1986-2019)

Peregrine Falcons Soar Crater Lake Cliffs (Scott Stonum, undated)

Pika Monitoring at Crater Lake National Park, Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve, Lassen Volcanic National Park, and Lava Beds National Monument: 2010 Annual Monitoring Report (Mackenzie R. Jeffress, Lisa K. Garrett and Thomas J. Rodhouse, December 2010)

Pika Monitoring at Crater Lake National Park, Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve, Lassen Volcanic National Park, and Lava Beds National Monument: 2010-2014 Status Report NPS Natural Resource Data Series NPS/UCBN/NRDS-2015/782 (Thomas J. Rodhouse and Matthew Hovland, April 2015)

Policy Statement for Use of Horses (July 30, 1980)

Preservation Guide for Stone Masonry and Dry-Laid Resources (Abby Glanville, Summer 2008)

Pumice Desert Revegetation Project: 2019 Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park (Scott E. Heisler, Carolyn S. Wyler and Jennifer S. Hooke, April 2020)

Rehabilitation of Historic Crater Lake Lodge: Comprehensive Design Program, Historic Character/Documentation (extract) (NPS, Fletcher Farr Ayotte, Architects and CH2MHill, Consulting Engineers, March 30, 1990)

Rehabilitate Superintendent's Residence Project Environmental Assessment (engineering-environmental Mangement, Inc., November 2003)

Replace Rim Village Barriers Revegetation Project: 2019 Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park (Scott E. Heisler, Jennifer S. Hooke and Carolyn S. Wyler, April 2020)

Report of Capt. C. E. Dutton (C.E. Dutton, extract from 8th Annual Report 1886-7, Part1 July 1, 1887)

Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park to the Secretary of the Interior: 1910 (HTML edition) (A.F. Arant, 1911)

Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park to the Secretary of the Interior: 1913 (HTML edition) (Will G. Steel, 1914)

Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park to the Secretary of the Interior: 1914 (HTML edition) (Will G. Steel, 1915)

Report of the Superintendent of Crater Lake National Park to the Secretary of the Interior: 1915 (HTML edition) (Will G. Steel, 1916)

Report on the Bear Problem at Crater Lake National Park (Joseph Dixon, December 14, 1944)

Research and Management of Black Bears in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon RSP CRLA-N-2A (Michael T. McCollum, January 20, 1974)

Research Opportunities, Crater Lake National Park (1999)

Revegetation at Crater Lake National Park: A Progress Report for 1979 (Martin Goebel)

Rim Drive Cultural Landscape Report, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon Pacific West Region: Social Science Series Publication No. 2009-01 (Stephen R. Mark and Jerry Watson, 2009

Rim Drive Rehabilitation Revegetation Project: 2019 Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park (Carolyn S. Wyler, Scott E. Heisler, Jennifer S. Hooke, Meolody C. Frederic, Carson R.T. Ralls and Benjamin D. Wright, April 2020)

Rim Trail Revegetation Project: 2019 Annual Report, Crater Lake National Park (Scott E. Heisler, Carolyn S. Wyler and Jennifer S. Hooke, April 2020)

Rock Dates at Crater Lake Geologist Note #7 (KRC, July 24, 1982)

Saving Bull Trout in Sun Creek (Mark Buktenica, undated)

Shaded Relief Map: Crater Lake National Park & Vicinity, OR, Side Two, Crater Lake National Park Scale: 1:62,500 (USGS, 1984)

Simulation of deep ventilation in Crater Lake, Oregon, 1951-2099 USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016-5046 (Tamara M. Wood, Susan A. Wherry, Sebastiano Piccolroaz and Scott F Girdner, 2016)

Social Impacts of Design Alternatives — Crater Lake National Park CPSU Report 81-2 (Bo Shelby and Donald W. Wolf, 1981)

Status of White Pines Across Five Western National Park Units: Initial Assessment of Stand Structure and Condition NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/KLMN/NRR—2021/2232 (Matthew J. Reilly, Jonathan C. B. Nesmith, Sean B. Smith, Devin S. Stucki and Erik S. Jules, February 2021)

Steel Points: Crater Lake (William Gladstone Steel, Vol. 1 No. 2, January 1907)

Supplement to the 1984 Environmental Assessment, Development Concept Plan, Amendment to the General Management Plan: Mazama Campground/Rim Village Corridor, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (October 1987)

The Battle Against Bark Beetles in Crater Lake National Park: 1925-34 Forest Service General Technical Report PNW-GTR-259 (Boyd E. Wickman, June 1990)

The Geologic History of the Diamond Lake Area (William B. Purdom, undated)

The Geology and Petrography of Crater Lake National Park USGS Professional Paper 3 (Joseph Silas Diller and Horace Bushnell Patton, 1902)

The History of Crater Lake National Park (undated)

The Lady of the Woods, Crater Lake, Oregon (undated)

The Legends of Crater Lake (W. Craig Thomas, undated)

The Mountains of Oregon (©W.G. Steel, 1890)

The Rustic Landscape of Rim Village, 1927-1941 (Cathy A. Gilbert and Gretchen A. Luxenberg, 1990)

The Smith Brothers' Chronological History: Crater Lake National Park 1832 to 1982, with 1984 Addendum (Larry B. Smith and Lloyd C. Smith, 1968-1984)

Topographic Map: Crater Lake National Park & Vicinity, OR, Side Two, Crater Lake National Park Scale: 1:62,500 (USGS, 1988)

Trail Management Plan/Environmental Assessment, Crater Lake National Park (Appendixes) (September 2021)

Volcano and Earthquake Hazards in the Crater Lake Region, Oregon USGS Open-File Report 97-487 (Charles R. Bacon, Larry G. Mastin, Kevin M. Scott and Manuel Nathenson, 1997)

Water-resources appraisal of Crater Lake National Park, Oregon USGS Open-File Report 69-95 (F.J. Frank and A.B. Harris, 1969)

Weather System (1977)

Wetlands of Crater Lake National Park: An Assessment of Their Ecological Condition NPS Natural Resource Technical Report NPS/KLMN/NRTR-2008/115 (Paul R. Adamus and Cheryl L. Bartlett, 2008)

Whitebark Pine in Crater Lake and Lassen Volcanic National Parks: Initial Assessment of Stand Structure and Condition NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/KLMN/NRR—2017/1459 (Erik S. Jules, Jenell I. Jackson, Sean B. Smith, Jonathan C. B. Nesmith, Leigh Ann Starcevich and Daniel A. Sarr, June 2017)

Whitebark Pine Monitoring: 2015 results from Crater Lake National Park and Lassen Volcanic National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/KLMN/NRR—2016/1319 (Sean B. Smith and Alice Chung-MacCoubrey, October 2016)

Whitebark Pine Monitoring: 2016 results from Crater Lake National Park and Lassen Volcanic National Park NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/KLMN/NRR—2017/1484 (Sean B. Smith, July 2017)

Whitebark Pine Monitoring at Crater Lake and Lassen Volcanic National Parks: Fiscal Years 2012–2014 Project Report NPS Natural Resource Report NPS/KLMN/NRR—2015/1052 (Jenell Jackson, Erik S. Jules, Sean B. Smith, E. April Sahara and Daniel A. Sarr, October 2015)

Wilderness Recommendations, Crater Lake National Park (September 1972)

Wildland Fire Resource Advisor Guide, Crater Lake National Park (July 2003)

Wildland Fire Resource Advisor Guide, Crater Lake National Park (2007)



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Last Updated: 28-Feb-2022